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1.
Nat Med ; 2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33837377

RESUMO

Drug repurposing provides a rapid approach to meet the urgent need for therapeutics to address COVID-19. To identify therapeutic targets relevant to COVID-19, we conducted Mendelian randomization analyses, deriving genetic instruments based on transcriptomic and proteomic data for 1,263 actionable proteins that are targeted by approved drugs or in clinical phase of drug development. Using summary statistics from the Host Genetics Initiative and the Million Veteran Program, we studied 7,554 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and >1 million controls. We found significant Mendelian randomization results for three proteins (ACE2, P = 1.6 × 10-6; IFNAR2, P = 9.8 × 10-11 and IL-10RB, P = 2.3 × 10-14) using cis-expression quantitative trait loci genetic instruments that also had strong evidence for colocalization with COVID-19 hospitalization. To disentangle the shared expression quantitative trait loci signal for IL10RB and IFNAR2, we conducted phenome-wide association scans and pathway enrichment analysis, which suggested that IFNAR2 is more likely to play a role in COVID-19 hospitalization. Our findings prioritize trials of drugs targeting IFNAR2 and ACE2 for early management of COVID-19.

2.
Am J Emerg Med ; 45: 92-99, 2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33677266

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the impact of a novel communication and triage pathway called fast track dialysis (FTD) on the length of stay (LOS), resource utilization, and charges for unscheduled hemodialysis for end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients presenting to the emergency department (ED). METHODS: Prospective and retrospective cohorts of ESRD patients meeting requirements of routine or urgent hemodialysis at a tertiary academic hospital from September 25th, 2016 to September 25th, 2018 in 1 year cohorts. Two sample t-tests were used to compare most outcomes of the cohorts with a Mann-Whitney U test used for skewed data. Nephrology group outcomes were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis and chi-square tests. RESULTS: There were 98 encounters in the historical cohort and 143 encounters in the fast track dialysis cohort. FTD had significantly lowered median ED LOS (4.05 h, vs 5.3 h, p < 0.001), median hospital LOS (12.8 h vs 27 h, p < 0.001), time to hemodialysis (4.78 h vs 7.29 h, p < 0.001), and median hospital charges ($26,040 vs $30,747, p < 0.016). The FTD cohort had increased 30 day ED return for each encounter compared to the historical cohort (1.85 visits vs 0.73 visits, p < 0.001), however no significant increase in 1 year ED visits (6.52 visits vs 5.80, p = 0.4589) or 1 year readmissions (5.89 readmissions vs 4.81 readmissions, p = 0.3584). Most nephrology groups had significantly lower time to hemodialysis order placement and time to start hemodialysis. CONCLUSION: A multidisciplinary approach with key stakeholders using a standard pathway can lead to improved efficiency in throughput, reduced charges, and hospital resource utilization for patients needing urgent or routine hemodialysis. A study with a dedicated geographic observation unit for protocolized short stay patients including conditions ranging from low risk chest pain to transient ischemic events that incorporates FTD patients under this protocol should be considered.

3.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; : ATVBAHA120315597, 2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657885

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify causal pathophysiological mechanisms for atherosclerosis and incident cardiovascular events using protein measurements. Approach and Results: Carotid artery atherosclerosis was assessed by ultrasound, and 86 cardiovascular-related proteins were measured using the Olink CVD-I panel in 7 Swedish prospective studies (11 754 individuals). The proteins were analyzed in relation to intima-media thickness in the common carotid artery (IMT-CCA), plaque occurrence, and incident cardiovascular events (composite end point of myocardial infarction or ischemic stroke) using a discovery/replication approach in different studies. After adjustments for traditional cardiovascular risk factors, 11 proteins remained significantly associated with IMT-CCA in the replication stage, whereas 9 proteins were replicated for plaque occurrence and 17 proteins for incident cardiovascular events. NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide) and MMP (matrix metalloproteinase)-12 were associated with both IMT-CCA and incident events, but the overlap was considerably larger between plaque occurrence and incident events, including MMP-12, TIM-1 (T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 1), GDF (growth/differentiation factor)-15, IL (interleukin)-6, U-PAR (urokinase plasminogen activator surface receptor), LOX-1 (lectin-like oxidized LDL [low-density lipoprotein] receptor 1), and TRAIL-R2 (TNF [tumor necrosis factor]-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor 2). Only MMP-12 was associated with IMT-CCA, plaque, and incident events with a positive and concordant direction of effect. However, a 2-sample Mendelian randomization analysis suggested that increased MMP-12 may be protective against ischemic stroke (P=5.5×10-7), which is in the opposite direction of the observational analyses. CONCLUSIONS: The present meta-analysis discovered several proteins related to carotid atherosclerosis that partly differed in their association with IMT-CCA, plaque, and incident atherosclerotic disease. Mendelian randomization analysis for the top finding, MMP-12, suggests that the increased levels of MMP-12 could be a consequence of atherosclerotic burden rather than the opposite chain of events.

