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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31624126

RESUMO

Biological embedding occurs when life experience alters biological processes to affect later life health and well-being. Although extensive correlative data exist supporting the notion that epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation underlie biological embedding, causal data are lacking. We describe specific epigenetic mechanisms and their potential roles in the biological embedding of experience. We also consider the nuanced relationships between the genome, the epigenome, and gene expression. Our ability to connect biological embedding to the epigenetic landscape in its complexity is challenging and complicated by the influence of multiple factors. These include cell type, age, the timing of experience, sex, and DNA sequence. Recent advances in molecular profiling and epigenome editing, combined with the use of comparative animal and human longitudinal studies, should enable this field to transition from correlative to causal analyses.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31611402

RESUMO

The development of biological markers of aging has primarily focused on adult samples. Epigenetic clocks are a promising tool for measuring biological age that show impressive accuracy across most tissues and age ranges. In adults, deviations from the DNA methylation (DNAm) age prediction are correlated with several age-related phenotypes, such as mortality and frailty. In children, however, fewer such associations have been made, possibly because DNAm changes are more dynamic in pediatric populations as compared to adults. To address this gap, we aimed to develop a highly accurate, noninvasive, biological measure of age specific to pediatric samples using buccal epithelial cell DNAm. We gathered 1,721 genome-wide DNAm profiles from 11 different cohorts of typically developing individuals aged 0 to 20 y old. Elastic net penalized regression was used to select 94 CpG sites from a training dataset (n = 1,032), with performance assessed in a separate test dataset (n = 689). DNAm at these 94 CpG sites was highly predictive of age in the test cohort (median absolute error = 0.35 y). The Pediatric-Buccal-Epigenetic (PedBE) clock was characterized in additional cohorts, showcasing the accuracy in longitudinal data, the performance in nonbuccal tissues and adult age ranges, and the association with obstetric outcomes. The PedBE tool for measuring biological age in children might help in understanding the environmental and contextual factors that shape the DNA methylome during child development, and how it, in turn, might relate to child health and disease.

3.
J Neuroendocrinol ; 31(9): e12784, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442354

RESUMO

Parental care has a strong impact on neurodevelopment and mental health in the offspring. Although numerous animal studies have revealed that the parental brain is a highly complex system involving many brain structures and neuroendocrine systems, human maternal parenting as a multidimensional construct with cognitive, emotional, and behavioural components has not been characterised comprehensively. This unique multi-method analysis aimed to examine patterns of self-reported and observed parenting from 6 to 60 months postpartum in a cohort of 496 mothers (mean maternal age = 32 years). Self-report questionnaires assessed motivational components of mothering, parenting stress, parenting-related mood, maternal investment, maternal parenting style, mother-child relationship satisfaction, and mother-child bonding at multiple time points. Observed parenting variables included the Ainsworth Sensitivity Scales at 6 and 18 months, the Behavioral Evaluation Strategies Taxonomies at 6 months, an Etch-A-Sketch cooperation task at 48 months, and the Parent-Child Early Relationship Assessment at 60 months. To examine whether different latent constructs underlie these measures of maternal parenting, we conducted an exploratory factor analysis. Self-report measures of parenting correlated only weakly with behavioural observations. Factor analysis on a subsample (n = 197) revealed four latent factors that each explained from 7% to 11% of the variance in the data (32% total variance explained). Based on the loadings of the instruments, the factors were interpreted as: Supportive Parenting, Self-Enjoyment Parenting, Overwhelmed Parenting, and Affectionate Parenting. These factor scores showed specific associations with maternal education and depressive symptoms, as well as with child outcomes, including maternally reported internalising and externalising behavioural problems, school readiness, and child-reported symptoms of mental health. These findings parallel the complexity of the parental brain, suggesting that maternal parenting consists of multiple components, each of which is associated with different maternal characteristics and child outcomes.

