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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4350, 2021 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34272381

RESUMO

Genes underneath signals from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for kidney function are promising targets for functional studies, but prioritizing variants and genes is challenging. By GWAS meta-analysis for creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) from the Chronic Kidney Disease Genetics Consortium and UK Biobank (n = 1,201,909), we expand the number of eGFRcrea loci (424 loci, 201 novel; 9.8% eGFRcrea variance explained by 634 independent signal variants). Our increased sample size in fine-mapping (n = 1,004,040, European) more than doubles the number of signals with resolved fine-mapping (99% credible sets down to 1 variant for 44 signals, ≤5 variants for 138 signals). Cystatin-based eGFR and/or blood urea nitrogen association support 348 loci (n = 460,826 and 852,678, respectively). Our customizable tool for Gene PrioritiSation reveals 23 compelling genes including mechanistic insights and enables navigation through genes and variants likely relevant for kidney function in human to help select targets for experimental follow-up.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/genética , Rim/metabolismo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Creatinina/sangue , Cistatinas/farmacologia , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Europa (Continente) , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Rim/fisiologia , Especificidade de Órgãos , Locos de Características Quantitativas , RNA-Seq , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/genética , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Célula Única
2.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259831

RESUMO

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by a persistent maladaptive reaction after exposure to severe psychological trauma. Traumatic events that may precipitate PTSD include violent personal assaults, natural and human-made disasters, and exposure to military combat or warfare. There is a growing body of evidence for associations of PTSD with major risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD), such as hypertension and diabetes, as well as with major CVD outcomes, such as myocardial infarction and heart failure. However, it is unclear whether these associations are causal or confounded. Furthermore, the biological and behavioral mechanisms underlying these associations are poorly understood. Here, the available evidence on the association of PTSD with CVD from population, basic, and genomic research as well as from clinical and translational research are reviewed, seeking to identify major research gaps, barriers, and opportunities in knowledge acquisition and technology as well as research tools to support and accelerate critical research for near-term and longer-term translational research directions. Large-scale, well-designed prospective studies, capturing diverse and high-risk populations, are warranted that include uniform phenotyping of PTSD as well as broad assessment of biological and behavioral risk factors and CVD outcomes. Available evidence from functional brain imaging studies demonstrates that PTSD pathophysiology includes changes in specific anatomical brain regions and circuits, and studies of immune system function in individuals with PTSD suggest its association with enhanced immune inflammatory activity. However, establishment of animal models and human tissue biobanks is also warranted to elucidate the potential causal connection of PTSD-induced brain changes and/or inflammation with CVD pathophysiology. Emerging large-scale genome-wide association studies of PTSD will provide an opportunity to conduct mendelian randomization studies that test hypotheses regarding the presence, magnitude, and direction of causal associations between PTSD and CVD outcomes. By identifying research gaps in epidemiology and genomics, animal, and human translational research, opportunities to better justify and design future interventional trials are highlighted that may test whether treatment of PTSD or underlying neurobiological or immune dysregulation may improve or prevent CVD risk or outcomes.

3.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 14(4): e003258, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34241534

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronary artery calcification (CAC) and carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT) are measures of subclinical atherosclerosis in asymptomatic individuals and strong risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is an independent cardiovascular disease risk factor that accelerates atherosclerosis. METHODS: We performed meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies in up to 2500 T2D individuals of European ancestry (EA) and 1590 T2D individuals of African ancestry with or without exclusion of prevalent cardiovascular disease, for CAC measured by cardiac computed tomography, and 3608 individuals of EA and 838 individuals of African ancestry with T2D for cIMT measured by ultrasonography within the CHARGE (Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology) Consortium. RESULTS: We replicated 2 loci (rs9369640 and rs9349379 near PHACTR1 and rs10757278 near CDKN2B) for CAC and one locus for cIMT (rs7412 and rs445925 near APOE-APOC1) that were previously reported in the general EA populations. We identified one novel CAC locus (rs8000449 near CSNK1A1L/LINC00547/POSTN at 13q13.3) at P=2.0×10-8 in EA. No additional loci were identified with the meta-analyses of EA and African ancestry. The expression quantitative trait loci analysis with nearby expressed genes derived from arterial wall and metabolic tissues from the Genotype-Tissue Expression project pinpoints POSTN, encoding a matricellular protein involved in bone formation and bone matrix organization, as the potential candidate gene at this locus. In addition, we found significant associations (P<3.1×10-4) for 3 previously reported coronary artery disease loci for these subclinical atherosclerotic phenotypes (rs2891168 near CDKN2B-AS1 and rs11170820 near FLJ12825 for CAC, and rs7412 near APOE for cIMT). CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide potential biological mechanisms that could link CAC and cIMT to increased cardiovascular disease risk in individuals with T2D.

