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1.
J Am Med Inform Assoc ; 26(11): 1255-1262, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613361

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Electronic health records linked with biorepositories are a powerful platform for translational studies. A major bottleneck exists in the ability to phenotype patients accurately and efficiently. The objective of this study was to develop an automated high-throughput phenotyping method integrating International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes and narrative data extracted using natural language processing (NLP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We developed a mapping method for automatically identifying relevant ICD and NLP concepts for a specific phenotype leveraging the Unified Medical Language System. Along with health care utilization, aggregated ICD and NLP counts were jointly analyzed by fitting an ensemble of latent mixture models. The multimodal automated phenotyping (MAP) algorithm yields a predicted probability of phenotype for each patient and a threshold for classifying participants with phenotype yes/no. The algorithm was validated using labeled data for 16 phenotypes from a biorepository and further tested in an independent cohort phenome-wide association studies (PheWAS) for 2 single nucleotide polymorphisms with known associations. RESULTS: The MAP algorithm achieved higher or similar AUC and F-scores compared to the ICD code across all 16 phenotypes. The features assembled via the automated approach had comparable accuracy to those assembled via manual curation (AUCMAP 0.943, AUCmanual 0.941). The PheWAS results suggest that the MAP approach detected previously validated associations with higher power when compared to the standard PheWAS method based on ICD codes. CONCLUSION: The MAP approach increased the accuracy of phenotype definition while maintaining scalability, thereby facilitating use in studies requiring large-scale phenotyping, such as PheWAS.

2.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(4): 763-772, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564439

RESUMO

Large-scale multi-ethnic cohorts offer unprecedented opportunities to elucidate the genetic factors influencing complex traits related to health and disease among minority populations. At the same time, the genetic diversity in these cohorts presents new challenges for analysis and interpretation. We consider the utility of race and/or ethnicity categories in genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of multi-ethnic cohorts. We demonstrate that race/ethnicity information enhances the ability to understand population-specific genetic architecture. To address the practical issue that self-identified racial/ethnic information may be incomplete, we propose a machine learning algorithm that produces a surrogate variable, termed HARE. We use height as a model trait to demonstrate the utility of HARE and ethnicity-specific GWASs.

3.
Nat Genet ; 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31659325

RESUMO

Aortic calcification is an important independent predictor of future cardiovascular events. We performed a genome-wide association meta-analysis to determine SNPs associated with the extent of abdominal aortic calcification (n = 9,417) or descending thoracic aortic calcification (n = 8,422). Two genetic loci, HDAC9 and RAP1GAP, were associated with abdominal aortic calcification at a genome-wide level (P < 5.0 × 10-8). No SNPs were associated with thoracic aortic calcification at the genome-wide threshold. Increased expression of HDAC9 in human aortic smooth muscle cells promoted calcification and reduced contractility, while inhibition of HDAC9 in human aortic smooth muscle cells inhibited calcification and enhanced cell contractility. In matrix Gla protein-deficient mice, a model of human vascular calcification, mice lacking HDAC9 had a 40% reduction in aortic calcification and improved survival. This translational genomic study identifies the first genetic risk locus associated with calcification of the abdominal aorta and describes a previously unknown role for HDAC9 in the development of vascular calcification.

4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3842, 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451708

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD), defined by low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), contributes to global morbidity and mortality. Here we conduct a transethnic Genome-Wide Association Study of eGFR in 280,722 participants of the Million Veteran Program (MVP), with replication in 765,289 participants from the Chronic Kidney Disease Genetics (CKDGen) Consortium. We identify 82 previously unreported variants, confirm 54 loci, and report interesting findings including association of the sickle cell allele of betaglobin among non-Hispanic blacks. Our transcriptome-wide association study of kidney function in healthy kidney tissue identifies 36 previously unreported and nine known genes, and maps gene expression to renal cell types. In a Phenome-Wide Association Study in 192,868 MVP participants using a weighted genetic score we detect associations with CKD stages and complications and kidney stones. This investigation reinterprets the genetic architecture of kidney function to identify the gene, tissue, and anatomical context of renal homeostasis and the clinical consequences of dysregulation.