4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2548, 2019 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186427

RESUMO

Epigenetic processes, including DNA methylation (DNAm), are among the mechanisms allowing integration of genetic and environmental factors to shape cellular function. While many studies have investigated either environmental or genetic contributions to DNAm, few have assessed their integrated effects. Here we examine the relative contributions of prenatal environmental factors and genotype on DNA methylation in neonatal blood at variably methylated regions (VMRs) in 4 independent cohorts (overall n = 2365). We use Akaike's information criterion to test which factors best explain variability of methylation in the cohort-specific VMRs: several prenatal environmental factors (E), genotypes in cis (G), or their additive (G + E) or interaction (GxE) effects. Genetic and environmental factors in combination best explain DNAm at the majority of VMRs. The CpGs best explained by either G, G + E or GxE are functionally distinct. The enrichment of genetic variants from GxE models in GWAS for complex disorders supports their importance for disease risk.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/genética , DNA/sangue , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Estudos de Coortes , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Sangue Fetal , Genótipo , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30858011

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Women exposed to childhood maltreatment (CM) are more likely to exhibit insensitive parenting, which may have consequences for their offspring's development. Variation in the oxytocin-receptor gene (OXTR) moderates risk of CM-associated long-term sequelae associated with mother-child attachment, although functionality of previously investigated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) remained elusive. Here, we investigated the role of OXTR rs237895, a brain tissue expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL), as a moderator of the relationship between CM and maternal behavior (MB) and the association between MB and offspring attachment security. METHOD: Of 110 women with information on rs237895 genotype (T-allele = 64, CC = 46), 107 had information on CM (CTQ) and 99 on standardized observer-based ratings of MB at 6 months postpartum (responsivity and detachment), which were used in principal component analysis to obtain a latent factor representing MB. Offspring (n = 86) attachment was evaluated at 12 months of age. Analyses predicting MB were adjusted for socioeconomic status, age, postpartum depression, and genotype-based ethnicity. Analyses predicting child attachment were adjusted for infant sex, socioeconomic status, and postpartum depression. RESULTS: rs237895 significantly moderated the relationship between CM and MB (F1;66 = 7.99, p < .01), indicating that CM was associated with maternal insensitivity only in high-OXTR-expressing T-allele carriers but not in low-OXTR-expressing CC homozygotes. Moreover, maternal insensitivity predicted offspring insecure attachment (B = -0.551; p < .05). CONCLUSION: Women with a high OXTR expressing genotype are more susceptible to CM-related impairments in MB that, in turn, predict attachment security in their children, supporting the role of the OT system in the intergenerational transmission of risk associated with maternal CM.

6.
EBioMedicine ; 42: 188-202, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922963

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Activation of brain insulin receptors modulates reward sensitivity, inhibitory control and memory. Variations in the functioning of this mechanism likely associate with individual differences in the risk for related mental disorders (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or ADHD, addiction, dementia), in agreement with the high co-morbidity between insulin resistance and psychopathology. These neurobiological mechanisms can be explored using genetic studies. We propose a novel, biologically informed genetic score reflecting the mesocorticolimbic and hippocampal insulin receptor-related gene networks, and investigate if it predicts endophenotypes (impulsivity, cognitive ability) in community samples of children, and psychopathology (addiction, dementia) in adults. METHODS: Lists of genes co-expressed with the insulin receptor in the mesocorticolimbic system or hippocampus were created. SNPs from these genes (post-clumping) were compiled in a polygenic score using the association betas described in a conventional GWAS (ADHD in the mesocorticolimbic score and Alzheimer in the hippocampal score). Across multiple samples (n = 4502), the biologically informed, mesocorticolimbic or hippocampal specific insulin receptor polygenic scores were calculated, and their ability to predict impulsivity, risk for addiction, cognitive performance and presence of Alzheimer's disease was investigated. FINDINGS: The biologically-informed ePRS-IR score showed better prediction of child impulsivity and cognitive performance, as well as risk for addiction and Alzheimer's disease in comparison to conventional polygenic scores for ADHD, addiction and dementia. INTERPRETATION: This novel, biologically-informed approach enables the use of genomic datasets to probe relevant biological processes involved in neural function and disorders. FUND: Toxic Stress Research network of the JPB Foundation, Jacobs Foundation (Switzerland), Sackler Foundation.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Endofenótipos , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Receptor de Insulina/genética , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipocampo/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptor de Insulina/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
7.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 103: 156-162, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30690225

