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3.
J Neurooncol ; 148(2): 221-229, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32385699

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The most recent cIMPACT-NOW update highlighted the homozygous deletion of the Cyclin Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A) gene as a clinically important molecular alteration in IDH-mutant glioma. Correspondingly, we systematically reviewed the contemporary literature to affirm the contemporary stance of the literature on the prognostic significance of this alteration in this setting based on the current World Health Organization (WHO) Grade classification. METHODS: A systematic search of seven electronic databases from inception to February 2020 was conducted following PRISMA guidelines. Articles were screened against pre-specified criteria to include lower-grade glioma (LGG, WHO Grade II/III) and glioblastoma (GBM, WHO Grade IV) separately. Progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) from Kaplan-Meier and multivariable analyses were outcomes of interest. RESULTS: Nine institutional studies describing 2193 IDH-mutant gliomas satisfied criteria for evaluation, with 1756 (80%) LGG and 437 (20%) GBM. When reported, the proportion of CDKN2A homozygous deleted gliomas ranged from 9 to 43%, with a median incidence of 22%. For LGG, Kaplan-Meier analyses demonstrated shorter PFS in the presence of CDKN2A homozygous deletion in three studies (median values, 31 versus 91 months), and shorter OS in five studies (median values, 61 versus 154 months). For GBM, Kaplan-Meier analyses demonstrated shorter PFS in the presence of CDKN2A homozygous deletion in two studies (median values, 16 versus 30 months), and shorter OS in four studies (median values, 38 versus 86 months). By multivariable analyses, CDKN2A homozygous deletion was a predictor of significantly shorter PFS and OS in both LGG and GBM across all included studies. CONCLUSIONS: The CDKN2A homozygous deletion is an important prognostic factor for survival outcomes of IDH-mutant glioma patients across multiple histologic WHO grades with specific molecular features likely dependent on IDH-mutant status. Greater understanding of how identifying this deletion can assist in the stratification of management for these tumors to optimize clinical course is required.

5.
J Neurooncol ; 147(3): 503-513, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32206977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Carbon ion radiotherapy (CIRT) is an emerging radiation therapy to treat skull base chordomas and chondrosarcomas. To date, its use is limited to a few centers around the world, and there has been no attempt to systematically evaluate survival and toxicity outcomes reported in the literature. Correspondingly, the aim of this study was to qualitatively and quantitatively assess these outcomes. METHODS: A systematic search of seven electronic databases from inception to November 2019 was conducted following PRISMA guidelines. Articles were screened against pre-specified criteria. Outcomes were then pooled by random-effects meta-analyses of proportions. RESULTS: A total of nine studies provided unique metadata for assessment, with six originating from Heidelberg, Germany. The surveyed cohort size was 632 patients, with 389 (62%) chordomas and 243 (38%) chondrosarcomas of the skull base. Across all studies, median cohort age at therapy and female proportion were 46 years and 51% respectively. Estimates of local control incidence at 1-, 5-, and 10-years in chordoma-only studies were 99%, 80%, and 56%, and in chondrosarcoma-only studies were 99%, 89%, and 88%. Estimates of overall survival probability at 1-, 5-, and 10-years in chordoma-only studies were 100%, 94%, and 78%, and in chondrosarcoma-only studies were 99%, 95%, and 79%. The incidence of early and late toxicity (Grade ≥ 3) ranged from 0 to 4% across all study groups. CONCLUSIONS: The emerging use of CIRT to treat skull base chordomas and chondrosarcomas appear promising with regard to tumor control, overall survival, and risk profile of early and late toxicity. The current literature suffers from the fact only a few centers in the world currently employ this technology.

6.
Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) ; 19(2): 126-133, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32043143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) is a growing technology to treat a variety of brain lesions. It offers an alternative to treatment options, such as open craniotomy and stereotactic radiosurgery. OBJECTIVE: To analyze our experience using LITT for metastatic melanoma. METHODS: This is a retrospective chart review of the patients from our institution. Our case series involves 5 patients who had previously failed radiation treatment. RESULTS: Our patients have low complication rates and short hospital stays. Both are considerably lower when compared to the literature for metastatic melanoma. CONCLUSION: LITT is a safe therapy, with few complications and short hospital stays.

