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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34319278

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As large numbers of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients were admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) in 2020 and 2021, the United States faced a shortage of critical care providers. Intensivists are physicians specializing in providing care in the ICU. Although studies have explored the clinical and financial benefits associated with the use of intensivists, little is known about the organizational and market factors associated with a hospital administrator's strategic decision to use intensivists. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to use the resource dependence theory to better understand the organizational and market factors associated with a hospital administrator's decision to use intensivists. METHODOLOGY: The sample consisted of the national acute care hospitals (N = 4,986) for the period 2007-2017. The dependent variable was the number of full-time equivalent intensivists staffed in hospitals. The independent variables were organizational and market-level factors. A negative binomial regression model with state and year fixed effects, clustered at the hospital level, was used to examine the relationship between the use of intensivists and organizational and market factors. RESULTS: The results from the analyses show that administrators of larger, not-for-profit hospitals that operate in competitive urban markets with relatively high levels of munificence are more likely to utilize intensivists. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: When significant strains are placed on ICUs like what was experienced during the COVID-19 pandemic, it is imperative that hospital administrators understand how to best staff their ICUs. With a better understanding of the organizational and market factors associated with the use of intensivists, practitioners and policymakers alike can better understand how to strategically utilize intensivists in the ICU, especially in the face of a continuing pandemic.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34319281

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 1980s to 1990s saw many health systems in the United States enter and exit the insurance market in the form of provider-sponsored health plans (PSHPs). Reforms and value-based reimbursement methods have stimulated health care organizations to reconsider PSHP as a logical strategy. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine market and organizational factors associated with PSHP ownership and motivations for engaging in PSHP after health care reforms. The resource dependence theory was used as a theoretical lens. METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: A sequential quantitative to qualitative mixed-methods design was used. The quantitative analysis examined data for 5,849 U.S. hospitals. Results were synthesized with qualitative findings from 10 semistructured interviews representing eight health systems in five states. RESULTS: Organizational and environmental characteristics were significantly associated with PSHP ownership. Hospital and payer concentration, Medicare penetration, income, unemployment rate, government, and for-profit and metro area hospitals were associated with a lower likelihood of PSHP ownership. Salaried physician arrangements, clinically integrated network membership and adoption of other risk-bearing arrangements were associated with higher odds of PSHP ownership. Interviewees described PSHP as the culmination of the journey to value-based care and as a strategy to improve patient care, compete, and diversify revenue streams. CONCLUSIONS: Both market and organizational factors are important considerations for hospitals contemplating PSHP ownership, and motivations for ownership cover a broad range of financial, competitive, strategic, and mission-based goals. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Hospitals considering PSHP ownership must carefully evaluate their competitive landscapes and organizational resources to ensure optimal conditions for this strategy. PSHP ownership has high start-up costs and requires a long-term organizational commitment.

3.
Am J Health Promot ; 35(7): 988-990, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33792355

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Compare the effectiveness of two educational teaching methods for diabetic patients. DESIGN: Quasi-experimental study comparing two interventions using a pretest/post-test design. SETTING: Three clinics within a western U.S. regional health system. SUBJECTS: 818 adult diabetic participants (60.5 mean age, 52% female) attended one to four sessions between 2013-2017, and had A1c tests within 180 days of first attended session and 30 to 365 days after last attended session. INTERVENTION: A group-based, highly interactive learning experience (n = 561) and a traditional, lecture-style class (n = 257). MEASURES: Pre and post measures of A1c. ANALYSIS: Paired t-tests measured change within each group pre-post intervention. Two-sample t-tests measured mean change pre-post intervention between the two groups. Multivariable linear regression measured mean change in A1c between groups, adjusted for pre-test scores and controlling for demographic variables. RESULTS: Both interactive and traditional teaching interventions were effective at significantly reducing patient A1c levels by 1.3 (p < 0.001) and 1.0 (p < 0.001) points respectively. The between groups difference in A1c was not significant, t(512) = 1.66, p = 0.0985, but when controlling for age, pre-A1c and days post-A1c, the interactive intervention was significantly (p < 0.05) more effective reducing patient A1c levels by 0.19 points than the traditional intervention. CONCLUSION: Group-based, interactive diabetes self-management education programs may be an effective model for reducing patient A1c levels.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Autogestão , Adulto , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33660666