RESUMO

Maternal behavior (MB) is observable across mammals and represents an important feature of environmental variation during early postnatal development. Oxytocin (OT) plays a crucial role in MB. Even prior to childbirth, pregnancy induces epigenetic and other downstream changes in the maternal OT-system, likely mediated by the actions of steroid hormones. However, little is known about the nature and consequences of epigenetic modifications in the maternal OT-encoding gene (OXT) during pregnancy. Our study aims to investigate temporal dynamics of OXT promoter DNA methylation (DNAm) throughout pregnancy in predicting MB in humans. In 107 mother-child dyads, maternal OXT DNAm was serially analyzed in whole blood in early, mid and late pregnancy. MB was coded based on standardized mother-child interactions at six months postpartum. After controlling for cellular heterogeneity, race/ethnicity, age, and socioeconomic status, OXT-promoter DNAm exhibited a dynamic profile during pregnancy (b = 0.026, t=-3.37, p < .001), with decreases in DNAm from early to mid-pregnancy and no further change until late pregnancy. Moreover, dynamic DNAm trajectories of the OXT-promoter region predicted MB (intrusiveness) at six months postpartum (b = 0.006, t = 2.0, p < 0.05), with 6% higher OXT DNAm in late pregnancy in intrusive compared to non-intrusive mothers. We here demonstrate that OXT promoter DNAm changes significantly throughout gestation in peripheral blood and that these changes are associated with variability in MB, providing a novel potential biomarker predicting postnatal MB.

8.
Dev Psychopathol ; : 1-3, 2018 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30081968

RESUMO

A recent article in this journal reported a number of gene × environment interactions involving a serotonin transporter-gene network polygenic score and a composite index of prenatal adversity predicting several problem behavior outcomes at 48 months (e.g., anxious/depressed, pervasive developmental problems) and at 60 months (e.g., withdrawal, internalizing problems), yet did not illuminate the nature or form these genetic × environment interactions took. Here we report results of six additional analyses to evaluate whether these interactions reflected diathesis-stress or differential-susceptibility related processes. Analyses of the regions of significance and proportion of interaction index are consistent with the diathesis-stress model, seemingly because of the truncated nature of the adversity score (which did not extend to supportive/positive prenatal experiences/exposures); in contrast, the proportion (of cases) affected index favors the differential-susceptibility model. These results suggest the need for future studies to extend measurement of the prenatal environment to highly supportive experiences and exposures.

9.
Dev Psychopathol ; 30(3): 843-854, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30068411

RESUMO

There is clear evidence that the mother's stress, anxiety, or depression during pregnancy can alter the development of her fetus and her child, with an increased risk for later psychopathology. We are starting to understand some of the underlying mechanisms including the role of the placenta, gene-environment interactions, epigenetics, and specific systems including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and cytokines. In this review we also consider how these effects may be different, and potentially exacerbated, in different parts of the world. There can be many reasons for elevated prenatal stress, as in communities at war. There may be raised pregnancy-specific anxiety with high levels of maternal and infant death. There can be raised interpersonal violence (in Afghanistan 90.2% of women thought that "wife beating" was justified compared with 2.0% in Argentina). There may be interactions with nutritional deficiencies or with extremes of temperature. Prenatal stress alters the microbiome, and this can differ in different countries. Genetic differences in different ethnic groups may make some more vulnerable or more resilient to the effects of prenatal stress on child neurodevelopment. Most research on these questions has been in predominantly Caucasian samples from high-income countries. It is now time to understand more about prenatal stress and psychopathology, and the role of both social and biological differences, in the rest of the world.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Comparação Transcultural , Desenvolvimento Fetal/fisiologia , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/fisiopatologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Criança , Transtorno Depressivo/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/fisiopatologia , Lactente , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Psicopatologia , Carência Psicossocial , Fatores de Risco , Meio Social , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
10.
Dev Psychopathol ; 30(3): 891-903, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30068421