7.
World Neurosurg ; 137: e221-e241, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32001403

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In the healthy spine, the spinal cord moves unimpeded with spinal fluid pulsation in the rostral and caudal directions. When a portion of the spinal cord becomes attached to lesions within the spinal column, excess strain can cause signs and symptoms such as pain, motor deficits, sensory deficits, bladder dysfunction, and bowel dysfunction. This condition is termed tethered cord syndrome. There are no clear guidelines for offering surgical intervention, although there is a general consensus that worsening signs and symptoms increase the likelihood that patients will need surgery. METHODS: In this article, we conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis for all available literature within the Ovid (MEDLINE), PubMed, and Google Scholar databases to evaluate common symptoms among patients with tethered cord and to examine how surgery affects symptoms. RESULTS: Within the cohort of 730 patients, 708 (97%) were treated surgically by a detethering procedure. The most common preoperative sign or symptom was pain (81%), followed by motor deficits (63%), sensory deficits (61%), bladder dysfunction (56%), and bowel dysfunction (15%). One percent of patients had no deficit or symptom. Pain was the symptom that was most responsive to surgery, with 81% of patients reporting that their pain improved after detethering. CONCLUSIONS: Tethered cord syndrome should be included in the differential diagnosis in patients presenting with back or leg pain, somatosensory symptoms of the lower extremities, muscular weakness, urodynamic dysfunction, or bowel dysfunction. After a definitive diagnosis is made, patients should be counseled about surgical detethering as an option.

9.
World Neurosurg ; 134: e1130-e1142, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786382

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate predictive factors and develop an outcome assessment tool to determine clinical outcome after endovascular mechanical thrombectomy (EMT) in patients presenting with large vessel occlusion (LVO). METHODS: A retrospective analysis was carried out of a prospective cohort of patients presenting with LVO who underwent EMT after adoption of an expanded time window of ≤24 hours. Final cerebral infarction volume (CIV) after EMT was estimated using magnetic resonance imaging segmentation software. Stepwise linear regression models were used to identify factors that determined clinical outcome and to develop a predictive scale. RESULTS: Ninety patients underwent EMT over 19 months (68 within 6 hours and 22 between 6 and 24 hours). Clinical outcome determined using modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score at discharge and 3 months was no different among these subcohorts. A threshold of 16.99 mL of CIV, using the Youden index, resulted in a sensitivity of 90.5% and specificity of 58.1% for predicting mRS score of 0-2. A regression model identified gender, age, diabetes mellitus status, CIV, and smoking status as outcome determinants, which were used to develop the GADIS (Gender, Age, Diabetes Mellitus History, Infarct Volume, and Sex) scoring system to predict good clinical outcome. Using the GADIS score, <6 predicted mRS score 0-2 at discharge with a sensitivity of 83.3% and specificity of 80.6%. CONCLUSIONS: The GADIS score for patients with LVO-related acute ischemic stroke includes CIV after EMT and helps in early short-term prognostication. It is not intended to predict preintervention patient selection or outcome prediction.


Assuntos
Trombose das Artérias Carótidas/cirurgia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Endovasculares/métodos , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/cirurgia , Trombectomia/métodos , Tempo para o Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Trombose das Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose das Artérias Carótidas/epidemiologia , Trombose das Artérias Carótidas/fisiopatologia , Artéria Carótida Interna/cirurgia , Infarto Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto Cerebral/epidemiologia , Infarto Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Infarto Cerebral/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/epidemiologia , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Artéria Cerebral Média/cirurgia , Prognóstico , Fatores Sexuais , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
World Neurosurg ; 133: 172, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542443

RESUMO

A 5-year-old girl was brought to the clinic because of chronic intermittent left-sided headaches. The patient underwent computed tomographic angiography, which demonstrated a giant aneurysm that involved the P2 segment of the left posterior cerebral artery. Before treatment proceeded, consent was obtained from the patient's legal guardian. A trapping-evacuation technique was used for proximal control and decompression so that a clip could be placed on the proximal inflow artery of the aneurysm. First, embolization was performed for aneurysm trapping and for sacrifice of the parent vessel. Two days later, the patient was taken to the operating room for open surgical decompression, clipping, and reconstruction. Heparin was administered during the embolization stage of the operation. The patient did well postoperatively and was discharged home. The 3-month follow-up evaluation demonstrated a right superior homonymous quadrantanopia and no other neurologic deficits. The patient's clinical course is summarized in Video 1.