4.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248853, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33755703

RESUMO

Hyperglycemia during sepsis is associated with increased organ dysfunction and higher mortality. The role of the host immune response in development of hyperglycemia during sepsis remains unclear. We performed a retrospective analysis of critically ill adult septic patients requiring mechanical ventilation (n = 153) to study the relationship between hyperglycemia and ten markers of the host injury and immune response measured on the first day of ICU admission (baseline). We determined associations between each biomarker and: (1) glucose, insulin, and c-peptide levels at the time of biomarker collection by Pearson correlation; (2) average glucose and glycemic variability in the first two days of ICU admission by linear regression; and (3) occurrence of hyperglycemia (blood glucose>180mg/dL) by logistic regression. Results were adjusted for age, pre-existing diabetes mellitus, severity of illness, and total insulin and glucocorticoid dose. Baseline plasma levels of ST2 and procalcitonin were positively correlated with average blood glucose and glycemic variability in the first two days of ICU admission in unadjusted and adjusted analyses. Additionally, higher baseline ST2, IL-1ra, procalcitonin, and pentraxin-3 levels were associated with increased risk of hyperglycemia. Our results suggest associations between the host immune response and hyperglycemia in critically ill septic patients particularly implicating the interleukin-1 axis (IL-1ra), the interleukin-33 axis (ST2), and the host response to bacterial infections (procalcitonin, pentraxin-3).

5.
J Med Chem ; 64(7): 3604-3657, 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33783211

RESUMO

New drugs introduced to the market are privileged structures having affinities for biological targets implicated in human diseases and conditions. These new chemical entities (NCEs), particularly small molecules and antibody-drug conjugates, provide insight into molecular recognition and simultaneously function as leads for the design of future medicines. This review is part of a continuing series presenting the most likely process-scale synthetic approaches to 40 NCEs approved for the first time anywhere in the world in 2019.

6.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak ; 21(1): 47, 2021 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33563290

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: U.S. hospitals and dialysis centers are penalized for 30-day hospital readmissions of dialysis patients, despite little infrastructure to facilitate care transitions between these settings. We are developing a third-party web-based information exchange platform, DialysisConnect, to enable clinicians to view and exchange information about dialysis patients during admission, hospitalization, and discharge. This health information technology solution could serve as a flexible and relatively affordable solution for dialysis facilities and hospitals across the nation who are seeking to serve as true partners in the improved care of dialysis patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the perceived coherence of DialysisConnect to key clinical stakeholders, to prepare messaging for implementation. METHODS: As part of a hybrid effectiveness-implementation study guided by Normalization Process Theory, we collected data on stakeholder perceptions of continuity of care for patients receiving maintenance dialysis and a DialysisConnect prototype before completing development and piloting the system. We conducted four focus groups with stakeholders from one academic hospital and associated dialysis centers [hospitalists (n = 5), hospital staff (social workers, nurses, pharmacists; n = 9), nephrologists (n = 7), and dialysis clinic staff (social workers, nurses; n = 10)]. Transcriptions were analyzed thematically within each component of the construct of coherence (differentiation, communal specification, individual specification, and internalization). RESULTS: Participants differentiated DialysisConnect from usual care variously as an information dashboard, a quick-exchange communication channel, and improved discharge information delivery; some could not differentiate it in terms of workflow. The purpose of DialysisConnect (communal specification) was viewed as fully coherent only for communicating outside of the same healthcare system. Current system workarounds were acknowledged as deterrents for practice change. All groups delegated DialysisConnect tasks (individual specification) to personnel besides themselves. Partial internalization of DialysisConnect was achieved only by dialysis clinic staff, based on experience with similar technology. CONCLUSIONS: Implementing DialysisConnect for clinical users in both settings will require presenting a composite picture of current communication processes from all stakeholder groups to correct single-group misunderstandings, as well as providing data about care transitions communication beyond the local context to ease resistance to practice change.