5.
Nat Med ; 25(8): 1274-1279, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31285632

RESUMO

Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a leading cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality; however, the extent to which genetic factors increase risk for PAD is largely unknown. Using electronic health record data, we performed a genome-wide association study in the Million Veteran Program testing ~32 million DNA sequence variants with PAD (31,307 cases and 211,753 controls) across veterans of European, African and Hispanic ancestry. The results were replicated in an independent sample of 5,117 PAD cases and 389,291 controls from the UK Biobank. We identified 19 PAD loci, 18 of which have not been previously reported. Eleven of the 19 loci were associated with disease in three vascular beds (coronary, cerebral, peripheral), including LDLR, LPL and LPA, suggesting that therapeutic modulation of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, the lipoprotein lipase pathway or circulating lipoprotein(a) may be efficacious for multiple atherosclerotic disease phenotypes. Conversely, four of the variants appeared to be specific for PAD, including F5 p.R506Q, highlighting the pathogenic role of thrombosis in the peripheral vascular bed and providing genetic support for Factor Xa inhibition as a therapeutic strategy for PAD. Our results highlight mechanistic similarities and differences among coronary, cerebral and peripheral atherosclerosis and provide therapeutic insights.

6.
Clin Nutr ; 2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279615

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Previous studies of the relationship between fried food consumption and coronary artery disease (CAD) have yielded conflicting results. We tested the hypothesis that frequent fried food consumption is associated with a higher risk of incident CAD events in Million Veteran Program (MVP) participants. METHODS: Veterans Health Administration electronic health record data were linked to questionnaires completed at MVP enrollment. Self-reported fried food consumption at baseline was categorized: (<1, 1-3, 4-6 times per week or daily). The outcome of interest was non-fatal myocardial infarction or CAD events. We fitted a Cox regression model adjusting for age, sex, race, education, exercise, smoking and alcohol consumption. RESULTS: Of 154,663 MVP enrollees with survey data, mean age was 64 years and 90% were men. During a mean follow-up of approximately 3 years, there were 6,725 CAD events. There was a positive linear relationship between frequency of fried food consumption and risk of CAD (p for trend 0.0015). Multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (95% CI) were 1.0 (ref), 1.07 (1.01-1.13), 1.08 (1.01-1.16), and 1.14 (1.03-1.27) across consecutive increasing categories of fried food intake. CONCLUSIONS: In a large national cohort of U.S. Veterans, fried food consumption has a positive, dose-dependent association with CAD.

7.
Circulation ; 140(12): 1031-1040, 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337231

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Approximately 13% of black individuals carry 2 copies of the apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) risk alleles G1 or G2, which are associated with 1.5- to 2.5-fold increased risk of chronic kidney disease. There have been conflicting reports as to whether an association exists between APOL1 risk alleles and cardiovascular disease (CVD) that is independent of the effects of APOL1 on kidney disease. We sought to test the association of APOL1 G1/G2 alleles with coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease, and stroke among black individuals in the Million Veteran Program. METHODS: We performed a time-to-event analysis of retrospective electronic health record data using Cox proportional hazard and competing-risks Fine and Gray subdistribution hazard models. The primary exposure was APOL1 risk allele status. The primary outcome was incident coronary artery disease among individuals without chronic kidney disease during the 12.5-year follow-up period. We separately analyzed the cross-sectional association of APOL1 risk allele status with lipid traits and 115 cardiovascular diseases using phenome-wide association. RESULTS: Among 30 903 black Million Veteran Program participants, 3941 (13%) carried the 2 APOL1 risk allele high-risk genotype. Individuals with normal kidney function at baseline with 2 risk alleles had slightly higher risk of developing coronary artery disease compared with those with no risk alleles (hazard ratio, 1.11 [95% CI, 1.01-1.21]; P=0.039). Similarly, modest associations were identified with incident stroke (hazard ratio, 1.20 [95% CI, 1.05-1.36; P=0.007) and peripheral artery disease (hazard ratio, 1.15 [95% CI, 1.01-1.29l; P=0.031). When both cardiovascular and renal outcomes were modeled, APOL1 was strongly associated with incident renal disease, whereas no significant association with the CVD end points could be detected. Cardiovascular phenome-wide association analyses did not identify additional significant associations with CVD subsets. CONCLUSIONS: APOL1 risk variants display a modest association with CVD, and this association is likely mediated by the known APOL1 association with chronic kidney disease.

