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1.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553412

RESUMO

Importance: Psychotic experiences, such as hallucinations and delusions, are reported by approximately 5% to 10% of the general population, although only a small proportion develop psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. Studying the genetic causes of psychotic experiences in the general population, and its association with the genetic causes of other disorders, may increase the understanding of their pathologic significance. Objectives: To determine whether genetic liability to psychotic experiences is shared with schizophrenia and/or other neuropsychiatric disorders and traits and to identify genetic loci associated with psychotic experiences. Design, Setting and Participants: Analyses of genetic correlation, polygenic risk scores, and copy number variation were performed using data from participants in the UK Biobank from April 1, 2018, to March 20, 2019, to assess whether genetic liability to psychotic experiences is shared with schizophrenia and/or other neuropsychiatric disorders and traits. Genome-wide association studies of psychotic experience phenotypes were conducted to identify novel genetic loci. Participants in the final analyses after exclusions included 6123 individuals reporting any psychotic experience, 2143 individuals reporting distressing psychotic experiences, and 3337 individuals reporting multiple occurrences of psychotic experiences. A total of 121 843 individuals who did not report a psychotic experience formed the comparator group. Individuals with a psychotic disorder were excluded from all analyses. Main Outcomes and Measures: Genetic associations with psychotic experience phenotypes. Results: The study included a total of 127 966 participants (56.0% women and 44.0% men; mean [SD] age, 64.0 [7.6] years). Psychotic experiences were genetically correlated with major depressive disorder, schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Analyses of polygenic risk scores identified associations between psychotic experiences and genetic liability for major depressive disorder, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, autism spectrum disorder, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Individuals reporting psychotic experiences had an increased burden of copy number variations previously associated with schizophrenia (odds ratio [OR], 2.04; 95% CI, 1.39-2.98; P = 2.49 × 10-4) and neurodevelopmental disorders more widely (OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.24-2.48; P = 1.41 × 10-3). Genome-wide association studies identified 4 significantly associated loci, including a locus in Ankyrin-3 (ANK3 [GenBank NM_020987]) (OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.10-1.23; P = 3.06 × 10-8) with any psychotic experience, and a locus in cannabinoid receptor 2 gene (CNR2 [GenBank NM_001841]) (OR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.56-0.78; P = 3.78 × 10-8) with distressing psychotic experiences. The genome-wide association study of any psychotic experience had a low single-nucleotide polymorphism-based heritability estimate (h2 = 1.71%; 95% CI, 1.02%-2.40%). Conclusions and Relevance: A large genetic association study of psychotic experiences from the population-based UK Biobank sample found support for a shared genetic liability between psychotic experiences and schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and neurodevelopmental disorders.

2.
Am J Psychiatry ; 176(8): 635-642, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256611

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Irritability, which is strongly associated with impairment and negative outcomes, is a common reason for referral to mental health services but is a nosological and treatment challenge. A major issue is how irritability should be conceptualized. The authors used a developmental approach to test the hypothesis that there are several forms of irritability, including a "neurodevelopmental/ADHD-like" type, with onset in childhood, and a "depression/mood" type, with onset in adolescence. METHODS: Data were analyzed from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a prospective U.K. population-based cohort. Irritability trajectory classes were estimated for 7,924 individuals with data at multiple time points across childhood and adolescence (four possible time points from approximately ages 7 to 15). Psychiatric diagnoses were assessed at approximately ages 7 and 15. Psychiatric genetic risk was indexed by polygenic risk scores (PRSs) for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depression, derived using large genome-wide association study results. RESULTS: Five irritability trajectory classes were identified: low (81.2%), decreasing (5.6%), increasing (5.5%), late-childhood limited (5.2%), and high-persistent (2.4%). The early-onset high-persistent trajectory was associated with male preponderance, childhood ADHD (odds ratio=108.64, 95% CI=57.45-204.41), and ADHD PRS (odds ratio=1.31, 95% CI=1.09-1.58). The adolescent-onset increasing trajectory was associated with female preponderance, adolescent depression (odds ratio=5.14, 95% CI=2.47-10.73), and depression PRS (odds ratio=1.20, 95% CI=1.05-1.38). Both the early-onset high-persistent and adolescent-onset increasing trajectory classes were associated with adolescent depression diagnosis and ADHD PRS. CONCLUSIONS: The developmental context of irritability may be important in its conceptualization: early-onset persistent irritability may be more neurodevelopmental/ADHD-like and later-onset irritability more depression/mood-like. These findings have implications for treatment as well as nosology.