RESUMO

Prenatal adversity shapes child neurodevelopment and risk for later mental health problems. The quality of the early care environment can buffer some of the negative effects of prenatal adversity on child development. Retrospective studies, in adult samples, highlight epigenetic modifications as sentinel markers of the quality of the early care environment; however, comparable data from pediatric cohorts are lacking. Participants were drawn from the Maternal Adversity Vulnerability and Neurodevelopment (MAVAN) study, a longitudinal cohort with measures of infant attachment, infant development, and child mental health. Children provided buccal epithelial samples (mean age = 6.99, SD = 1.33 years, n = 226), which were used for analyses of genome-wide DNA methylation and genetic variation. We used a series of linear models to describe the association between infant attachment and (a) measures of child outcome and (b) DNA methylation across the genome. Paired genetic data was used to determine the genetic contribution to DNA methylation at attachment-associated sites. Infant attachment style was associated with infant cognitive development (Mental Development Index) and behavior (Behavior Rating Scale) assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development at 36 months. Infant attachment style moderated the effects of prenatal adversity on Behavior Rating Scale scores at 36 months. Infant attachment was also significantly associated with a principal component that accounted for 11.9% of the variation in genome-wide DNA methylation. These effects were most apparent when comparing children with a secure versus a disorganized attachment style and most pronounced in females. The availability of paired genetic data revealed that DNA methylation at approximately half of all infant attachment-associated sites was best explained by considering both infant attachment and child genetic variation. This study provides further evidence that infant attachment can buffer some of the negative effects of early adversity on measures of infant behavior. We also highlight the interplay between infant attachment and child genotype in shaping variation in DNA methylation. Such findings provide preliminary evidence for a molecular signature of infant attachment and may help inform attachment-focused early intervention programs.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Metilação de DNA , Apego ao Objeto , Meio Social , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cognição , Família , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 19(1): 295, 2018 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30089455

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polygenic risk scores (PRS) describe the genomic contribution to complex phenotypes and consistently account for a larger proportion of variance in outcome than single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) alone. However, there is little consensus on the optimal data input for generating PRS, and existing approaches largely preclude the use of imputed posterior probabilities and strand-ambiguous SNPs i.e., A/T or C/G polymorphisms. Our ability to predict complex traits that arise from the additive effects of a large number of SNPs would likely benefit from a more inclusive approach. RESULTS: We developed PRS-on-Spark (PRSoS), a software implemented in Apache Spark and Python that accommodates different data inputs and strand-ambiguous SNPs to calculate PRS. We compared performance between PRSoS and an existing software (PRSice v1.25) for generating PRS for major depressive disorder using a community cohort (N = 264). We found PRSoS to perform faster than PRSice v1.25 when PRS were generated for a large number of SNPs (~ 17 million SNPs; t = 42.865, p = 5.43E-04). We also show that the use of imputed posterior probabilities and the inclusion of strand-ambiguous SNPs increase the proportion of variance explained by a PRS for major depressive disorder (from 4.3% to 4.8%). CONCLUSIONS: PRSoS provides the user with the ability to generate PRS using an inclusive and efficient approach that considers a larger number of SNPs than conventional approaches. We show that a PRS for major depressive disorder that includes strand-ambiguous SNPs, calculated using PRSoS, accounts for the largest proportion of variance in symptoms of depression in a community cohort, demonstrating the utility of this approach. The availability of this software will help users develop more informative PRS for a variety of complex phenotypes.