8.
Eur Radiol ; 29(11): 6140-6148, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049733

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between directly measured density and morphology of coronary artery calcium (CAC) with cardiovascular disease (CVD) events, using computed tomography (CT). METHODS: Framingham Heart Study (FHS) participants with CAC in noncontrast cardiac CT (2002-2005) were included and followed until 2016. Participants with known CVD or uninterpretable CT scans were excluded. We assessed and correlated (Spearman) CAC density, CAC volume, and the number of calcified segments. Moreover, we counted morphology features including shape (cylindrical, spherical, semi-tubular, and spotty), location (bifurcation, facing pericardium, or facing myocardium), and boundary regularity. In multivariate Cox regression analyses, we associated all CAC characteristics with CVD events (CVD-death, myocardial infarction, stroke). RESULTS: Among 1330 included participants (57.8 ± 11.7 years; 63% male), 73 (5.5%) experienced CVD events in a median follow-up of 9.1 (7.8-10.1) years. CAC density correlated strongly with CAC volume (Spearman's ρ = 0.75; p < 0.001) and lower number of calcified segments (ρ = - 0.86; p < 0.001; controlled for CAC volume). In the survival analysis, CAC density was associated with CVD events independent of Framingham risk score (HR (per SD) = 2.09; 95%CI, 1.30-3.34; p = 0.002) but not after adjustment for CAC volume (p = 0.648). The extent of spherically shaped and pericardially sided calcifications was associated with fewer CVD events accounting for the number of calcified segments (HR (per count) = 0.55; 95%CI, 0.31-0.98; p = 0.042 and HR = 0.66; 95%CI, 0.45-0.98; p = 0.039, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Directly measured CAC density does not predict CVD events due to the strong correlation with CAC volume. The spherical shape and pericardial-sided location of CAC are associated with fewer CVD events and may represent morphological features related to stable coronary plaques. KEY POINTS: • Coronary calcium density may not be independently associated with cardiovascular events. • Coronary calcium density correlates strongly with calcium volume. • Spherical shape and pericardial-sided location of CAC are associated with fewer CVD events.

9.
Epidemiology ; 30(4): 597-608, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31045611

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The All of Us Research Program is building a national longitudinal cohort and collecting data from multiple information sources (e.g., biospecimens, electronic health records, and mobile/wearable technologies) to advance precision medicine. Participant-provided information, collected via surveys, will complement and augment these information sources. We report the process used to develop and refine the initial three surveys for this program. METHODS: The All of Us survey development process included: (1) prioritization of domains for scientific needs, (2) examination of existing validated instruments, (3) content creation, (4) evaluation and refinement via cognitive interviews and online testing, (5) content review by key stakeholders, and (6) launch in the All of Us electronic participant portal. All content was translated into Spanish. RESULTS: We conducted cognitive interviews in English and Spanish with 169 participants, and 573 individuals completed online testing. Feedback led to over 40 item content changes. Lessons learned included: (1) validated survey instruments performed well in diverse populations reflective of All of Us; (2) parallel evaluation of multiple languages can ensure optimal survey deployment; (3) recruitment challenges in diverse populations required multiple strategies; and (4) key stakeholders improved integration of surveys into larger Program context. CONCLUSIONS: This efficient, iterative process led to successful testing, refinement, and launch of three All of Us surveys. Reuse of All of Us surveys, available at http://researchallofus.org, may facilitate large consortia targeting diverse populations in English and Spanish to capture participant-provided information to supplement other data, such as genetic, physical measurements, or data from electronic health records.

10.
J Med Chem ; 62(16): 7340-7382, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30939001

RESUMO

New drugs introduced to the market every year represent privileged structures for particular biological targets. These new chemical entities (NCEs) provide insight into molecular recognition while serving as leads for designing future new drugs. This annual review describes the most likely process-scale synthetic approaches to 31 new chemical entities approved for the first time globally in 2017.