5.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 2021 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091768

RESUMO

Common carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) is an index of subclinical atherosclerosis that is associated with ischemic stroke and coronary artery disease (CAD). We undertook a cross-sectional epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) of measures of cIMT in 6400 individuals. Mendelian randomization analysis was applied to investigate the potential causal role of DNA methylation in the link between atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk factors and cIMT or clinical cardiovascular disease. The CpG site cg05575921 was associated with cIMT (beta = -0.0264, p value = 3.5 × 10-8) in the discovery panel and was replicated in replication panel (beta = -0.07, p value = 0.005). This CpG is located at chr5:81649347 in the intron 3 of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor gene (AHRR). Our results indicate that DNA methylation at cg05575921 might be in the pathway between smoking, cIMT and stroke. Moreover, in a region-based analysis, 34 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were identified of which a DMR upstream of ALOX12 showed the strongest association with cIMT (p value = 1.4 × 10-13). In conclusion, our study suggests that DNA methylation may play a role in the link between cardiovascular risk factors, cIMT and clinical cardiovascular disease.

6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2579, 2021 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33972514

RESUMO

Serum concentration of hepatic enzymes are linked to liver dysfunction, metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. We perform genetic analysis on serum levels of alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) using data on 437,438 UK Biobank participants. Replication in 315,572 individuals from European descent from the Million Veteran Program, Rotterdam Study and Lifeline study confirms 517 liver enzyme SNPs. Genetic risk score analysis using the identified SNPs is strongly associated with serum activity of liver enzymes in two independent European descent studies (The Airwave Health Monitoring study and the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966). Gene-set enrichment analysis using the identified SNPs highlights involvement in liver development and function, lipid metabolism, insulin resistance, and vascular formation. Mendelian randomization analysis shows association of liver enzyme variants with coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke. Genetic risk score for elevated serum activity of liver enzymes is associated with higher fat percentage of body, trunk, and liver and body mass index. Our study highlights the role of molecular pathways regulated by the liver in metabolic disorders and cardiovascular disease.


Assuntos
Alanina Transaminase/genética , Fosfatase Alcalina/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Fígado/enzimologia , Doenças Metabólicas/genética , gama-Glutamiltransferase/genética , Idoso , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Fosfatase Alcalina/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/enzimologia , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Doenças Metabólicas/enzimologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , gama-Glutamiltransferase/sangue
7.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251651, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33984066