12.
Epigenetics ; 13(1): 19-32, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29381404

RESUMO

Epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) have focused primarily on DNA methylation as a chemically stable and functional epigenetic modification. However, the stability and accuracy of the measurement of methylation in different tissues and extraction types is still being actively studied, and the longitudinal stability of DNA methylation in commonly studied peripheral tissues is of great interest. Here, we used data from two studies, three tissue types, and multiple time points to assess the stability of DNA methylation measured with the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array. Redundancy analysis enabled visual assessment of agreement of replicate samples overall and showed good agreement after removing effects of tissue type, age, and sex. At the probe level, analysis of variance contrasts separating technical and biological replicates clearly showed better agreement between technical replicates versus longitudinal samples, and suggested increased stability for buccal cells versus blood or blood spots. Intraclass correlations (ICCs) demonstrated that inter-individual variability is of similar magnitude to within-sample variability at many probes; however, as inter-individual variability increased, so did ICC. Furthermore, we were able to demonstrate decreasing agreement in methylation levels with time, despite a maximal sampling interval of only 576 days. Finally, at 6 popular candidate genes, there was a large range of stability across probes. Our findings highlight important sources of technical and biological variation in DNA methylation across different tissues over time. These data will help to inform longitudinal sampling strategies of future EWAS.

13.
Transl Psychiatry ; 8(1): 15, 2018 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29317599

RESUMO

This study reveals the influence of child maltreatment on DNA methylation across the genome and provides the first evidence that a psychosocial intervention program, the Nurse Family Partnership (NFP), which targets mothers at risk for abusive parenting, associates with variation in the DNA methylome in adult offspring. The 188 participants were born to women randomly assigned to control (n = 99) or nurse-visited intervention groups (n = 89) and provided blood samples and a diagnostic interview at age 27 years. Interindividual variation in the blood DNA methylome was described using principal components (PC) scores derived from principal component analysis and showed that the NFP program (PC10: p = 0.029) and a history of abuse/neglect (PC1: p = 0.029, PC2: p = 0.009) significantly associated with DNA methylome variation at 27 years of age independent of gender, ancestry, cellular heterogeneity, and a polygenic risk index for major psychiatric disorders. The magnitude of the association between child maltreatment and DNA methylation was reduced when accounting for lifestyle factors, including smoking. These findings reflect the sustained impact of both childhood adversity as well as intervention programs that target such adversity on the epigenome but highlight the need for prospective longitudinal studies of DNA methylome variation in the context of early intervention programs.

14.
Dev Psychopathol ; 29(5): 1601-1617, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29162172

RESUMO

While many studies focus on the association between early life adversity and the later risk for psychopathology, few simultaneously explore diverse forms of environmental adversity. Moreover, those studies that examined the cumulative impact of early life adversity focus uniquely on postnatal influences. The objective of this study was to focus on the fetal period of development to construct and validate a cumulative prenatal adversity score in relation to a wide range of neurodevelopmental outcomes. We also examined the interaction of this adversity score with a biologically informed genetic score based on the serotonin transporter gene. Prenatal adversities were computed in two community birth cohorts using information on health during pregnancy, birth weight, gestational age, income, domestic violence/sexual abuse, marital strain, as well as maternal smoking, anxiety, and depression. A genetic score based on genes coexpressed with the serotonin transporter in the amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex during prenatal life was constructed with an emphasis on functionally relevant single nucleotide polymorphisms, that is, expression quantitative trait loci. Prenatal adversities predicted a wide range of developmental and behavioral alterations in children as young as 2 years of age in both cohorts. There were interactions between the genetic score and adversities for several domains of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), with pervasive developmental problems remaining significant adjustment for multiple comparisons. Scores combining different prenatal adverse exposures predict childhood behavior and interact with the genetic background to influence the risk for psychopathology.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Peso ao Nascer/fisiologia , Comportamento Infantil/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/psicologia , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Serotonina/genética , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/psicologia
16.
Cogn Dev ; 42: 62-73, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28827895