11.
Blood ; 133(9): 967-977, 2019 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30642921

RESUMO

Factor VII (FVII) is an important component of the coagulation cascade. Few genetic loci regulating FVII activity and/or levels have been discovered to date. We conducted a meta-analysis of 9 genome-wide association studies of plasma FVII levels (7 FVII activity and 2 FVII antigen) among 27 495 participants of European and African ancestry. Each study performed ancestry-specific association analyses. Inverse variance weighted meta-analysis was performed within each ancestry group and then combined for a trans-ancestry meta-analysis. Our primary analysis included the 7 studies that measured FVII activity, and a secondary analysis included all 9 studies. We provided functional genomic validation for newly identified significant loci by silencing candidate genes in a human liver cell line (HuH7) using small-interfering RNA and then measuring F7 messenger RNA and FVII protein expression. Lastly, we used meta-analysis results to perform Mendelian randomization analysis to estimate the causal effect of FVII activity on coronary artery disease, ischemic stroke (IS), and venous thromboembolism. We identified 2 novel (REEP3 and JAZF1-AS1) and 6 known loci associated with FVII activity, explaining 19.0% of the phenotypic variance. Adding FVII antigen data to the meta-analysis did not result in the discovery of further loci. Silencing REEP3 in HuH7 cells upregulated FVII, whereas silencing JAZF1 downregulated FVII. Mendelian randomization analyses suggest that FVII activity has a positive causal effect on the risk of IS. Variants at REEP3 and JAZF1 contribute to FVII activity by regulating F7 expression levels. FVII activity appears to contribute to the etiology of IS in the general population.

12.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 29(7): 943-947, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30655215

RESUMO

Novel neolymphostin-based antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) precursors were synthesized either through amide couplings between both cleavable and non-cleavable linkers and neolymphostin derivatives, or through Cu(I)-catalyzed acetylene-azide click cycloadditon between non-cleavable linkers and neolymphostin acetal derivatives. These precursors were site-specifically conjugated to cysteine mutant trastuzumab-A114C to provide neolymphostin-based ADCs. Preliminary in vitro data indicated that the corresponding ADCs were active against HER2-expressing tumor cell lines, thus providing a proof-of-concept for using neolymphostin as ADC-based anticancer agents.

13.
Bioconjug Chem ; 30(1): 200-209, 2019 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30543418

RESUMO

A potent class of DNA-damaging agents, natural product bis-intercalator depsipeptides (NPBIDs), was evaluated as ultrapotent payloads for use in antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs). Detailed investigation of potency (both in cells and via biophysical characterization of DNA binding), chemical tractability, and in vitro and in vivo stability of the compounds in this class eliminated a number of potential candidates, greatly reducing the complexity and resources required for conjugate preparation and evaluation. This effort yielded a potent, stable, and efficacious ADC, PF-06888667, consisting of the bis-intercalator, SW-163D, conjugated via an N-acetyl-lysine-valine-citrulline- p-aminobenzyl alcohol- N, N-dimethylethylenediamine (AcLysValCit-PABC-DMAE) linker to an engineered variant of the anti-Her2 mAb, trastuzumab, catalyzed by transglutaminase.

14.
Clin Epidemiol ; 10: 1509-1521, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30425582

RESUMO

Background: Large databases provide an efficient way to analyze patient data. A challenge with these databases is the inconsistency of ICD codes and a potential for inaccurate ascertainment of cases. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a reliable protocol to identify cases of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) from a large national database. Methods: Using the national Veterans Affairs electronic health-record system, Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services, and National Death Index data, we developed an algorithm to identify cases of AIS. Using a combination of inpatient and outpatient ICD9 codes, we selected cases of AIS and controls from 1992 to 2014. Diagnoses determined after medical-chart review were considered the gold standard. We used a machine-learning algorithm and a neural network approach to identify AIS from ICD9 codes and electronic health-record information and compared it with a previous rule-based stroke-classification algorithm. Results: We reviewed administrative hospital data, ICD9 codes, and medical records of 268 patients in detail. Compared with the gold standard, this AIS algorithm had a sensitivity of 91%, specificity of 95%, and positive predictive value of 88%. A total of 80,508 highly likely cases of AIS were identified using the algorithm in the Veterans Affairs national cardiovascular disease-risk cohort (n=2,114,458). Conclusion: Our algorithm had high specificity for identifying AIS in a nationwide electronic health-record system. This approach may be utilized in other electronic health databases to accurately identify patients with AIS.