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The risk factors associated with the stages of Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) disease progression are not well known. We aim to identify risk factors specific to each state of COVID-19 progression from SARS-CoV-2 infection through death. METHODS AND RESULTS: We included 648,202 participants from the Veteran Affairs Million Veteran Program (2011-). We identified characteristics and 1,809 ICD code-based phenotypes from the electronic health record. We used logistic regression to examine the association of age, sex, body mass index (BMI), race, and prevalent phenotypes to the stages of COVID-19 disease progression: infection, hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and 30-day mortality (separate models for each). Models were adjusted for age, sex, race, ethnicity, number of visit months and ICD codes, state infection rate and controlled for multiple testing using false discovery rate (≤0.1). As of August 10, 2020, 5,929 individuals were SARS-CoV-2 positive and among those, 1,463 (25%) were hospitalized, 579 (10%) were in ICU, and 398 (7%) died. We observed a lower risk in women vs. men for ICU and mortality (Odds Ratio (95% CI): 0.48 (0.30-0.76) and 0.59 (0.31-1.15), respectively) and a higher risk in Black vs. Other race patients for hospitalization and ICU (OR (95%CI): 1.53 (1.32-1.77) and 1.63 (1.32-2.02), respectively). We observed an increased risk of all COVID-19 disease states with older age and BMI ≥35 vs. 20-24 kg/m2. Renal failure, respiratory failure, morbid obesity, acid-base balance disorder, white blood cell diseases, hydronephrosis and bacterial infections were associated with an increased risk of ICU admissions; sepsis, chronic skin ulcers, acid-base balance disorder and acidosis were associated with mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Older age, higher BMI, males and patients with a history of respiratory, kidney, bacterial or metabolic comorbidities experienced greater COVID-19 severity. Future studies to investigate the underlying mechanisms associated with these phenotype clusters and COVID-19 are warranted.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Saúde dos Veteranos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , COVID-19/mortalidade , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Veteranos
8.
J Thromb Haemost ; 19(8): 2019-2028, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33876560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Use of targeted exome-arrays with common, rare variants and functionally enriched variation has led to discovery of new genes contributing to population variation in risk factors. Plasminogen activator-inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), and the plasma product D-dimer are important components of the fibrinolytic system. There have been few large-scale genome-wide or exome-wide studies of PAI-1, tPA, and D-dimer. OBJECTIVES: We sought to discover new genetic loci contributing to variation in these traits using an exome-array approach. METHODS: Cohort-level analyses and fixed effects meta-analyses of PAI-1 (n = 15 603), tPA (n = 6876,) and D-dimer (n = 19 306) from 12 cohorts of European ancestry with diverse study design were conducted, including single-variant analyses and gene-based burden testing. RESULTS: Five variants located in NME7, FGL1, and the fibrinogen locus, all associated with D-dimer levels, achieved genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10-8 ). Replication was sought for these 5 variants, as well as 45 well-imputed variants with P < 1 × 10-4 in the discovery using an independent cohort. Replication was observed for three out of the five significant associations, including a novel and uncommon (0.013 allele frequency) coding variant p.Trp256Leu in FGL1 (fibrinogen-like-1) with increased plasma D-dimer levels. Additionally, a candidate-gene approach revealed a suggestive association for a coding variant (rs143202684-C) in SERPINB2, and suggestive associations with consistent effect in the replication analysis include an intronic variant (rs11057830-A) in SCARB1 associated with increased D-dimer levels. CONCLUSION: This work provides new evidence for a role of FGL1 in hemostasis.


Assuntos
Inibidor 1 de Ativador de Plasminogênio , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual , Exoma , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio , Fibrinogênio/genética , Fibrinólise , Humanos , Inibidor 1 de Ativador de Plasminogênio/genética , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/genética
9.
Nat Med ; 27(4): 668-676, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33837377

RESUMO

Drug repurposing provides a rapid approach to meet the urgent need for therapeutics to address COVID-19. To identify therapeutic targets relevant to COVID-19, we conducted Mendelian randomization analyses, deriving genetic instruments based on transcriptomic and proteomic data for 1,263 actionable proteins that are targeted by approved drugs or in clinical phase of drug development. Using summary statistics from the Host Genetics Initiative and the Million Veteran Program, we studied 7,554 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and >1 million controls. We found significant Mendelian randomization results for three proteins (ACE2, P = 1.6 × 10-6; IFNAR2, P = 9.8 × 10-11 and IL-10RB, P = 2.3 × 10-14) using cis-expression quantitative trait loci genetic instruments that also had strong evidence for colocalization with COVID-19 hospitalization. To disentangle the shared expression quantitative trait loci signal for IL10RB and IFNAR2, we conducted phenome-wide association scans and pathway enrichment analysis, which suggested that IFNAR2 is more likely to play a role in COVID-19 hospitalization. Our findings prioritize trials of drugs targeting IFNAR2 and ACE2 for early management of COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/genética , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , SARS-CoV-2 , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/fisiologia , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Subunidade beta de Receptor de Interleucina-10/genética , Subunidade beta de Receptor de Interleucina-10/fisiologia , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Receptor de Interferon alfa e beta/genética , Receptor de Interferon alfa e beta/fisiologia
10.
Hum Mol Genet ; 30(15): 1443-1456, 2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33856023