Assuntos
Descompressão Cirúrgica/métodos , Aneurisma Intracraniano/cirurgia , Artéria Cerebral Posterior/cirurgia , Angiografia Cerebral , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Embolização Terapêutica , Feminino , Humanos , Aneurisma Intracraniano/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Cerebral Posterior/diagnóstico por imagem
11.
J Neuroimaging ; 30(2): 227-232, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625660

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cerebral vasospasm in the setting of subarachnoid hemorrhage causes morbidity and mortality due to delayed cerebral ischemia and permanent neurological deficits. Vasospasm treatment includes intra-arterial injection of a spasmolytic during cerebral angiography. To evaluate effectiveness, neurointerventionalists subjectively examine a posttreatment cerebral angiogram to determine change in vessel diameter or increase in microvascular perfusion. Flat-detector computed tomography (FDCT) scanner has the ability to quantitatively measure cerebral blood volume (CBV) within the parenchyma and detect a quantitative change following treatment. METHODS: This is a prospective study at a single institution between October 5, 2017 and June 3, 2019 that examines CBV studies from the Artis Q biplane (Siemens). Regions of interest were made in various territories to measure the CBV within the parenchyma before and after treatment with the spasmolytic verapamil. All instances of vasospasm involved vasculature within the left middle cerebral artery or internal carotid artery. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to determine significance before and after treatment. RESULTS: Our cohort consists of 6 patients who underwent Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA) and FDCT scans for cerebral vasospasm within the left hemisphere. After intra-arterial injection of 20 mg of verapamil, average increases in blood volume were 59%, 22%, and 24% for the temporal, frontal, and parietal lobes, respectively. P-values associated were .03. We also observed decrease in the mean arterial blood pressure and transcranial Doppler values after treatment. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, FDCT could measure the effectiveness of a change in CBV from infusion of verapamil in the setting of cerebral vasospasm. The authors believe quantifying the change allows for reassurance of improvement of cerebral vasospasm.

12.
Surg Radiol Anat ; 42(3): 315-328, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734739

RESUMO

PURPOSE: White matter tracts link different regions of the brain, and the known functions of those interconnected regions may offer clues about the roles that white matter tracts play in information relay. The authors of this report discuss the structure and function of the lateral occipital lobe and how the lateral occipital lobe communicates with other regions via white matter tracts. METHODS: The authors used generalized q-sampling imaging and cadaveric brain dissections to uncover the subcortical white matter connections of the lateral occipital lobe. The authors created GQI of ten healthy controls and dissected ten cadaveric brains. RESULTS: The middle longitudinal fasciculus, vertical occipital fasciculus, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, optic radiations, and a diverse array of U-shaped fibers connect the lateral occipital lobe to itself, parts of the temporal, parietal, and medial occipital cortices. The complex functional processes attributed to the lateral occipital lobe, including object recognition, facial recognition, and motion perception are likely related to the subcortical white matter tracts described within this study. CONCLUSIONS: There was good concordance between the white matter tracts generated using GQI and the white matter tracts that were found after dissection of the cadaveric brains. This article presents the anatomic connections of the lateral occipital lobe and discusses the associated functions.

13.
J Neurosurg Spine ; : 1-3, 2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812135

RESUMO

Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) is the most common surgical procedure utilized for degenerative diseases of the cervical spine. The authors present the case of a 64-year-old man who underwent an ACDF for degenerative changes causing cervical stenosis with myelopathy. The patient's symptoms consisted of pain and weakness of the bilateral upper extremities that slowly progressed over 1.5 years. During the procedure, the superior horn of the thyroid cartilage impeded proper retraction, preventing adequate visualization due to its prominent size. At this point, otorhinolaryngology was consulted, which allowed for safe resection of this portion of the thyroid cartilage while preserving nearby critical structures. With the frequent usage of this surgical approach for various etiologies, the importance of proper recognition and consultation is paramount. Encountering prominent thyroid cartilage resulting in surgical obstruction has not been described in the literature and this report represents a paradigm for the proper course of action.