16.
Nat Genet ; 50(11): 1514-1523, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30275531

RESUMO

The Million Veteran Program (MVP) was established in 2011 as a national research initiative to determine how genetic variation influences the health of US military veterans. Here we genotyped 312,571 MVP participants using a custom biobank array and linked the genetic data to laboratory and clinical phenotypes extracted from electronic health records covering a median of 10.0 years of follow-up. Among 297,626 veterans with at least one blood lipid measurement, including 57,332 black and 24,743 Hispanic participants, we tested up to around 32 million variants for association with lipid levels and identified 118 novel genome-wide significant loci after meta-analysis with data from the Global Lipids Genetics Consortium (total n > 600,000). Through a focus on mutations predicted to result in a loss of gene function and a phenome-wide association study, we propose novel indications for pharmaceutical inhibitors targeting PCSK9 (abdominal aortic aneurysm), ANGPTL4 (type 2 diabetes) and PDE3B (triglycerides and coronary disease).

17.
PLoS One ; 13(10): e0204352, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30289950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We previously reported association of SCARB1 SNP rs10846744 with common carotid IMT (cIMT) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. Since rs10846744 has been reported in association with Lp-PLA2 mass and activity, we hypothesized that inflammatory pathways might mediate the association of rs10846744 with atherosclerosis. METHODS: We first examined association of rs10846744 in CVD in multiple large-scale consortium-based genome-wide association studies. We further examined 27 parameters of interest, including Lp-PLA2 mass and activity, inflammatory markers, and plasma phospholipid fatty acids, and fatty acid ratios in participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), as potential mediators in the pathway linking rs10846744 with cIMT and incident CVD. Finally, we examined the association of rs10846744 with Lp-PLA2 activity, cardiovascular outcomes, and interaction with the Lp-PLA2 inhibitor, darapladib, in the Stabilization of Atherosclerotic Plaque by Initiation of Darapladib Therapy (STABILITY) and Stabilization of Plaque using Darapladib-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 52 (SOLID-TIMI 52) studies. RESULTS: SCARB1 rs10846744 was associated with coronary artery disease events in CARDIoGRAMplusC4D (odds ratio 1.05; 95% CI [1.02, 1.07]; P = 1.4x10-4). In combined analysis across race/ethnic groups in MESA, rs10846744 was associated with Lp-PLA2 mass (P = 0.04) and activity (P = 0.001), homocysteine (P = 0.03), LDL particle number (P = 0.01), docosahexaenoic acid [DHA] (P = 0.01), docosapentaenoic acid [DPA] (P = 0.04), DPA/ eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] ratio (P = 0.002), and DHA/EPA ratio (P = 0.008). Lp-PLA2 activity was identified as a mediator of rs10846744 with cIMT in a basic model (P = 8x10-5), but not after adjustment for CVD risk factors. There was no interaction or modifier effect of the Lp-PLA2 inhibitor darapladib assignment on the relationship between rs10846744 and major CVD events in either STABILITY or SOLID-TIMI 52. SUMMARY: SCARB1 rs10846744 is significantly associated with Lp-PLA2 activity, atherosclerosis, and CVD events, but Lp-PLA2 activity is not a mediator in the association of rs10846744 with cIMT in MESA.