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Advances in natural language processing and text mining provide a powerful approach to understanding trending themes in the health care management literature. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to introduce machine learning, particularly text mining and natural language processing, as a viable approach to summarizing a subset of health care management research. The secondary aim of the study was to display the major foci of health care management research and to summarize the literature's evolution trends over a 20-year period. METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: Article abstracts (N = 2,813), from six health care management journals published from 1998 through 2018 were evaluated through latent semantic analysis, topic analysis, and multiple correspondence analysis. RESULTS: Using latent semantic analysis and topic analysis on 2,813 abstracts revealed eight distinct topics. Of the eight, three leadership and transformation, workforce well-being, and delivery of care issues were up-trending, whereas organizational performance, patient-centeredness, technology and innovation, and managerial issues and gender concerns exhibited downward trending. Finance exhibited peaks and troughs throughout the study period. Four journals, Frontiers of Health Services Management, Journal of Healthcare Management, Health Care Management Review, and Advances in Health Care Management, exhibited strong associations with finance, organizational performance, technology and innovation, managerial issues and gender concerns, and workforce well-being. The Journal of Health Management and the Journal of Health Organization and Management were more distant from the other journals and topics, except for delivery of care, and leadership and transformation. CONCLUSION: There was a close association of journals and research topics, and research topics evolved with changes in the health care environment. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: As scholars develop research agendas, focus should be on topics important to health care management practitioners for better informed decision-making.

5.
Health Serv Manage Res ; 34(3): 158-166, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33085543

RESUMO

Hospitalists, or specialists of hospital medicine, have long been practicing in Canada and Europe. However, it was not until the mid-1990s, when hospitals in the U.S. started widespread adoption of hospitalists. Since then, the number of hospitalists has grown exponentially in the U.S. from a few hundred to over 50,000 in 2016. Prior studies on hospitalists have well documented benefits hospitals gain from adopting this innovative staffing strategy. However, there is a dearth of research documenting predictors of hospitals' adoption of hospitalists. To fill this gap, this longitudinal study (2003-2015) purposes to determine organizational and market characteristics of U.S. hospitals that utilize hospitalists. Our findings indicate that private not-for-profit, system affiliated, teaching, and urban hospitals, and those located in higher per capita income markets have a higher probability of utilizing hospitalists. Additionally, large or medium, profitable hospitals, and those that treat sicker patients have a higher probability of adoption. Finally, hospitals with a high proportion of Medicaid patients have a lower probability of utilizing hospitalists. Our results suggest that hospitals with greater slack resources and those located in munificent counties are more likely to use hospitalists, while their under-resourced counterparts may experience more barriers in adopting this innovative staffing strategy.

6.
Health Care Manage Rev ; 46(4): E68-E76, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181553

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hospice performance is an overlooked area in the health care field due to the difficulty of measuring quality of care and the infrequent quality inspection. Based on the daily reimbursement mechanism for different levels of hospice care, inpatient services provision could influence both hospice-level length of stay (LOS) and financial performance. PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between hospice inpatient services provision and hospice utilization and financial performance. METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: A longitudinal secondary data set (2009-2013) was merged from three sources: (a) Hospice Cost Reports from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, (b) the Provider of Services files, and (c) the Area Health Resources Files. The dependent variable in this study was hospice average LOS and financial performance measured by total operating margin (TOM) and return on assets. The independent variable was hospice inpatient services' offering. Mixed-effects regression models were used in the multivariate regression analyses. RESULTS: When comparing to hospices not providing inpatient services, offering inpatient services by staff was negatively related to average LOS (b = -0.063, p < .05) and TOM (b = -0.022, p < .05). The combination method with providing inpatient services by staff and under arrangement was negatively associated with return on assets (b = -0.073, p < .05). CONCLUSION: Hospice inpatient services provision was associated with average LOS and financial performance. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Offering the inpatient services to patients by staff decreased average LOS and TOM. Hospice agencies may seek strategies to maintain their financial sustainability through outsourcing.

