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1.
Otol Neurotol ; 41(6): e686-e694, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569244

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Angular insertion depth (AID) of the electrode array provides valuable information regarding intracochlear positioning, which can be used to predict outcomes and optimize performance. While computed tomography (CT) offers high-resolution imaging, there is a need to develop technology to accurately determine AID from intraoperative x-rays acquired at unknown angles. METHODS: An algorithm was developed using a three-dimensional model of the scala tympani to estimate AID from an x-ray acquired at an unknown angle. The model is manipulated over the x-ray until the projection angle is inferred and the location of the round window and individual electrode contacts are identified. Validation of the algorithm involved 1) assessing accuracy with deviation from cochlear view by comparing AID determined with simulated x-rays to those determined with CT in a temporal bone model, and 2) assessing reproducibility in the clinical setting, by comparing intra- and inter-rater reliability with intraoperative x-ray in cochlear implant (CI) recipients, which were subsequently compared to AID determined with postoperative CT. RESULTS: Estimates of AID from x-rays were generally within 10 degrees of CT regardless of deviation from cochlear view. Excluding two outliers with poor imaging quality, the intraclass correlation coefficients for intra- and inter-rater reliability were excellent (0.991 and 0.980, respectively). CONCLUSION: With intraoperative x-rays of sufficient quality, the helical scala tympani model can be used to accurately and reliably determine AID without the need to specify a preferred image angle. The application can therefore be used in most CI recipients when a postoperative CT is not available.

2.
Otol Neurotol ; 41(6): e700-e704, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574479

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Determine speech outcomes of children undergoing cochlear implantation with severe-to-profound hearing loss in the implanted ear and moderate or better hearing loss in nonimplanted ear. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: Forty-nine children with severe-to-profound hearing loss in the ear to be implanted (pure-tone average), and no worse than moderate hearing loss in the nonimplant ear. INTERVENTION: Subjects underwent cochlear implantation from 2007 and 2017 in the ear with severe-to-profound hearing loss. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Consonant Nucleus Consonant or Phonetically Balanced Kindergarten word scores pre- and postoperatively were compared in both the implanted ear and binaural setting. Comparisons were made between Phonetically Balanced Kindergarten scores pre- and postoperatively or Consonant Nucleus Consonant scores pre- and postoperatively. RESULTS: The average pure-tone average for the implant ear was 92 ±â€Š13 dB HL and 55 ±â€Š12 dB HL in the nonimplant ear. Word scores for the implant ear increased an average of 58 (±27) % following cochlear implantation at 12 months and 62 (±20) % at 24 months. Binaural best-aided word scores increased an average of 36 (±29) % at 12 months and 49 (±24) % at 24 months. CONCLUSION: Children with asymmetric sensory hearing loss should have each ear treated individually as significant benefits can be gained not only in the implanted ear, but also in binaural hearing.

3.
Otol Neurotol ; 41(6): e705-e711, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32472921

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: This study aims to 1) report revision cochlear implantation (CI) rates at a high-volume CI center, 2) describe classifications for revision CI, 3) analyze audiologic and surgical outcomes in patients who undergo revision CI, and 4) describe a new subcategory of soft failures, named presumed soft failures. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series. SETTING: Tertiary care otologic center. PATIENTS: Adults and children undergoing revision CI from 2005 to 2015. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Type and etiology of CI failure, preoperative, and postoperative outcomes (audiologic, surgical). RESULTS: During the study period, 1,469 CI surgeries were performed with a total of 81 (5.51%) revision cochlear implantations, 64 of these meeting inclusion criteria with adequate follow up and clear indications for revision surgery. The most common indication for revision surgery was hard failure (53.1%), followed by soft failure (29.7%), and medical/surgical failure (17.2%). 78.1% (50/64) of revision CI patients showed improvement postoperatively (defined as 15% improvement of speech perceptions scores or improvement of aversive symptoms, according to the 2005 consensus statement guidelines). Hard failures showed improvement in 85.3% (29/34) of cases, medical and surgical failures showed improvement in 72.7% (8/11) of cases, and soft failures showed improvement in 68.4% (13/19) of cases. There was a statistically significant difference in percentage of adult versus pediatric patients by failure subtype, with 84.2% of soft failure patients classified as adults (18 or older) at the time of revision surgery compared with 50% and 36.3% for hard failure and medical/surgical failure patients, respectively (p = 0.02). Similarly, there was a trend, though not statistically significant, towards older age in the soft failure group compared with hard and medical/surgical failure groups (median 43 yr versus 18 and 16, respectively). Within the soft failure group there was a subset of patients that failed to show improvement in audiologic performance or experienced continued aversive symptoms referred to as "presumed soft failures." These patients, by definition, experienced worse outcomes after revision surgery (p < 0.05) and trended towards older age (43 versus 31 yr) and longer time from initial to revision surgery (27.3 versus 24.7 mo) when compared with true soft failures. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of patients improved after revision CI surgery; patients with hard failure demonstrated the highest percentage with improvement, while those with soft failures had worse outcomes. The presumed soft failure group may represent a unique etiology for CI failure that warrants further investigation given worse outcomes after revision surgery.