7.
BMC Med Genomics ; 14(1): 45, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568140

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is a noninvasive measure of coronary atherosclerosis, the proximal pathophysiology underlying most cases of myocardial infarction (MI). We sought to identify expression signatures of early MI and subclinical atherosclerosis in the Framingham Heart Study (FHS). In this study, we conducted paired-end RNA sequencing on whole blood collected from 198 FHS participants (55 with a history of early MI, 72 with high CAC without prior MI, and 71 controls free of elevated CAC levels or history of MI). We applied DESeq2 to identify coding-genes and long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) differentially expressed in MI and high CAC, respectively, compared with the control. RESULTS: On average, 150 million paired-end reads were obtained for each sample. At the false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.1, we found 68 coding genes and 2 lincRNAs that were differentially expressed in early MI versus controls. Among them, 60 coding genes were detectable and thus tested in an independent RNA-Seq data of 807 individuals from the Rotterdam Study, and 8 genes were supported by p value and direction of the effect. Immune response, lipid metabolic process, and interferon regulatory factor were enriched in these 68 genes. By contrast, only 3 coding genes and 1 lincRNA were differentially expressed in high CAC versus controls. APOD, encoding a component of high-density lipoprotein, was significantly downregulated in both early MI (FDR = 0.007) and high CAC (FDR = 0.01) compared with controls. CONCLUSIONS: We identified transcriptomic signatures of early MI that include differentially expressed protein-coding genes and lincRNAs, suggesting important roles for protein-coding genes and lincRNAs in the pathogenesis of MI.

8.
J Hypertens ; 39(4): 633-642, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33534346

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Ethnic disparities in hypertension prevalence are well documented, though the influence of genetic ancestry is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate associations of geographic genetic ancestry with hypertension and underlying blood pressure traits. METHODS: We tested genetically inferred ancestry proportions from five 1000 Genomes reference populations (GBR, PEL, YRI, CHB, and LWK) for association with four continuous blood pressure (BP) traits (SBP, DBP, PP, MAP) and the dichotomous outcomes hypertension and apparent treatment-resistant hypertension in 220 495 European American, 59 927 African American, and 21 273 Hispanic American individuals from the Million Veteran Program. Ethnicity stratified results were meta-analyzed to report effect estimates per 10% difference for a given ancestry proportion in all samples. RESULTS: Percentage GBR was negatively associated with BP (P = 2.13 × 10-19, 7.92 × 10-8, 4.41 × 10-11, and 3.57 × 10-13 for SBP, DBP, PP, and MAP, respectively; coefficient range -0.10 to -0.21 mmHg per 10% increase in ancestry proportion) and was protective against hypertension [P = 2.59 × 10-5, odds ratio (OR) = 0.98] relative to other ancestries. YRI percentage was positively associated with BP (P = 1.63 × 10-23, 1.94 × 10-26, 0.012, and 3.26 × 10-29 for SBP, DBP, PP, and MAP, respectively; coefficient range 0.06-0.32 mmHg per 10% increase in ancestry proportion) and was positively associated with hypertension risk (P = 3.10 × 10-11, OR = 1.04) and apparent treatment-resistant hypertension risk (P = 1.86 × 10-4, OR = 1.04) compared with other ancestries. Percentage PEL was inversely associated with DBP (P = 2.84 × 10-5, beta = -0.11 mmHg per 10% increase in ancestry proportion). CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that risk for BP traits varies significantly by genetic ancestry. Our findings provide insight into the geographic origin of genetic factors underlying hypertension risk and establish that a portion of BP trait ethnic disparities are because of genetic differences between ancestries.

9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(1): e2034461, 2021 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33464320