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a leading cause of chronic liver disease and is highly correlated with metabolic disease. NAFLD results from environmental exposures acting on a susceptible polygenic background. This study performed the largest multiethnic investigation of exonic variation associated with NAFLD and correlated metabolic traits and diseases. An exome array meta-analysis was carried out among eight multiethnic population-based cohorts (n = 16 492) with computed tomography (CT) measured hepatic steatosis. A fixed effects meta-analysis identified five exome-wide significant loci (P < 5.30 × 10-7); including a novel signal near TOMM40/APOE. Joint analysis of TOMM40/APOE variants revealed the TOMM40 signal was attributed to APOE rs429358-T; APOE rs7412 was not associated with liver attenuation. Moreover, rs429358-T was associated with higher serum alanine aminotransferase, liver steatosis, cirrhosis, triglycerides and obesity; as well as, lower cholesterol and decreased risk of myocardial infarction and Alzheimer's disease (AD) in phenome-wide association analyses in the Michigan Genomics Initiative, United Kingdom Biobank and/or public datasets. These results implicate APOE in imaging-based identification of NAFLD. This association may or may not translate to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis; however, these results indicate a significant association with advanced liver disease and hepatic cirrhosis. These findings highlight allelic heterogeneity at the APOE locus and demonstrate an inverse link between NAFLD and AD at the exome level in the largest analysis to date.

12.
J Med Chem ; 64(7): 3604-3657, 2021 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33783211

RESUMO

New drugs introduced to the market are privileged structures having affinities for biological targets implicated in human diseases and conditions. These new chemical entities (NCEs), particularly small molecules and antibody-drug conjugates, provide insight into molecular recognition and simultaneously function as leads for the design of future medicines. This review is part of a continuing series presenting the most likely process-scale synthetic approaches to 40 NCEs approved for the first time anywhere in the world in 2019.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Química Sintética/métodos , Compostos Orgânicos/síntese química , Preparações Farmacêuticas/síntese química , Animais , Humanos
13.
J Hypertens ; 39(4): 633-642, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33534346

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Ethnic disparities in hypertension prevalence are well documented, though the influence of genetic ancestry is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate associations of geographic genetic ancestry with hypertension and underlying blood pressure traits. METHODS: We tested genetically inferred ancestry proportions from five 1000 Genomes reference populations (GBR, PEL, YRI, CHB, and LWK) for association with four continuous blood pressure (BP) traits (SBP, DBP, PP, MAP) and the dichotomous outcomes hypertension and apparent treatment-resistant hypertension in 220 495 European American, 59 927 African American, and 21 273 Hispanic American individuals from the Million Veteran Program. Ethnicity stratified results were meta-analyzed to report effect estimates per 10% difference for a given ancestry proportion in all samples. RESULTS: Percentage GBR was negatively associated with BP (P = 2.13 × 10-19, 7.92 × 10-8, 4.41 × 10-11, and 3.57 × 10-13 for SBP, DBP, PP, and MAP, respectively; coefficient range -0.10 to -0.21 mmHg per 10% increase in ancestry proportion) and was protective against hypertension [P = 2.59 × 10-5, odds ratio (OR) = 0.98] relative to other ancestries. YRI percentage was positively associated with BP (P = 1.63 × 10-23, 1.94 × 10-26, 0.012, and 3.26 × 10-29 for SBP, DBP, PP, and MAP, respectively; coefficient range 0.06-0.32 mmHg per 10% increase in ancestry proportion) and was positively associated with hypertension risk (P = 3.10 × 10-11, OR = 1.04) and apparent treatment-resistant hypertension risk (P = 1.86 × 10-4, OR = 1.04) compared with other ancestries. Percentage PEL was inversely associated with DBP (P = 2.84 × 10-5, beta = -0.11 mmHg per 10% increase in ancestry proportion). CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that risk for BP traits varies significantly by genetic ancestry. Our findings provide insight into the geographic origin of genetic factors underlying hypertension risk and establish that a portion of BP trait ethnic disparities are because of genetic differences between ancestries.