4.
Ear Hear ; 2020 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32205726

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The spatial position of a cochlear implant (CI) electrode array affects the spectral cues provided to the recipient. Differences in cochlear size and array length lead to substantial variability in angular insertion depth (AID) across and within array types. For CI-alone users, the variability in AID results in varying degrees of frequency-to-place mismatch between the default electric frequency filters and cochlear place of stimulation. For electric-acoustic stimulation (EAS) users, default electric frequency filters also vary as a function of residual acoustic hearing in the implanted ear. The present study aimed to (1) investigate variability in AID associated with lateral wall arrays, (2) determine the subsequent frequency-to-place mismatch for CI-alone and EAS users mapped with default frequency filters, and (3) examine the relationship between early speech perception for CI-alone users and two aspects of electrode position: frequency-to-place mismatch and angular separation between neighboring contacts, a metric associated with spectral selectivity at the periphery. DESIGN: One hundred one adult CI recipients (111 ears) with MED-EL Flex24 (24 mm), Flex28 (28 mm), and FlexSOFT/Standard (31.5 mm) arrays underwent postoperative computed tomography to determine AID. A subsequent comparison was made between AID, predicted spiral ganglion place frequencies, and the default frequency filters for CI-alone (n = 84) and EAS users (n = 27). For CI-alone users with complete insertions who listened with maps fit with the default frequency filters (n = 48), frequency-to-place mismatch was quantified at 1500 Hz and angular separation between neighboring contacts was determined for electrodes in the 1 to 2 kHz region. Multiple linear regression was used to examine how frequency-to-place mismatch and angular separation of contacts influence consonant-nucleus-consonant (CNC) scores through 6 months postactivation. RESULTS: For CI recipients with complete insertions (n = 106, 95.5%), the AID (mean ± standard deviation) of the most apical contact was 428º ± 34.3º for Flex24 (n = 11), 558º ± 65.4º for Flex28 (n = 48), and 636º ± 42.9º for FlexSOFT/Standard (n = 47) arrays. For CI-alone users, default frequency filters aligned closely with the spiral ganglion map for deeply inserted lateral wall arrays. For EAS users, default frequency filters produced a range of mismatches; absolute deviations of ≤ 6 semitones occurred in only 37% of cases. Participants with shallow insertions and minimal or no residual hearing experienced the greatest mismatch. For CI-alone users, both smaller frequency-to-place mismatch and greater angular separation between contacts were associated with better CNC scores during the initial 6 months of device use. CONCLUSIONS: There is significant variability in frequency-to-place mismatch among CI-alone and EAS users with default frequency filters, even between individuals implanted with the same array. When using default frequency filters, mismatch can be minimized with longer lateral wall arrays and insertion depths that meet the edge frequency associated with residual hearing for CI-alone and EAS users, respectively. Smaller degrees of frequency-to-place mismatch and decreased peripheral masking due to more widely spaced contacts may independently support better speech perception with longer lateral wall arrays in CI-alone users.

5.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 162(6): 926-932, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32178574

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Default frequency filters of cochlear implant (CI) devices assign frequency information irrespective of intracochlear position, resulting in varying degrees of frequency-to-place mismatch. Substantial mismatch negatively influences speech recognition in postlingually deafened CI recipients, and acclimatization may be particularly challenging for older adults due to effects of aging on the auditory pathway. The present report investigated the influence of mismatch and age at implantation on speech recognition within the initial 6 months of CI use. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Forty-eight postlingually deafened adult CI recipients of lateral wall electrode arrays underwent postoperative computed tomography to determine angular insertion depth of each electrode contact. Frequency-to-place mismatch was determined by comparing spiral ganglion place frequencies to default frequency filters. Consonant-nucleus-consonant (CNC) scores in the CI-alone condition at 1, 3, and 6 months postactivation were compared to the degree of mismatch at 1500 Hz and age at implantation. RESULTS: Younger adult CI recipients experienced more rapid growth in speech recognition during the initial 6 months postactivation. Greater degrees of frequency-to-place mismatch were associated with poorer performance, yet older listeners were not particularly susceptible to this effect. CONCLUSIONS: While older adults are not necessarily more sensitive to detrimental effects of frequency-to-place mismatch, other factors appear to limit early benefit with a CI in this population. These results suggest that minimizing mismatch could optimize outcomes in adult CI recipients across the life span, which may be particularly beneficial in the elderly considering auditory processing deficits associated with advanced age.