RESUMO

Importance: Smoking is associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, but the relative contribution to each subtype (coronary artery disease [CAD], peripheral artery disease [PAD], and large-artery stroke) remains less well understood. Objective: To determine the association between genetic liability to smoking and risk of CAD, PAD, and large-artery stroke. Design, Setting, and Participants: Mendelian randomization study using summary statistics from genome-wide associations of smoking (UK Biobank; up to 462 690 individuals), CAD (Coronary Artery Disease Genome Wide Replication and Meta-analysis plus the Coronary Artery Disease Genetics Consortium; up to 60 801 cases, 123 504 controls), PAD (VA Million Veteran Program; up to 24 009 cases, 150 983 controls), and large-artery stroke (MEGASTROKE; up to 4373 cases, 406 111 controls). This study was conducted using summary statistic data from large, previously described cohorts. Review of those publications does not reveal the total recruitment dates for those cohorts. Data analyses were conducted from August 2019 to June 2020. Exposures: Genetic liability to smoking (as proxied by genetic variants associated with lifetime smoking index). Main Outcomes and Measures: Risk (odds ratios [ORs]) of CAD, PAD, and large-artery stroke. Results: Genetic liability to smoking was associated with increased risk of PAD (OR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.78-2.56; P = 3.6 × 10-16), CAD (OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.25-1.75; P = 4.4 × 10-6), and stroke (OR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.02-1.92; P = .04). Genetic liability to smoking was associated with greater risk of PAD than risk of large-artery stroke (ratio of ORs, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.05-2.19; P = .02) or CAD (ratio of ORs, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.12-1.84; P = .004). The association between genetic liability to smoking and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases remained independent from the effects of smoking on traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusions and Relevance: In this mendelian randomization analysis of data from large studies of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases, genetic liability to smoking was a strong risk factor for CAD, PAD, and stroke, although the estimated association was strongest between smoking and PAD. The association between smoking and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease was independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Fumar , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Vasculares Periféricas/genética , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/genética
10.
J Am Med Inform Assoc ; 28(4): 695-703, 2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33404595

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Family health history is important to clinical care and precision medicine. Prior studies show gaps in data collected from patient surveys and electronic health records (EHRs). The All of Us Research Program collects family history from participants via surveys and EHRs. This Demonstration Project aims to evaluate availability of family health history information within the publicly available data from All of Us and to characterize the data from both sources. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Surveys were completed by participants on an electronic portal. EHR data was mapped to the Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership data model. We used descriptive statistics to perform exploratory analysis of the data, including evaluating a list of medically actionable genetic disorders. We performed a subanalysis on participants who had both survey and EHR data. RESULTS: There were 54 872 participants with family history data. Of those, 26% had EHR data only, 63% had survey only, and 10.5% had data from both sources. There were 35 217 participants with reported family history of a medically actionable genetic disorder (9% from EHR only, 89% from surveys, and 2% from both). In the subanalysis, we found inconsistencies between the surveys and EHRs. More details came from surveys. When both mentioned a similar disease, the source of truth was unclear. CONCLUSIONS: Compiling data from both surveys and EHR can provide a more comprehensive source for family health history, but informatics challenges and opportunities exist. Access to more complete understanding of a person's family health history may provide opportunities for precision medicine.

11.
Nat Chem Biol ; 17(3): 298-306, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33495648

RESUMO

The adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (Ampk) is a central regulator of metabolic pathways, and increasing Ampk activity has been considered to be an attractive therapeutic target. Here, we have identified an orphan ubiquitin E3 ligase subunit protein, Fbxo48, that targets the active, phosphorylated Ampkα (pAmpkα) for polyubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation. We have generated a novel Fbxo48 inhibitory compound, BC1618, whose potency in stimulating Ampk-dependent signaling greatly exceeds 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-ß-ribofuranoside (AICAR) or metformin. This compound increases the biological activity of Ampk not by stimulating the activation of Ampk, but rather by preventing activated pAmpkα from Fbxo48-mediated degradation. We demonstrate that, consistent with augmenting Ampk activity, BC1618 promotes mitochondrial fission, facilitates autophagy and improves hepatic insulin sensitivity in high-fat-diet-induced obese mice. Hence, we provide a unique bioactive compound that inhibits pAmpkα disposal. Together, these results define a new pathway regulating Ampk biological activity and demonstrate the potential utility of modulating this pathway for therapeutic benefit.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/genética , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional/efeitos dos fármacos , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Aminoimidazol Carboxamida/análogos & derivados , Aminoimidazol Carboxamida/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Transformada , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/síntese química , Resistência à Insulina , Metformina/farmacologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Obesos , Dinâmica Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Poliubiquitina/genética , Poliubiquitina/metabolismo , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Estabilidade Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Ribonucleotídeos/farmacologia , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/antagonistas & inibidores , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação
12.
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33231259