7.
Health Care Manage Rev ; 46(4): E61-E67, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366747

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hospices provide end-of-life care to patients who have complex health care needs and whose symptoms are difficult to control. Understanding why some hospices offer inpatient hospice care to patients could bring more evidence for policy makers and researchers to focus on the role of inpatient care in hospice. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine market and organizational factors that are associated with the provision of hospice inpatient care. METHODOLOGY: This study used a retrospective, longitudinal design (2009-2013). The study sample was drawn from three data resources: the Area Health Resources Files, the Provider of Services files, and Hospice Cost Reports from Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. The sample size was 2,391 hospices or 10,999 hospice observations over 5 years. A generalized linear mixed-effects model was used to examine the association between market and organizational factors and hospice inpatient services offering. RESULTS: On average, 94.59% of hospices offer inpatient services to patients. Proportion of adults who were over 65 years old (OR = 1.12) and Medicare-managed care penetration (OR = 1.02) were positively associated with the provision of hospice inpatient services. The number of hospitals with hospice program was negatively related to hospice inpatient services offering (OR = .95). Other factors such as nursing skill mix, volunteer dependence, and census region were also associated with inpatient services offering. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: The age demand of hospice care and Medicare-managed care penetration are related to hospice inpatient services offering. Hospices located in the market with more competition from hospitals that offer hospice program are less likely to offer inpatient care.

8.
J Healthc Manag ; 65(5): 366-377, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925536

RESUMO

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: An increasing number of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals openly acknowledge their identity; however, the fear of discrimination prevents many from seeking healthcare-an issue challenged by a lack of culturally competent LGBT healthcare providers. With more than 4% of American adults identifying as LGBT individuals, greater attention to their needs is imperative to improve care and access for this population. This study examined organizational and market factors associated with hospitals achieving the "Leader in LGBT Healthcare Equality" (Healthcare Equality Index, HEI; HEI Leader) designation and reported patient experience scores. We found that system-affiliated hospitals have 4.16 greater odds and teaching hospitals have 2.86 greater odds of earning the HEI Leader designation compared to nonsystem and nonteaching hospitals, respectively. Governmental hospitals have 2.47 greater odds of achieving HEI Leader status, while for-profit hospitals have 86% lower odds of having HEI Leader status compared to not-for-profit hospitals. Hospitals located in a metropolitan area have 3.19 greater odds of being an HEI Leader. The percentage of minorities and per capita income in a county also demonstrated a positive association with being an HEI Leader, with odds ratios of 1.00 and 1.02, respectively, while lower education was associated with 4% lower odds of being an HEI Leader. The main finding of this study was that HEI Leader-designated hospitals reported significantly higher overall hospital rating patient experience scores (B = 1.785; p ≤ .001) as compared to non-HEI Leader hospitals. As such, participation in the HEI may be viewed as a motivation for hospitals attaining HEI Leader designation.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Liderança , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos
9.
J Patient Exp ; 7(2): 263-269, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32851150

RESUMO

This study examined the association between interdepartmental transfers and the perceptions of care received by adult patients who were admitted and discharged from a 300-bed, not-for-profit community tertiary hospital in the Midwest. Transfers of patient care are daily and frequent hospital processes. However, limited attention has focused on the effect that intrahospital transfers of care have on the patient experience. Understanding this relationship is important, since value-based purchasing models directly tie patient experience measures into hospital reimbursements. The key finding of this study indicates that as patients' transfers increase, their perceptions of care decrease. Therefore, by reducing the frequency of interdepartmental transfers, patient satisfaction may increase. This research provides clinicians and administrators a better understanding of the relationship between a frequent and a daily hospital process (ie, interdepartmental transfers) and its influence on patients' perceptions of their experience.

10.
Health Care Manage Rev ; 45(4): 342-352, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30299382

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hospital-physician vertical integration involving employment of physicians has increased considerably over the last decade. Cardiologists are one group of specialists being increasingly employed by hospitals. Although hospital-physician integration has the potential to produce economic and societal benefits, there is concern that this consolidation may reduce competition and concentrate bargaining power among providers. In addition, hospitals may be motivated to offer cardiologists higher compensation and reduced workloads as an incentive to integrate. PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to determine if there are differences in compensation and clinical productivity, measured by work relative value units (RVUs), for cardiologists as they transition from being independent practitioners to being employed by hospitals. METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: This study was a quantitative, retrospective, longitudinal analysis, comparing the compensation and work RVUs of integrated cardiologists to their compensation and work RVUs as independent cardiologists. Data from the MedAxiom Annual Survey from 2010 to 2014 were used. Participants included 4,830 unique cardiologists that provided 13,642 pooled physician-year observations, with ownership status, compensation, work (RVUs), and other characteristics as variables for analysis. RESULTS: Results from the multivariate regressions indicate that average compensation for cardiologists increases by $129,263.1 (p < .001) when they move from independent to integrated practice. At the same time, physician work RVUs decline by 398.04 (p = .01). CONCLUSION: Our findings support the conjecture that hospitals may be offering higher pay and lower workloads to incentivize cardiologists to integrate. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Although hospitals may have goals of quality improvement and lower costs, such goals may presently be secondary to service line growth and increased market power. There is reason to be cautious about some of the implications of hospital integration of cardiologists.