RESUMO

There is variation in the extent to which childhood adverse experience affects adult individual differences in maternal behavior. Genetic variation in the animal foraging gene, which encodes a cGMP-dependent protein kinase, contributes to variation in the responses of adult fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, to early life adversity and is also known to play a role in maternal behavior in social insects. Here we investigate genetic variation in the human foraging gene (PRKG1) as a predictor of individual differences in the effects of early adversity on maternal behavior in two cohorts. We show that the PRKG1 genetic polymorphism rs2043556 associates with maternal sensitivity towards their infants. We also show that rs2043556 moderates the association between self-reported childhood adversity of the mother and her later maternal sensitivity. Mothers with the TT allele of rs2043556 appeared buffered from the effects of early adversity, whereas mothers with the presence of a C allele were not. Our study used the Toronto Longitudinal Cohort (N=288 mother-16 month old infant pairs) and the Maternal Adversity and Vulnerability and Neurodevelopment Cohort (N=281 mother-18 month old infant pairs). Our findings expand the literature on the contributions of both genetics and gene-environment interactions to maternal sensitivity, a salient feature of the early environment relevant for child neurodevelopment.

17.
PLoS One ; 12(6): e0177506, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28614354

RESUMO

Maternal prenatal anxiety is an important risk factor for altered child neurodevelopment but there is uncertainty concerning the biological mechanisms involved and sources of individual differences in children's responses. We sought to determine the role of functional genetic variation in COMT, which encodes catechol-O-methyltransferase, in the association between maternal prenatal anxiety and child symptoms of ADHD and working memory. We used the prospectively-designed ALSPAC cohort (n = 6,969) for our primary data analyses followed by replication analyses in the PREDO cohort (n = 425). Maternal prenatal anxiety was based on self-report measures; child symptoms of ADHD were collected from 4-15 years of age; working memory was assessed from in-person testing at age 8 years; and genetic variation in COMT at rs4680 was determined in both mothers and children. The association between maternal prenatal anxiety and child attention/hyperactivity symptoms and working memory was moderated by the child's rs4680 genotype, with stronger effects obtained for the val/val (G:G) genotype relative to val/met (A:G) (all p<0.01) and met/met (A:A) groups (all p<0.05). Similar findings were observed in the PREDO cohort where maternal prenatal anxiety interacted with child rs4680 to predict symptoms of ADHD at 3.5 years of age. The findings, from two cohorts, show a robust gene-environment interaction, which may contribute to inter-individual differences in the effects of maternal prenatal anxiety on developmental outcomes from childhood to mid-adolescence.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/genética , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Catecol O-Metiltransferase/genética , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/psicologia , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Criança , Feminino , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Genótipo , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Mães/psicologia , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Estudos Prospectivos , Autorrelato
18.
PLoS One ; 12(5): e0177344, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28505190

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fetal adversity, evidenced by poor fetal growth for instance, is associated with increased risk for several diseases later in life. Classical cut-offs to characterize small (SGA) and large for gestational age (LGA) newborns are used to define long term vulnerability. We aimed at exploring the possible dynamism of different birth weight cut-offs in defining vulnerability in developmental outcomes (through the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development), using the example of a gene vs. fetal adversity interaction considering gene choices based on functional relevance to the studied outcome. METHODS: 36-month-old children from an established prospective birth cohort (Maternal Adversity, Vulnerability, and Neurodevelopment) were classified according to birth weight ratio (BWR) (SGA ≤0.85, LGA >1.15, exploring a wide range of other cut-offs) and genotyped for polymorphisms associated with dopamine signaling (TaqIA-A1 allele, DRD2-141C Ins/Ins, DRD4 7-repeat, DAT1-10- repeat, Met/Met-COMT), composing a score based on the described function, in which hypofunctional variants received lower scores. RESULTS: There were 251 children (123 girls and 128 boys). Using the classic cut-offs (0.85 and 1.15), there were no statistically significant interactions between the neonatal groups and the dopamine genetic score. However, when changing the cut-offs, it is possible to see ranges of BWR that could be associated with vulnerability to poorer development according to the variation in the dopamine function. CONCLUSION: The classic birth weight cut-offs to define SGA and LGA newborns should be seen with caution, as depending on the outcome in question, the protocols for long-term follow up could be either too inclusive-therefore most costly, or unable to screen true vulnerabilities-and therefore ineffective to establish early interventions and primary prevention.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Dopamina/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Fetal/genética , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Ligação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Fatores de Risco
19.
Cereb Cortex ; 27(5): 3080-3092, 2017 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28334351