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Glycogen storage diseases are rare. Increased glycogen in the liver results in increased attenuation. OBJECTIVE: Investigate the association and function of a noncoding region associated with liver attenuation but not histologic nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. DESIGN: Genetics of Obesity-associated Liver Disease Consortium. SETTING: Population-based Main Outcome: Computed tomography measured liver attenuation. RESULTS: Carriers of rs4841132-A (frequency 2-19%) do not show increased hepatic steatosis; they have increased liver attenuation indicative of increased glycogen deposition. rs4841132 falls in a noncoding RNA LOC157273 ~190kb upstream of PPP1R3B. We demonstrate that rs4841132-A increases PPP1R3B through a cis genetic effect. Using CRISPR/Cas9 we engineered a 105bp deletion including rs4841132-A in human hepatocarcinoma cells which increases PPP1R3B, decreases LOC157273 and increases glycogen perfectly mirroring the human disease. Overexpression of PPP1R3B or knockdown of LOC157273 increased glycogen but did not result in decreased LOC157273 or increased PPP1R3B, respectively, suggesting that the effects may not all occur via affecting RNA levels. Based on EHR data, rs4841132-A associates with all components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, rs4841132-A associated with decreased low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and risk for myocardial infarction (MI). A metabolic signature for rs4841132-A includes increased glycine, lactate, triglycerides and decreased acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that rs4841132-A promotes a hepatic glycogen storage disease by increasing PPP1R3B and decreasing LOC157273. rs4841132-A promotes glycogen accumulation and development of MetS but lowers LDL cholesterol and risk for MI. These results suggest that elevated hepatic glycogen is one cause of MetS that does not invariably promote MI.

15.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0239752, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33166319

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Therapeutic inhibition of PCSK9 protects against coronary artery disease (CAD) and ischemic stroke (IS). The impact on other diseases remains less well characterized. METHODS: We created a genetic risk score (GRS) for PCSK9 using four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at or near the PCSK9 locus known to impact lower LDL-Cholesterol (LDL-C): rs11583680, rs11591147, rs2479409, and rs11206510. We then used our GRS to calculate weighted odds ratios reflecting the impact of a genetically determined 10 mg/dL decrease in LDL-C on several pre-specified phenotypes including CAD, IS, peripheral artery disease (PAD), abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), type 2 diabetes, dementia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cancer. Finally, we used our weighted GRS to perform a phenome-wide association study. RESULTS: Genetic and electronic health record data that passed quality control was available in 312,097 individuals, (227,490 White participants, 58,907 Black participants, and 25,700 Hispanic participants). PCSK9 mediated reduction in LDL-C was associated with a reduced risk of CAD and AAA in trans-ethnic meta-analysis (CAD OR 0.83 [95% CI 0.80-0.87], p = 6.0 x 10-21; AAA OR 0.76 [95% CI 0.68-0.86], p = 2.9 x 10-06). Significant protective effects were noted for PAD in White individuals (OR 0.83 [95% CI 0.71-0.97], p = 2.3 x 10-04) but not in other genetic ancestries. Genetically reduced PCSK9 function associated with a reduced risk of dementia in trans-ethnic meta-analysis (OR 0.86 [95% CI 0.78-0.93], p = 5.0 x 10-04). CONCLUSIONS: Genetically reduced PCSK9 function results in a reduction in risk of several important extra-coronary atherosclerotic phenotypes in addition to known effects on CAD and IS, including PAD and AAA. We also highlight a novel reduction in risk of dementia, supporting a well-recognized vascular component to cognitive impairment and an opportunity for therapeutic repositioning.

16.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148666

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Mortality due to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains high, and the management of relapsed or refractory AML continues to be therapeutically challenging. The reapproval of Mylotarg, an anti-CD33-calicheamicin antibody-drug conjugate (ADC), has provided a proof of concept for an ADC-based therapeutic for AML. Several other ADCs have since entered clinical development of AML, but have met with limited success. We sought to develop a next-generation ADC for AML with a wide therapeutic index (TI) that overcomes the shortcomings of previous generations of ADCs. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We compared the TI of our novel CD33-targeted ADC platform with other currently available CD33-targeted ADCs in preclinical models of AML. Next, using this next-generation ADC platform, we performed a head-to-head comparison of two attractive AML antigens, CD33 and CD123. RESULTS: Our novel ADC platform offered improved safety and TI when compared with certain currently available ADC platforms in preclinical models of AML. Differentiation between the CD33- and CD123-targeted ADCs was observed in safety studies conducted in cynomolgus monkeys. The CD33-targeted ADC produced severe hematologic toxicity, whereas minimal hematologic toxicity was observed with the CD123-targeted ADC at the same doses and exposures. The improved toxicity profile of an ADC targeting CD123 over CD33 was consistent with the more restricted expression of CD123 in normal tissues. CONCLUSIONS: We optimized all components of ADC design (i.e., leukemia antigen, antibody, and linker-payload) to develop an ADC that has the potential to translate into an effective new therapy against AML.