Assuntos
Implante Coclear/métodos , Surdez/reabilitação , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Surdez/diagnóstico , Surdez/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
6.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 162(6): 933-941, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32182164

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of cochlear implant (CI) use on subjective benefits in quality of life in cases of asymmetric hearing loss (AHL). STUDY DESIGN: Prospective clinical trial. SETTING: Tertiary academic center. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Subjects included CI recipients with AHL (n = 20), defined as moderate-to-profound hearing loss in the affected ear and mild-to-moderate hearing loss in the contralateral ear. Quality of life was assessed with the Speech, Spatial, and Qualities of Hearing Scale (SSQ) pragmatic subscales, which assess binaural benefits. Subjective benefit on the pragmatic subscales was compared to word recognition in quiet and spatial hearing abilities (ie, masked sentence recognition and localization). RESULTS: Subjects demonstrated an early, significant improvement (P < .01) in abilities with the CI as compared to preoperative abilities on the SSQ pragmatic subscales by the 1-month interval. Perceived abilities were either maintained or continued to improve over the study period. There were no significant correlations between results on the Speech in Quiet subscale and word recognition in quiet, the Speech in Speech Contexts subscale and masked sentence recognition, or the Localization subscale and sound field localization. CONCLUSIONS: CI recipients with AHL report a significant improvement in quality of life as measured by the SSQ pragmatic subscales over preoperative abilities. Reported improvements are observed as early as 1 month postactivation, which likely reflect the binaural benefits of listening with bimodal stimulation (CI and contralateral hearing aid). The SSQ pragmatic subscales may provide a more in-depth insight into CI recipient experience as compared to behavioral sound field measures alone.


Assuntos
Implante Coclear/métodos , Perda Auditiva Súbita/reabilitação , Perda Auditiva Unilateral/reabilitação , Qualidade de Vida , Localização de Som/fisiologia , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Perda Auditiva Súbita/fisiopatologia , Perda Auditiva Unilateral/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Am J Audiol ; 29(1): 1-5, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31835906

RESUMO

Purpose The goal of this work was to evaluate the low-frequency hearing preservation of long electrode array cochlear implant (CI) recipients. Method Twenty-five participants presented with an unaided hearing threshold of ≤ 80 dB HL at 125 Hz pre-operatively in the ear to be implanted. Participants were implanted with a long (31.5-mm) electrode array. The unaided hearing threshold at 125 Hz was compared between the preoperative and postoperative intervals (i.e., initial CI activation, and 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after activation). Results Eight participants maintained an unaided hearing threshold of ≤ 80 dB HL at 125 Hz postoperatively. The majority (n = 5) demonstrated aidable low-frequency hearing at initial activation, whereas 3 other participants experienced an improvement in unaided low-frequency hearing thresholds at subsequent intervals. Conclusions CI recipients can retain residual hearing sensitivity with fully inserted long electrode arrays, and low-frequency hearing thresholds may improve during the postoperative period. Therefore, unaided hearing thresholds obtained within the initial weeks after surgery may not reflect later hearing sensitivity. Routine measurement of postoperative unaided hearing thresholds-even for patients who did not demonstrate aidable hearing thresholds initially after cochlear implantation-will identify CI recipients who may benefit from electric-acoustic stimulation. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.11356637.