18.
Circulation ; 138(17): 1819-1827, 2018 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30354651

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronary artery calcium (CAC) is a powerful novel risk indicator for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Currently, there is no available ASCVD risk prediction tool that integrates traditional risk factors and CAC. METHODS: To develop a CAC ASCVD risk tool for younger individuals in the general population, subjects aged 40 to 65 without prior cardiovascular disease from 3 population-based cohorts were included. Cox proportional hazards models were developed incorporating age, sex, systolic blood pressure, total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypertension treatment, family history of myocardial infarction, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and CAC scores (Astro-CHARM model [Astronaut Cardiovascular Health and Risk Modification]) as dependent variables and ASCVD (nonfatal/fatal myocardial infarction or stroke) as the outcome. Model performance was assessed internally, and validated externally in a fourth cohort. RESULTS: The derivation study comprised 7382 individuals with a mean age 51 years, 45% women, and 55% nonwhite. The median CAC was 0 (25th, 75th [0,9]), and 304 ASCVD events occurred in a median 10.9 years of follow-up. The c-statistic was 0.784 for the risk factor model, and 0.817 for Astro-CHARM ( P<0.0001). In comparison with the risk factor model, the Astro-CHARM model resulted in integrated discrimination improvement (0.0252), and net reclassification improvement (0.121; P<0.0001), as well. The Astro-CHARM model demonstrated good discrimination (c=0.78) and calibration (Nam-D'Agostino χ2, 13.2; P=0.16) in the validation cohort (n=2057; 55 events). A mobile application and web-based tool were developed to facilitate clinical application of this tool ( www.AstroCHARM.org ). CONCLUSION: The Astro-CHARM tool is the first integrated ASCVD risk calculator to incorporate risk factors, including high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and family history, and CAC data. It improves risk prediction in comparison with traditional risk factor equations and could be useful in risk-based decision making for cardiovascular disease prevention in the middle-aged general population.

19.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 20(1): 66, 2018 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30231875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Left bundle branch block (LBBB) is associated with abnormal left ventricular (LV) contraction, and is frequently associated with co-morbid cardiovascular disease, but the effect of an isolated (i.e. in the absence of cardiovascular dissease) LBBB on biventricular volumes and ejection fraction (EF) is not well characterized. The objective of this study was to compare LV and right ventricular (RV) volumes and EF in adults with an isolated LBBB to matched healthy controls and to population-derived normative values, using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging. METHODS: We reviewed our clinical echocardiography database and the Framingham Heart Study Offspring cohort CMR database to identify adults with an isolated LBBB. Age-, sex-, hypertension-status, and body-surface area (BSA)-matched controls were identified from the Offspring cohort. All study subjects were scanned using the same CMR hardware and imaging sequence. Isolated-LBBB cases were compared with matched controls using Wilcoxon paired signed-rank test, and to normative reference values via Z-score. RESULTS: Isolated-LBBB subjects (n = 18, 10F) ranged in age from 37 to 82 years. An isolated LBBB was associated with larger LV end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes (both p < 0.01) and lower LVEF (56+/- 7% vs. 68+/- 6%; p <0.001) with similar myocardial contraction fraction. LVEF in isolated LBBB was nearly two standard deviations (Z = - 1.95) below mean sex and age-matched group values. LV stroke volume, cardiac output, and mass, and all RV parameters were similar (p = NS) between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Adults with an isolated LBBB have greater LV volumes and markedly reduced LVEF, despite the absence of overt cardiovascular disease. These data may be useful toward the clinical interpretation of imaging studies performed on patients with an isolated LBBB.

20.
Eur Heart J ; 39(44): 3961-3969, 2018 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30169657

RESUMO

Aims: Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) accounts for 10% of adult mortality in Western populations. We aim to identify potential loci associated with SCA and to identify risk factors causally associated with SCA. Methods and results: We carried out a large genome-wide association study (GWAS) for SCA (n = 3939 cases, 25 989 non-cases) to examine common variation genome-wide and in candidate arrhythmia genes. We also exploited Mendelian randomization (MR) methods using cross-trait multi-variant genetic risk score associations (GRSA) to assess causal relationships of 18 risk factors with SCA. No variants were associated with SCA at genome-wide significance, nor were common variants in candidate arrhythmia genes associated with SCA at nominal significance. Using cross-trait GRSA, we established genetic correlation between SCA and (i) coronary artery disease (CAD) and traditional CAD risk factors (blood pressure, lipids, and diabetes), (ii) height and BMI, and (iii) electrical instability traits (QT and atrial fibrillation), suggesting aetiologic roles for these traits in SCA risk. Conclusions: Our findings show that a comprehensive approach to the genetic architecture of SCA can shed light on the determinants of a complex life-threatening condition with multiple influencing factors in the general population. The results of this genetic analysis, both positive and negative findings, have implications for evaluating the genetic architecture of patients with a family history of SCA, and for efforts to prevent SCA in high-risk populations and the general community.

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