14.
BMC Med Genomics ; 14(1): 45, 2021 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568140

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is a noninvasive measure of coronary atherosclerosis, the proximal pathophysiology underlying most cases of myocardial infarction (MI). We sought to identify expression signatures of early MI and subclinical atherosclerosis in the Framingham Heart Study (FHS). In this study, we conducted paired-end RNA sequencing on whole blood collected from 198 FHS participants (55 with a history of early MI, 72 with high CAC without prior MI, and 71 controls free of elevated CAC levels or history of MI). We applied DESeq2 to identify coding-genes and long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) differentially expressed in MI and high CAC, respectively, compared with the control. RESULTS: On average, 150 million paired-end reads were obtained for each sample. At the false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.1, we found 68 coding genes and 2 lincRNAs that were differentially expressed in early MI versus controls. Among them, 60 coding genes were detectable and thus tested in an independent RNA-Seq data of 807 individuals from the Rotterdam Study, and 8 genes were supported by p value and direction of the effect. Immune response, lipid metabolic process, and interferon regulatory factor were enriched in these 68 genes. By contrast, only 3 coding genes and 1 lincRNA were differentially expressed in high CAC versus controls. APOD, encoding a component of high-density lipoprotein, was significantly downregulated in both early MI (FDR = 0.007) and high CAC (FDR = 0.01) compared with controls. CONCLUSIONS: We identified transcriptomic signatures of early MI that include differentially expressed protein-coding genes and lincRNAs, suggesting important roles for protein-coding genes and lincRNAs in the pathogenesis of MI.

15.
J Am Med Inform Assoc ; 28(4): 695-703, 2021 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33404595

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Family health history is important to clinical care and precision medicine. Prior studies show gaps in data collected from patient surveys and electronic health records (EHRs). The All of Us Research Program collects family history from participants via surveys and EHRs. This Demonstration Project aims to evaluate availability of family health history information within the publicly available data from All of Us and to characterize the data from both sources. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Surveys were completed by participants on an electronic portal. EHR data was mapped to the Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership data model. We used descriptive statistics to perform exploratory analysis of the data, including evaluating a list of medically actionable genetic disorders. We performed a subanalysis on participants who had both survey and EHR data. RESULTS: There were 54 872 participants with family history data. Of those, 26% had EHR data only, 63% had survey only, and 10.5% had data from both sources. There were 35 217 participants with reported family history of a medically actionable genetic disorder (9% from EHR only, 89% from surveys, and 2% from both). In the subanalysis, we found inconsistencies between the surveys and EHRs. More details came from surveys. When both mentioned a similar disease, the source of truth was unclear. CONCLUSIONS: Compiling data from both surveys and EHR can provide a more comprehensive source for family health history, but informatics challenges and opportunities exist. Access to more complete understanding of a person's family health history may provide opportunities for precision medicine.


Assuntos
Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Anamnese , Pesquisa Biomédica , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Internet , Medicina de Precisão
16.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 41(1): 380-386, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is the third most common form of atherosclerotic vascular disease and is characterized by significant functional disability and increased cardiovascular mortality. Recent genetic data support a role for a procoagulation protein variant, the factor V Leiden mutation, in PAD. The role of other hemostatic factors in PAD remains unknown. We evaluated the role of hemostatic factors in PAD using Mendelian randomization. Approach and Results: Two-sample Mendelian randomization to evaluate the roles of FVII (factor VII), FVIII (factor VIII), FXI (factor XI), VWF (von Willebrand factor), and fibrinogen in PAD was performed using summary statistics from GWAS for hemostatic factors performed within the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in the Genome Epidemiology Consortium and from GWAS performed for PAD within the Million Veteran Program. Genetically determined FVIII and VWF, but not FVII, FXI, or fibrinogen, were associated with PAD in Mendelian randomization experiments (FVIII: odds ratio, 1.41 [95% CI, 1.23-1.62], P=6.0×10-7, VWF: odds ratio, 1.28 [95% CI, 1.07-1.52], P=0.0073). In single variant sensitivity analysis, the ABO locus was the strongest genetic instrument for both FVIII and VWF. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest a role for hemostasis, and by extension, thrombosis in PAD. Further study is warranted to determine whether VWF and FVIII independently affect the biology of PAD.