8.
Otol Neurotol ; 41(2): 186-191, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743293

RESUMO

HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVE: Determine variables associated with electrode impedance fluctuations and loss of residual hearing in cochlear implant (CI) recipients. BACKGROUND: CI recipients with postoperative hearing preservation demonstrate superior speech perception with an electric-acoustic stimulation (EAS) device as compared with a CI-alone device. Maintaining superior speech perception over time relies on long-term hearing preservation; therefore, understanding variables that may contribute to loss of residual hearing is needed. Recent reports suggest a relationship between changes in electrode impedance and loss of residual hearing. The variables influencing this relationship have yet to be determined. METHODS: Review of pediatric and adult CI cases from 2013 to 2016 who presented with preoperative residual hearing. Regression analysis was performed to evaluate effects of array type (lateral wall vs. perimodiolar), manufacturer, age at implantation, and preoperative hearing on impedance. The correlation between peak impedance change and change in low-frequency hearing was determined. RESULTS: One hundred forty-six CI recipients presented with preoperative residual hearing. A multivariate regression analysis demonstrated a statistically significant association between preoperative hearing thresholds (p = 0.017), device manufacturer (p = 0.011), and array type (p = 0.038) on postoperative impedance changes. Hearing preservation rates and change in impedance differed by electrode array type. The association between peak impedance changes and loss of residual hearing differed between manufacturers (R = 0.208, p = 0.029 vs. R = 0.016, p = 0.609). CONCLUSION: Impedance fluctuation appears to be a marker for loss of residual hearing for specific electrode array types and manufacturers. Specific arrays may affect the cochlear microenvironment differently, with different effects on postoperative hearing preservation.

9.
Laryngoscope ; 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31821566

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To evaluate speech perception outcomes and hearing preservation after cochlear implantation in patients with Meniere's disease (MD). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. METHODS: Fifty-one adult patients, accounting for a total of 63 implants, with MD treated at a tertiary care center were included in the study. Patients with unaided preoperative air-conduction thresholds ≤80 dB at 250 Hz were included in hearing preservation analyses. The primary outcome measure was Consonant-Nucleus-Consonant (CNC) score. Hearing preservation was assessed as follows: 1) maintenance of functional hearing, defined as a postoperative unaided air-conduction threshold ≤80 dB at 250 Hz and 2) low-frequency pure-tone average (LFPTA) shift. RESULTS: Speech perception scores improved significantly postimplantation; specifically, the CNC mean score was 9% preoperatively and increased to 57% by 1 year postoperatively (P < .001). Eighteen ears were included in hearing preservation analysis; the mean preoperative LFPTA was 65 dB (standard deviation [SD] = 10). The mean postoperative LFPTA at activation was 93 dB (SD = 21), and at 1 year was 102 dB (SD = 11). Twenty-seven percent of patients achieved short-term functional hearing preservation, whereas the longer-term outcomes were less favorable (11%). CONCLUSIONS: Speech perception scores improve after implantation in patients with MD. Hearing preservation is possible in patients with MD, albeit at lower rates than reported non-MD populations. Our data suggest that there can be degradation in acoustic hearing over time. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 Laryngoscope, 2019.

10.
Otol Neurotol ; 40(10): e1012-e1017, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634279

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To date, prediction models for estimating risk of acquiring non-serviceable hearing in subjects with observed vestibular schwannoma (VS) have evaluated outcomes primarily based on features at initial diagnosis. Herein, we evaluate the association of rate of hearing decline during the initial period of observation with time to non-serviceable hearing. If significant, rate of hearing decline may inform decision making after an introductory period of observation. SETTING: Two tertiary care centers. PATIENTS: VS patients with serviceable hearing who underwent at least three audiograms and two magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies before intervention or being lost to follow-up. The rate of change in pure-tone average (PTA) and word recognition score (WRS) was calculated as the score from the second audiogram minus the score from the first audiogram, divided by the duration in months between the two. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Serviceable hearing, defined as PTA ≤50 dB HL and WRS ≥50%. RESULTS: Among 266 patients meeting inclusion criteria, 52 developed non-serviceable hearing at last follow-up. Kaplan-Meier estimated rates of maintaining serviceable hearing (95% CI; number still at risk) at 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 years were 97% (95-100; 206), 78% (72-85; 98), 68% (60-77; 39), 60% (50-73; 17), and 44% (29-67; 2), respectively. In a univariable setting, each 1 dB increase per month in the rate of initial PTA change was associated with a 96% increased likelihood of acquiring non-serviceable hearing (hazard ratio [HR] 1.96; 95% CI 1.44-2.68; p < 0.001). Each 1% increase per month in the rate of initial WRS change was associated with a decreased likelihood of acquiring non-serviceable hearing (hazard ratio [HR] 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.66-0.94; p = 0.009). After multivariable adjustment, both rate of PTA change (HR 2.42; 95% CI 1.72-3.41; p < 0.001) and rate of WRS change (HR 0.81; 95% CI 0.67-0.99; p = 0.043) remained statistically significantly associated with time to non-serviceable hearing. CONCLUSION: Rate of early PTA and WRS decline during the initial period of observation are significantly associated with time to development of non-serviceable hearing. This information may facilitate accurate patient counseling and inform decision-making regarding prospective disease management.