17.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0230035, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33186364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies have identified multiple genomic loci associated with coronary artery disease, but most are common variants in non-coding regions that provide limited information on causal genes and etiology of the disease. To overcome the limited scope that common variants provide, we focused our investigation on low-frequency and rare sequence variations primarily residing in coding regions of the genome. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using samples of individuals of European ancestry from ten cohorts within the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium, both cross-sectional and prospective analyses were conducted to examine associations between genetic variants and myocardial infarction (MI), coronary heart disease (CHD), and all-cause mortality following these events. For prevalent events, a total of 27,349 participants of European ancestry, including 1831 prevalent MI cases and 2518 prevalent CHD cases were used. For incident cases, a total of 55,736 participants of European ancestry were included (3,031 incident MI cases and 5,425 incident CHD cases). There were 1,860 all-cause deaths among the 3,751 MI and CHD cases from six cohorts that contributed to the analysis of all-cause mortality. Single variant and gene-based analyses were performed separately in each cohort and then meta-analyzed for each outcome. A low-frequency intronic variant (rs988583) in PLCL1 was significantly associated with prevalent MI (OR = 1.80, 95% confidence interval: 1.43, 2.27; P = 7.12 × 10-7). We conducted gene-based burden tests for genes with a cumulative minor allele count (cMAC) ≥ 5 and variants with minor allele frequency (MAF) < 5%. TMPRSS5 and LDLRAD1 were significantly associated with prevalent MI and CHD, respectively, and RC3H2 and ANGPTL4 were significantly associated with incident MI and CHD, respectively. No loci were significantly associated with all-cause mortality following a MI or CHD event. CONCLUSION: This study identified one known locus (ANGPTL4) and four new loci (PLCL1, RC3H2, TMPRSS5, and LDLRAD1) associated with cardiovascular disease risk that warrant further investigation.

18.
Nature ; 586(7831): 769-775, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057200

RESUMO

Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are blood cancers that are characterized by the excessive production of mature myeloid cells and arise from the acquisition of somatic driver mutations in haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Epidemiological studies indicate a substantial heritable component of MPNs that is among the highest known for cancers1. However, only a limited number of genetic risk loci have been identified, and the underlying biological mechanisms that lead to the acquisition of MPNs remain unclear. Here, by conducting a large-scale genome-wide association study (3,797 cases and 1,152,977 controls), we identify 17 MPN risk loci (P < 5.0 × 10-8), 7 of which have not been previously reported. We find that there is a shared genetic architecture between MPN risk and several haematopoietic traits from distinct lineages; that there is an enrichment for MPN risk variants within accessible chromatin of HSCs; and that increased MPN risk is associated with longer telomere length in leukocytes and other clonal haematopoietic states-collectively suggesting that MPN risk is associated with the function and self-renewal of HSCs. We use gene mapping to identify modulators of HSC biology linked to MPN risk, and show through targeted variant-to-function assays that CHEK2 and GFI1B have roles in altering the function of HSCs to confer disease risk. Overall, our results reveal a previously unappreciated mechanism for inherited MPN risk through the modulation of HSC function.

19.
Nutrients ; 12(10)2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32977395

RESUMO

Sepsis is characterized by a dysregulated immune response to infection. Nutrition is important in the care of septic patients, but the effects of specific nutrients on inflammation in sepsis are not well defined. Our prior work has shown benefits from early enteral dextrose infusion in a preclinical endotoxemia model of sepsis. In the current study, we extend our initial work to examine the effects of dextrose infusions, varying by route of administration, on inflammation and glycemic control in a more clinically relevant and translational model of Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) bacteremia. Ten-week old C57BL6/J male mice (n = 31) underwent the implantation of indwelling vascular catheters, followed by inoculation with oropharyngeal KP. The mice were randomized 24 h after inoculation to (1) intravenous (IV) dextrose, (2) enteral dextrose, or (3) enteral saline (control) to study the effects on systemic inflammation, hemodynamics, and glycemic control. At 72 h, 77% of the control mice died, whereas IV dextrose induced 100% mortality, associated with increased inflammation, hyperglycemia, and hypotension. Enteral dextrose reduced mortality to 27%, promoted euglycemia, and reduced inflammation compared to IV dextrose. We conclude, in a bacteremic model of sepsis, that enteral (but not IV) dextrose administration is protective, suggesting that the route of nutrient support influences inflammation in sepsis.

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