RESUMO

This study included 168 and 85 mother-infant dyads from Asian and United States of America cohorts to examine whether a genomic profile risk score for major depressive disorder (GPRSMDD) moderates the association between antenatal maternal depressive symptoms (or socio-economic status, SES) and fetal neurodevelopment, and to identify candidate biological processes underlying such association. Both cohorts showed a significant interaction between antenatal maternal depressive symptoms and infant GPRSMDD on the right amygdala volume. The Asian cohort also showed such interaction on the right hippocampal volume and shape, thickness of the orbitofrontal and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Likewise, a significant interaction between SES and infant GPRSMDD was on the right amygdala and hippocampal volumes and shapes. After controlling for each other, the interaction effect of antenatal maternal depressive symptoms and GPRSMDD was mainly shown on the right amygdala, while the interaction effect of SES and GPRSMDD was mainly shown on the right hippocampus. Bioinformatic analyses suggested neurotransmitter/neurotrophic signaling, SNAp REceptor complex, and glutamate receptor activity as common biological processes underlying the influence of antenatal maternal depressive symptoms on fetal cortico-limbic development. These findings suggest gene-environment interdependence in the fetal development of brain regions implicated in cognitive-emotional function. Candidate biological mechanisms involve a range of brain region-specific signaling pathways that converge on common processes of synaptic development.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Encéfalo/patologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/patologia , Relações Materno-Fetais , Classe Social , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos de Coortes , Biologia Computacional , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/fisiologia , Genótipo , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Recém-Nascido , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal
20.
Physiol Behav ; 175: 31-36, 2017 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28322912

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Prenatal stress influences fetal developmental trajectories, which may implicate glucocorticoid mechanisms. There is also emerging evidence that effects of prenatal stress on offspring development are sex-dependent. However, little is known about the prospective relationship between maternal prenatal cortisol levels and infant behaviour, and whether it may be different in male and female infants. We sought to address this question using data from a prospective longitudinal cohort, stratified by risk. METHOD: The Wirral Child Health and Development Study (WCHADS) cohort (n=1233) included a stratified random sub-sample (n=216) who provided maternal saliva samples, assayed for cortisol, at home over two days at 32weeks of pregnancy (on waking, 30-min post-waking and during the evening) and a measure of infant negative emotionality from the Neonatal Behavioural Assessment Scale (NBAS) at five weeks-of-age. General population estimates of associations among measures were obtained using inverse probability weights. RESULTS: Maternal prenatal cortisol sampled on waking predicted infant negative emotionality in a sex-dependent manner (interaction term, p=0.005); female infants exposed to high levels of prenatal cortisol were more negative (Beta=0.440, p=0.042), whereas male infants were less negative (Beta=-0.407, p=0.045). There was no effect of the 30-min post-waking measure or evening cortisol. DISCUSSION: Our findings add to an emerging body of work that has highlighted sex differences in fetal programming, whereby females become more reactive following prenatal stress, and males less reactive. A more complete understanding of sex-specific developmental trajectories in the context of prenatal stress is essential for the development of targeted prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/fisiopatologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal/fisiologia , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
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