11.
Otol Neurotol ; 40(8): 1006-1010, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31290802

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to determine the reliability of a new tablet-based software that utilizes postoperative computed tomography to determine angular insertion depth (AID), cochlear duct length (CDL), and the cochlear place frequency of individual electrodes in cochlear implant recipients. PATIENTS: Twenty adult cochlear implant recipients with lateral-wall electrode arrays of varying lengths were included in the study. INTERVENTION: Cochlear and electrode array measurements were made by 2 otolaryngologists using a tablet-based software. The user manually identifies the modiolus, round window, and each electrode contact to calculate AID. The user also manually identifies cochlear landmarks to calculate the CDL. The AID and CDL are applied to the Greenwood function to obtain an estimate of the cochlear place frequency for each electrode. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): The primary outcome measure was the reliability of the instrument, as assessed with intra and interrater reliability of measured AID and CDL. The resultant differences in the estimated cochlear place frequency of the most apical electrode were also evaluated. RESULTS: A broad range of AIDs were observed (390°-659°). Intraclass correlation coefficients for intra (0.991) and interrater reliability (0.980) of AID of the most apical electrode contact were excellent. Intra (0.820) and interrater reliability (0.784) of CDL were also excellent. The estimated cochlear place frequency for the most apical electrode differed by an average of 6.7% (0-18.7%) across the 2 raters. CONCLUSION: There is excellent agreement amongst clinicians in the determination of AID and CDL, resulting in small changes in estimated cochlear place frequency of the most apical electrode using this new software.

12.
Otol Neurotol ; 40(5): 617-624, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31083083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative imaging studies by numerous groups have revealed that final cochlear implant (CI) electrode position impacts audiological outcomes with scalar location consistently shown to be a significant factor. Modiolar proximity has been less extensively studied, and findings regarding the effect of insertion depth have been inconsistent. METHODS: Using previously developed automated algorithms, we determined CI electrode position in an Institutional Review Board-approved database of 220 CI ears. Generalized linear models (GLM) were used to analyze the relationship between audiological outcomes and factors including age, duration of CI use, device type, and electrode position. RESULTS: For precurved arrays, GLM revealed that scalar position, modiolar proximity, base insertion depth, and sex were significant factors for Consonant-Nucleus-Consonant (CNC) words (R = 0.43, p < 0.001, n = 92 arrays), while scalar position, modiolar proximity, age, and postlingual onset of deafness were significant for Bamford-Kawal-Bench Sentences in Noise (BKB-SIN) (R = 0.51, p < 0.001, n = 85) scores. Other factors were not significant in the final model after controlling for these variables. For straight arrays, we found the insertion depth, postlingual deafness, and length of CI use to be highly significant (R = 0.47, p < 0.001) factors for CNC words (91 arrays), while for BKB-SIN scores the most significant (R = 0.47, p < 0.001) factors were insertion depth, younger age, and postlingual deafness (89 arrays). CONCLUSION: Our results confirm the significance of electrode positioning in audiological outcomes. The most significant positional predictors of outcome for precurved arrays were full scala tympani (ST) insertion and the modiolar distance, while for the lateral wall arrays the depth of insertion was the most significant factor.


Assuntos
Implante Coclear/métodos , Implantes Cocleares , Audição , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto , Surdez/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
13.
Otol Neurotol ; 40(5): e503-e510, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31083085

RESUMO

HYPOTHESIS: Electrocochleography (ECochG) recorded during cochlear implant (CI) insertion from the apical electrode in conjunction with postinsertion ECochG can identify electrophysiologic differences that exist between groups with and without a translocation of the array from the scala tympani (ST) into the scala vestibuli (SV). BACKGROUND: Translocation of the CI electrode from ST into SV can limit performance postoperatively. ECochG markers of trauma may be able to aid in the ability to detect electrode array-induced trauma/scalar translocation intraoperatively. METHODS: Twenty-one adult CI patients were included. Subjects were postoperatively parsed into two groups based on analysis of postoperative imaging: 1) ST (n = 14) insertion; 2) SV (n = 7) insertion, indicating translocation of the electrode. The ECochG response elicited from a 500 Hz acoustic stimulus was recorded from the lead electrode during insertion when the distal electrode marker was at the round window, and was compared to the response recorded from a basal electrode (e13) after complete insertion. RESULTS: No statistically significant change in mean ECochG magnitude was found in either group between recording intervals. There was a mean loss of preoperative pure-tone average of 52% for the nontranslocation group and 94% for the translocation group. CONCLUSIONS: Intraoperative intracochlear ECochG through the CI array provides a unique opportunity to explore the impact of the CI electrode on the inner ear. Specifically, a translocation of the array from ST to SV does not seem to change the biomechanics of the cochlear region that lies basal to the area of translocation in the acute period.