14.
J Neurosurg ; : 1-10, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703202

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Traditionally, stent-assisted coiling and balloon remodeling have been the primary endovascular treatments for wide-necked intracranial aneurysms with complex morphologies. PulseRider is an aneurysm neck reconstruction device that provides parent vessel protection for aneurysm coiling. The objective of this study was to report early postmarket results with the PulseRider device. METHODS: This study was a prospective registry of patients treated with PulseRider at 13 American neurointerventional centers following FDA approval of this device. Data collected included clinical presentation, aneurysm characteristics, treatment details, and perioperative events. Follow-up data included degree of aneurysm occlusion and delayed (> 30 days after the procedure) complications. RESULTS: A total of 54 aneurysms were treated, with the same number of PulseRider devices, across 13 centers. Fourteen cases were in off-label locations (7 anterior communicating artery, 6 middle cerebral artery, and 1 A1 segment anterior cerebral artery aneurysms). The average dome/neck ratio was 1.2. Technical success was achieved in 52 cases (96.2%). Major complications included the following: 3 procedure-related posterior cerebral artery strokes, a device-related intraoperative aneurysm rupture, and a delayed device thrombosis. Immediately postoperative Raymond-Roy occlusion classification (RROC) class 1 was achieved in 21 cases (40.3%), class 2 in 15 (28.8%), and class 3 in 16 cases (30.7%). Additional devices were used in 3 aneurysms. For those patients with 3- or 6-month angiographic follow-up (28 patients), 18 aneurysms (64.2%) were RROC class 1 and 8 (28.5%) were RROC class 2. CONCLUSIONS: PulseRider is being used in both on- and off-label cases following FDA approval. The clinical and radiographic outcomes are comparable in real-world experience to the outcomes observed in earlier studies. Further experience is needed with the device to determine its role in the neurointerventionalist's armamentarium, especially with regard to its off-label use.

19.
J Clin Neurosci ; 68: 329-332, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327587

RESUMO

Intrathalamic aneurysms are a cause of patient morbidity and mortality. Aneurysms in this location can be accessed microsurgically when they cannot be accessed endovascularly. Care must be taken to avoid critical white matter tracts when approaching the thalamus microsurgically. Use of a tubular retractor can offer safe brain retraction during the approach. A 53-year-old female with a history of hypertension and cerebrovascular accidents presented with slurred speech, altered mental status, and right-sided weakness. CT demonstrated an acute parenchymal hemorrhage within the left thalamus and the internal capsule. CT angiography demonstrated a left dorsal thalamic aneurysm. Following angiography with consideration for embolization, the patient was taken to the operating room for microsurgical clip ligation with the use of minimally invasive techniques. The aneurysm was accessed using a contralateral transventricular approach with a tubular retractor for microsurgical clip ligation. Postoperative imaging demonstrated successful interval clipping of the aneurysm within the thalamus. This is the first report using our described surgical approach for treatment of a dorsal intrathalamic aneurysm. We combined the use of diffusion tensor imaging with a tubular retractor to clip a dorsal thalamic aneurysm.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Roto/cirurgia , Aneurisma Intracraniano/cirurgia , Microcirurgia/métodos , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Ligadura/métodos , Microcirurgia/instrumentação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/instrumentação , Instrumentos Cirúrgicos
20.
World Neurosurg ; 130: e558-e565, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299310

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Before the advent of radiosurgery, neurosurgical treatment of meningiomas typically involved gross total resection of the mass whenever surgery was deemed possible. Over the past 4 decades, though, Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) has proved to be an effective, minimally invasive means to control the growth of these tumors. However, the variables associated with treatment failure (regrowth or clinical progression) after GKRS and GKRS-related complications, such as cerebral edema, are less well understood. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data between 2009 and 2018 for patients who underwent GKRS for meningiomas. After data collection, we performed univariate and multivariable modeling of the factors that predict treatment failure and cerebral edema after GKRS. Hazard ratios (HR) and P values were determined for these variables. RESULTS: Fifty-two patients were included our analysis. The majority of patients were female (38/52,73%), and nearly all patients presented with a suspected or confirmed World Health Organization grade 1 meningioma (48/52, 92%). The median tumor volume was 3.49 cc (range, 0.22-20.11 cc). Evidence of meningioma progression after treatment developed in 5 patients (10%), with a median time to continued tumor growth of 5.9 months (range, 2.7-18.3 months). In multivariable analysis, patients in whom treatment failed were more likely to be male (HR = 8.42, P = 0.045) and to present with larger tumor volumes (HR = 1.27, P = 0.011). In addition, 5 patients (10%) experienced treatment-related cerebral edema. On univariate analysis, patients who experienced cerebral edema were more likely present with larger tumors (HR = 1.16, P = 0.028). CONCLUSIONS: Increasing meningioma size and male gender predispose to meningioma progression after treatment with GKRS. Increasing tumor size also predicts the development of postradiosurgery cerebral edema.


Assuntos
Edema Encefálico/etiologia , Neoplasias Meníngeas/radioterapia , Meningioma/radioterapia , Radiocirurgia/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias Meníngeas/patologia , Meningioma/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Falha de Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
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