Assuntos
Fator VIII/genética , Hemostasia/genética , Doença Arterial Periférica/genética , Fator de von Willebrand/genética , Sistema ABO de Grupos Sanguíneos/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Arterial Periférica/sangue , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Fenótipo , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
18.
Clin Cancer Res ; 27(2): 622-631, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148666

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Mortality due to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains high, and the management of relapsed or refractory AML continues to be therapeutically challenging. The reapproval of Mylotarg, an anti-CD33-calicheamicin antibody-drug conjugate (ADC), has provided a proof of concept for an ADC-based therapeutic for AML. Several other ADCs have since entered clinical development of AML, but have met with limited success. We sought to develop a next-generation ADC for AML with a wide therapeutic index (TI) that overcomes the shortcomings of previous generations of ADCs. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We compared the TI of our novel CD33-targeted ADC platform with other currently available CD33-targeted ADCs in preclinical models of AML. Next, using this next-generation ADC platform, we performed a head-to-head comparison of two attractive AML antigens, CD33 and CD123. RESULTS: Our novel ADC platform offered improved safety and TI when compared with certain currently available ADC platforms in preclinical models of AML. Differentiation between the CD33- and CD123-targeted ADCs was observed in safety studies conducted in cynomolgus monkeys. The CD33-targeted ADC produced severe hematologic toxicity, whereas minimal hematologic toxicity was observed with the CD123-targeted ADC at the same doses and exposures. The improved toxicity profile of an ADC targeting CD123 over CD33 was consistent with the more restricted expression of CD123 in normal tissues. CONCLUSIONS: We optimized all components of ADC design (i.e., leukemia antigen, antibody, and linker-payload) to develop an ADC that has the potential to translate into an effective new therapy against AML.

19.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 106(2): 372-387, 2021 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33231259

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Glycogen storage diseases are rare. Increased glycogen in the liver results in increased attenuation. OBJECTIVE: Investigate the association and function of a noncoding region associated with liver attenuation but not histologic nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. DESIGN: Genetics of Obesity-associated Liver Disease Consortium. SETTING: Population-based. MAIN OUTCOME: Computed tomography measured liver attenuation. RESULTS: Carriers of rs4841132-A (frequency 2%-19%) do not show increased hepatic steatosis; they have increased liver attenuation indicative of increased glycogen deposition. rs4841132 falls in a noncoding RNA LOC157273 ~190 kb upstream of PPP1R3B. We demonstrate that rs4841132-A increases PPP1R3B through a cis genetic effect. Using CRISPR/Cas9 we engineered a 105-bp deletion including rs4841132-A in human hepatocarcinoma cells that increases PPP1R3B, decreases LOC157273, and increases glycogen perfectly mirroring the human disease. Overexpression of PPP1R3B or knockdown of LOC157273 increased glycogen but did not result in decreased LOC157273 or increased PPP1R3B, respectively, suggesting that the effects may not all occur via affecting RNA levels. Based on electronic health record (EHR) data, rs4841132-A associates with all components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, rs4841132-A associated with decreased low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and risk for myocardial infarction (MI). A metabolic signature for rs4841132-A includes increased glycine, lactate, triglycerides, and decreased acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that rs4841132-A promotes a hepatic glycogen storage disease by increasing PPP1R3B and decreasing LOC157273. rs4841132-A promotes glycogen accumulation and development of MetS but lowers LDL cholesterol and risk for MI. These results suggest that elevated hepatic glycogen is one cause of MetS that does not invariably promote MI.

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