Assuntos
Cóclea/cirurgia , Implante Coclear/métodos , Implantes Cocleares , Eletrodos , Adulto , Audiometria de Resposta Evocada , Audiometria de Tons Puros , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Cóclea/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Monitorização Intraoperatória , Estudos Prospectivos , Rampa do Tímpano , Rampa do Vestíbulo , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol ; 128(8): 736-741, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30939895

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To analyze hearing outcomes following Type 3 tympanoplasty with stapes columella grafting after canal wall down mastoidectomy and determine disease recurrence rates in patients undergoing this procedure. METHODS: This retrospective cohort analysis examines patients undergoing Type 3 tympanoplasty with stapes columella grafting following canal wall down mastoidectomy for cholesteatoma at a tertiary care center from 2005 to 2015. Patient charts were reviewed for demographic data, diagnosis, and operative details. Patients were included in statistical analysis if they were found to have undergone the aforementioned procedure. Evaluation of hearing improvement was made by comparing preoperative air-bone gap (ABG) and ABG at follow-up at 6 months and 1 year postoperatively. RESULTS: Nineteen patients met criteria for this study. Erosion of the otic capsule, posterior fossa plate, or tegmen was noted in 37% of cases, highlighting disease severity. Eighteen (95%) had undergone prior otologic surgery. Mean time to short-term follow-up was 6 ± 3 months. The average short-term ABG was 26 ± 11 dB HL; 26% achieved an ABG <20 dB, and 58% achieved an ABG <30 dB. Fifteen had follow-up at least 1 year postoperatively (mean = 33 ± 16 months). At longer-term follow-up, mean ABG was 25 ± 10 dB HL; 33% achieved an ABG <20 dB, while 66% achieved an ABG <30 dB. Hearing remained stable over time (P = .52). At date of last clinical follow-up, only 1 (5%) patient had undergone revision for recurrent disease. CONCLUSION: In some patients undergoing canal wall down mastoidectomy for advanced or recurrent cholesteatoma, Type 3 tympanoplasty with stapes columella grafting yields marginal hearing benefit. This type of reconstruction is a viable option in this challenging patient cohort, particularly as it is associated with low rates of revision surgery.


Assuntos
Colesteatoma da Orelha Média/cirurgia , Audição/fisiologia , Mastoidectomia/métodos , Estribo/transplante , Timpanoplastia/métodos , Adulto , Audiometria de Tons Puros , Limiar Auditivo , Colesteatoma da Orelha Média/complicações , Colesteatoma da Orelha Média/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
J Neurol Surg B Skull Base ; 80(2): 187-195, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30931227

RESUMO

Objectives Hearing rehabilitation is an important management aspect of patients undergoing excision of vestibular schwannomas. Studies have shown cochlear implantation (CI) is possible at the time of tumor excision via a translabyrinthine approach. Primary objectives of this report are (1) to review prospective studies pertaining to outcomes of concurrent CI and translabyrinthine tumor removal in detail and (2) perform an aggregate analysis of outcomes for case reports and series. Design Systematic review based on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Setting Review of literature using PubMed and Cochrane databases. Participants Eligibility included patients undergoing translabyrinthine excision of vestibular schwannoma with concurrent CI. Main Outcome Measures Open-set speech discrimination scores, sound localization, patient-reported outcome measures. Results Forty-one subjects were identified. Two prospective studies have been performed, which showed improvement in speech localization and patient-reported outcome measures. While the majority of patients achieved open set speech recognition, data pertaining to improvement in speech perception were variable. Approximately 85% of subjects had audibility with their CI. Of those that achieved open-set speech discrimination, 75% could be classified as either intermediate or high performers. The majority of low performers in open-set speech either endorsed subjective benefit or demonstrated improvement compared to preoperative measures. There was a high risk of selection and reporting bias. Conclusions The majority of patients undergoing translabyrinthine excision of vestibular schwannoma with concurrent CI achieve open set speech perception, with 75% of these patients meeting criteria for being intermediate to high performers. Additional benefits include improved subjective hearing measures, decreased tinnitus, and improved sound localization.