Assuntos
Cardiologistas , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Planos de Incentivos Médicos/economia , Escalas de Valor Relativo , Salários e Benefícios , Adulto , Cardiologistas/economia , Cardiologistas/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Propriedade/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Salários e Benefícios/economia , Salários e Benefícios/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
12.
Public Health Rev ; 39: 13, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29881645

RESUMO

Background: Public health leaders are confronted with complex problems, and developing effective leadership competencies is essential. The teaching of leadership is still not common in public health training programs around the world. A reconceptualization of professional training is needed and can benefit from innovative educational approaches. Our aim was to explore learners' perceptions of the effectiveness and appeal of a public health leadership course using problem-based, blended learning methods that used virtual learning environment technologies. Case presentation: In this cross-sectional evaluative study, the Self-Assessment Instrument of Competencies for Public Health Leaders was administered before and after an online, blended-learning, problem-based (PBL) leadership course. An evaluation questionnaire was also used to measure perceptions of blended learning, problem-based learning, and tutor functioning among 19 public health professionals from The Netherlands (n = 8), Lithuania (n = 5), and Austria (n = 6).Participants showed overall satisfaction and knowledge gains related to public health leadership competencies in six of eight measured areas, especially Political Leadership and Systems Thinking. Some perceptions of blended learning and PBL varied between the institutions. This might have been caused by lack of experience of the educational approaches, differing professional backgrounds, inexperience of communicating in the online setting, and different expectations towards the course. Conclusions: Blended, problem-based learning might be an effective way to develop leadership competencies among public health professionals in international and interdisciplinary context.

13.
J Healthc Manag ; 63(1): 50-61, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29303825

RESUMO

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: Efforts by hospitals to improve patient experience continue as changes in policy such as the Affordable Care Act of 2010 have made patient experience a cornerstone of promoting greater value in the United States. Hospital CEOs play an important role in promoting positive patient experiences as they set the organizational vision and strategic goals and can execute change to support positive experiences.This study assessed whether three CEO characteristics-education, tenure with the organization, and gender-were associated with patient experience scores of California hospitals in 2013 and 2014. Using a pooled, cross-sectional design with ordinary least squares regression to account for other hospital and market characteristics, the analysis indicated that hospitals with female CEOs and longer-tenured CEOs were associated with more positive patient experience scores. Higher levels of education were not significantly associated with patient experience scores. Overall, the model covariates accounted for approximately 14.0% of the variance in patient experience scores between hospitals, with CEO characteristics accounting for approximately 2.4% of this variation. Such findings highlight the important yet emerging role of CEO characteristics when accounting for patient experience.


Assuntos
Diretores de Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Diretores de Hospitais/normas , Escolaridade , Liderança , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Competência Profissional , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto , California , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos
14.
Inquiry ; 54: 46958017727106, 2017 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28853305

RESUMO

The number of freestanding emergency departments (FSEDs) is growing rapidly in the United States. Proponents of FSEDs cite potential benefits of FSEDs including lower waiting time and reduced travel distance for needed emergency care. Others have suggested that increased access to emergency care may lead to an increase in the use of emergency departments for lower acuity patients, resulting in higher overall health care expenditures. We examined the relationship between the number of FSEDs in each county and total Medicare expenditures between 2003 and 2009. Our results show that each additional FSED in a county is associated with an expenditure increase of $55 per Medicare beneficiary. This finding suggests that even if FSEDs may increase access to emergency care, it may result in higher overall Medicare expenditures.