16.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 161(1): 123-129, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30776961

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: (1) Characterize a large cohort of patients undergoing total ossicular chain reconstruction with titanium prosthesis. (2) Analyze long-term hearing outcomes of the same cohort. STUDY DESIGN: Case series with chart review. SETTING: Tertiary care center. SUBJECT AND METHODS: This study reviews patients who underwent total ossicular chain reconstruction (OCR) with titanium prostheses (TORPs) at a single tertiary care center from 2005 to 2015. Patient charts were reviewed for demographic data, diagnosis, and operative details. Patients were included in statistical analysis if length of follow-up was 2 years or more. Evaluation of hearing improvement was made by comparing preoperative air-bone gap (ABG) and ABG at follow-up at 2 years. RESULTS: In total, 153 patients were identified who met inclusion criteria. The mean age of included patients was 40 years (range, 6-89 years). Sixty patients (39%) had a history of OCR, and 120 patients (78%) had a diagnosis of cholesteatoma at the time of OCR. Preoperatively, the mean ABG was 36 ± 12, whereas the mean ABG at 2-year follow-up improved to 26 ± 13. This was statistically significant (P < .0001) using a Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test. Twelve patients (8%) required revision OCR. Two revisions were performed due to prosthesis extrusion (<1%). CONCLUSION: Titanium prostheses lead to significant improvement in hearing over long periods. The results are sustained as far out as 5 years following surgery. In addition, rates of revision surgery with titanium TORPs are low. Based on this series, there are no readily identifiable predictors for outcomes following total OCR.


Assuntos
Substituição Ossicular/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Feminino , Testes Auditivos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Titânio
17.
Otol Neurotol ; 39(10): e992-e995, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30444844

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe and characterize facial nerve stimulation (FNS) patterns in patients with labyrinthitis ossificans who underwent cochlear implantation (CI) for sensorineural hearing loss. PATIENTS: Five ears in four patients with labyrinthitis ossificans who underwent CI and subsequently developed FNS. INTERVENTIONS: CI, electrode mapping, and/or explantation to resolve FNS. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: FNS, postoperative computed tomography imaging, and resolution of FNS. RESULTS: Fourteen ears with labyrinthitis ossificans underwent CI over an 11-year period at a single institution; 5 of these ears exhibited postoperative FNS (35.7% incidence). Four cases had involvement of basal electrodes, while all five cases had middle and/or apical electrode stimulation. All cases had resolution of FNS with CI reprogramming, however, the resultant map in two cases provided minimal audiologic benefit and patients became nonusers in that ear. CONCLUSIONS: FNS arising from all cochlear regions is possible in patients with labyrinthitis ossificans who undergo CI. Mapping and electrode deactivation can resolve symptoms, but resultant audiologic benefit is variable and may lead to explantation.


Assuntos
Implante Coclear/efeitos adversos , Nervo Facial , Labirintite/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/cirurgia , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia
18.
JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 144(9): 802-806, 2018 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30335882

RESUMO

Importance: Over two-thirds of the adult population in the United States use Facebook. Despite the high interest in and use of social media by the general public, the presence and accessibility of health care organizations on social media has not yet been fully evaluated. Objective: To determine the use and popularity of social media among otolaryngology residency programs in the United States. Design, Setting, and Participants: A cross-sectional study of the presence of accredited otolaryngology residency programs in the United States in an internet data repository was conducted. Programs were stratified by Doximity Residency Navigator reputation rankings (dividing programs into quartiles) and US News & World Report (comparing programs affiliated with hospitals ranked in the top 50 vs programs affiliated with unranked hospitals). Social media sites and activity for each program were assessed using internet searches. The study was conducted in April 2017. Results: Among 101 otolaryngology residency programs, 30 were found to have social media sites (29.7%). Facebook and Twitter were the most commonly used services, with 25 (24.8%) and 14 (13.9%) accounts, respectively. Based on Doximity Residency Navigator rankings, programs in the first quartile were more likely to have Facebook profiles than programs in the fourth quartile (42.3% vs 12.0%; absolute difference, 30%; 95% CI, 2.9% to 52.6%). First- and second-quartile programs showed increased Facebook activity. There was greater Twitter presence in first- vs fourth-quartile programs (19.2% vs 8.0%; absolute difference, 11.2%; 95% CI, -11.6% to 33.0%). Higher-quartile programs were more active on Twitter and exhibited increased numbers of likes and followers. Analysis of US News & World Report rankings revealed that ranked programs had higher rates of presence, activity, and popularity on both Facebook and Twitter. However, these were smaller differences than seen when comparing Doximity Residency Navigator rankings. Correlation between the 2 ranking systems was indicated (Spearman ρ = 0.59; 95% CI, 0.34 to 0.76). Conclusions and Relevance: This study suggests that otolaryngology residency programs with higher Doximity Residency Navigator reputation rankings have a stronger presence on social media. Smaller trends were observed for programs in the top 50 US News & World Report rankings. Overall, social media use among otolaryngology programs seems relatively low, and this may present an opportunity to increase communication with the public via these technologies.


Assuntos
Internato e Residência , Otolaringologia/educação , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Estados Unidos
19.
Otol Neurotol ; 39(9): e849-e855, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30199501

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To highlight superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SSCD) involving the superior petrosal sinus (SPS), and to propose a novel classification system for SPS associated SSCD with potential surgical implications. STUDY DESIGN: Multicenter retrospective review. SETTING: Three tertiary referral centers. PATIENTS: All patients diagnosed with SPS associated SSCD (1/2000 to 8/2016). Radiographic findings and clinical symptoms were analyzed. INTERVENTION: Surgical repair or observation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Radiographic findings and clinical symptoms were analyzed. RESULTS: Thirty-three dehiscences (30 patients) involving the SPS were identified. The average age at the time of presentation was 52.5 years (median, 56.9; range, 4.9-75.3 yr), and 53.3% of patients were men. Three patients had bilateral SPS associated SSCD. The most common associated symptoms at presentation were episodic vertigo (63.6%), subjective hearing loss (60.6%), and aural fullness (57.6%). Four distinct types of dehiscence were identified: class Ia. SSCD involving a single dehiscence into an otherwise normal appearing SPS; class Ib. SSCD involving a single dehiscence into an apparent venous anomaly of the SPS; class IIa. SSCD involving two distinct dehiscences into the middle cranial fossa and the SPS; class IIb. SSCD involving a single confluent dehiscence into the middle cranial fossa and the SPS. CONCLUSIONS: SSCD involving the SPS represents a small but distinct subset of SSCD cases. This scenario can create a unique set of symptoms and surgical challenges when intervention is sought. Clinical findings and considerations for surgical intervention are provided to facilitate effective diagnosis and management.


Assuntos
Cavidades Cranianas/diagnóstico por imagem , Perda Auditiva/classificação , Doenças do Labirinto/classificação , Canais Semicirculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cavidades Cranianas/cirurgia , Feminino , Perda Auditiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Perda Auditiva/cirurgia , Humanos , Doenças do Labirinto/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças do Labirinto/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Canais Semicirculares/cirurgia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Otol Neurotol ; 39(8): e654-e659, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30113557

RESUMO

HYPOTHESIS: Electrocochleography (ECochG) patterns observed during cochlear implant (CI) electrode insertion may provide information about scalar location of the electrode array. BACKGROUND: Conventional CI surgery is performed without actively monitoring auditory function and potential damage to intracochlear structures. The central hypothesis of this study was that ECochG obtained directly through the CI may be used to estimate intracochlear electrode position and, ultimately, residual hearing preservation. METHODS: Intracochlear ECochG was performed on 32 patients across 3 different implant centers. During electrode insertion, a 50-ms tone burst stimulus (500 Hz) was delivered at 110 dB SPL. The ECochG response was monitored from the apical-most electrode. The amplitude and phase changes of the first harmonic were imported into an algorithm in an attempt to predict the intracochlear electrode location (scala tympani [ST], translocation from ST to scala vestibuli [SV], or interaction with basilar membrane). Anatomic electrode position was verified using postoperative computed tomography (CT) with image processing. RESULTS: CT analysis confirmed 25 electrodes with ST position and 7 electrode arrays translocating from ST into SV. The ECochG algorithm correctly estimated electrode position in 26 (82%) of 32 subjects while 6 (18%) electrodes were wrongly identified as translocated (sensitivity = 100%, specificity = 77%, positive predictive value = 54%, and a negative predictive value = 100%). Greater hearing loss was observed postoperatively in participants with translocated electrode arrays (36 ±â€Š15 dB) when compared with isolated ST insertions (28 ±â€Š20 dB HL). This result, however, was not significant (p = 0.789). CONCLUSION: Intracochlear ECochG may provide information about CI electrode location and hearing preservation.


Assuntos
Audiometria de Resposta Evocada/métodos , Implante Coclear/métodos , Monitorização Neurofisiológica Intraoperatória/métodos , Adulto , Cóclea/cirurgia , Implantes Cocleares , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
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