Assuntos
Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/economia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicare/economia , Gastos em Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Estados Unidos
16.
Health Serv Manage Res ; 30(2): 129-137, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28539085

RESUMO

Despite the increasingly global nature of health care, much of the research about journal rankings and directions for future research in health care management is from a United States based viewpoint. There is a lack of information about influential journals and trends for health care management research from a global perspective. This exploratory study gathered the opinions of health care management researchers from 17 countries regarding which journals are considered most influential, popular research topics and areas needing more attention from the research community. An online survey was sent to individuals in high-income Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries who were identified through author relationships, academic institution websites, editorial boards of international journals, and academic and practitioner associations in the countries of interest. Results indicate that journal rankings vary substantially from prior published studies evaluating health care management journals and international ranking lists, and the list of influential journals includes a much more diverse array of publications. Respondents also indicated a diverse number of topics for current and future research, highlighting the global complexity of the field. The implications of this study are valuable to scholars evaluating outlets for disseminating research, and highlighting areas for collaborative research in health care management globally.


Assuntos
Bibliometria , Administração de Serviços de Saúde , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto , Humanos , Fator de Impacto de Revistas , Organização para a Cooperação e Desenvolvimento Econômico , Publicações , Pesquisadores , Estados Unidos
17.
Health Mark Q ; 34(2): 97-112, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28467280

RESUMO

This study examines patient perceptions of emergency department wait times and inpatient experiences. For many hospitals across the United States, the emergency department (ED) is now the "front door"; therefore, understanding the impact of ED experience on the inpatient experience is critical for leaders managing these complex settings today. Results showed statistically significant relationships between a very good ED experience and a very good inpatient experience. Perceived wait times in the ED, more so than actual ED wait times, served as a predictor of a very good ED rating as well as a very good rating of the inpatient experience.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Admissão do Paciente , Percepção , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos , Listas de Espera , Adulto Jovem
18.
Health Care Manage Rev ; 42(3): 269-279, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27309191

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Freestanding emergency departments (FSEDs) are fast growing entities in health care, delivering emergency care outside of hospitals. Hospitals may benefit in several ways by opening FSEDs. PURPOSE: The study used the resource dependence theory as a means to analyze the relationship between market and organizational factors and the likelihood of hospitals to operate FSEDs. METHODOLOGY: All acute care hospitals in 14 states with FSEDs present during the study period from 2002 to 2011. Data on FSEDs were merged with American Hospital Association Annual Survey, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services' Cost Reports, and Area Resource File data. The outcome variable consists of whether or not the hospital operates an FSED. Independent variables include per capita income, percent population over age of 65 years, primary care and specialist physicians per capita, urban location, change in the unemployment rate, change in the population, change in poverty level, market competition, total satellite and autonomous FSEDs in the market, Medicare-managed care penetration rate, hospital beds, total margin, and system membership. We used logistic regression analysis with state and year fixed effects. Standard errors in the regression were clustered by hospital. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The number of hospitals operating satellite FSEDs increased from 32 (2.33%) in 2002 to 91 (5.76%) hospitals in 2011 among the 14 states included in the study sample. The results support the hypothesis that hospitals located in munificent environments and more competitive environments (presence of other FSEDs) are more likely to operate an FSED. Organizational level factors such as bed size and system membership are associated with a hospital operating an FSED. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: The findings may be used by policy makers in developing regulations for hospitals opening FSEDs. Also, study findings of this study may be used by hospitals to make informed decisions when formulating strategies regarding FSEDs.


Assuntos
Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Economia Hospitalar , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Recursos em Saúde , Humanos , Estados Unidos
20.
Nurs Times ; 111(21): 24-7, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26492700

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the fact that half of all deaths occur in hospital, there is a lack of literature on general nurses' experiences of caring for end-of-life patients on general hospital wards. AIM: To ascertain general nurses' perceptions and experiences of a good death in an acute hospital setting. METHOD: In-depth interviews were conducted with 13 general nurses working in an acute hospital. RESULTS: Six themes were identified as important in facilitating a good death: good communication/awareness of expected death; time (to care); environment; support; knowledge; symptom management. CONCLUSION: Participants felt that failing to communicate a diagnosis of dying adversely affected the quality of death. As such the focus of future end-of-life care education needs to include how general nurses can facilitate communication and handle difficult questions to enable a good death for patients and their families.


Assuntos
Morte , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/psicologia , Humanos , Cuidados Paliativos , Reino Unido
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