4.
Schizophr Bull ; 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206164

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is a clinically important feature of schizophrenia. Polygenic risk score (PRS) methods have demonstrated genetic overlap between schizophrenia, bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD), educational attainment (EA), and IQ, but very few studies have examined associations between these PRS and cognitive phenotypes within schizophrenia cases. METHODS: We combined genetic and cognitive data in 3034 schizophrenia cases from 11 samples using the general intelligence factor g as the primary measure of cognition. We used linear regression to examine the association between cognition and PRS for EA, IQ, schizophrenia, BD, and MDD. The results were then meta-analyzed across all samples. A genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of cognition was conducted in schizophrenia cases. RESULTS: PRS for both population IQ (P = 4.39 × 10-28) and EA (P = 1.27 × 10-26) were positively correlated with cognition in those with schizophrenia. In contrast, there was no association between cognition in schizophrenia cases and PRS for schizophrenia (P = .39), BD (P = .51), or MDD (P = .49). No individual variant approached genome-wide significance in the GWAS. CONCLUSIONS: Cognition in schizophrenia cases is more strongly associated with PRS that index cognitive traits in the general population than PRS for neuropsychiatric disorders. This suggests the mechanisms of cognitive variation within schizophrenia are at least partly independent from those that predispose to schizophrenia diagnosis itself. Our findings indicate that this cognitive variation arises at least in part due to genetic factors shared with cognitive performance in populations and is not solely due to illness or treatment-related factors, although our findings are consistent with important contributions from these factors.

5.
Biol Psychiatry ; 86(4): 265-273, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (ncases = 18,381, ncontrols = 27,969) has provided novel opportunities for investigating the etiology of ASD. Here, we integrate the ASD GWAS summary statistics with summary-level gene expression data to infer differential gene expression in ASD, an approach called transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS). METHODS: Using FUSION software, ASD GWAS summary statistics were integrated with predictors of gene expression from 16 human datasets, including adult and fetal brains. A novel adaptation of established statistical methods was then used to test for enrichment within candidate pathways and specific tissues and at different stages of brain development. The proportion of ASD heritability explained by predicted expression of genes in the TWAS was estimated using stratified linkage disequilibrium score regression. RESULTS: This study identified 14 genes as significantly differentially expressed in ASD, 13 of which were outside of known genome-wide significant loci (±500 kb). XRN2, a gene proximal to an ASD GWAS locus, was inferred to be significantly upregulated in ASD, providing insight into the functional consequence of this associated locus. One novel transcriptome-wide significant association from this study is the downregulation of PDIA6, which showed minimal evidence of association in the GWAS, and in gene-based analysis using MAGMA. Predicted gene expression in this study accounted for 13.0% of the total ASD single nucleotide polymorphism heritability. CONCLUSIONS: This study has implicated several genes as significantly up/downregulated in ASD, providing novel and useful information for subsequent functional studies. This study also explores the utility of TWAS-based enrichment analysis and compares TWAS results with a functionally agnostic approach.

6.
Br J Psychiatry ; : 1-8, 2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Around 30% of individuals with schizophrenia remain symptomatic and significantly impaired despite antipsychotic treatment and are considered to be treatment resistant. Clinicians are currently unable to predict which patients are at higher risk of treatment resistance.AimsTo determine whether genetic liability for schizophrenia and/or clinical characteristics measurable at illness onset can prospectively indicate a higher risk of treatment-resistant psychosis (TRP). METHOD: In 1070 individuals with schizophrenia or related psychotic disorders, schizophrenia polygenic risk scores (PRS) and large copy number variations (CNVs) were assessed for enrichment in TRP. Regression and machine-learning approaches were used to investigate the association of phenotypes related to demographics, family history, premorbid factors and illness onset with TRP. RESULTS: Younger age at onset (odds ratio 0.94, P = 7.79 × 10-13) and poor premorbid social adjustment (odds ratio 1.64, P = 2.41 × 10-4) increased risk of TRP in univariate regression analyses. These factors remained associated in multivariate regression analyses, which also found lower premorbid IQ (odds ratio 0.98, P = 7.76 × 10-3), younger father's age at birth (odds ratio 0.97, P = 0.015) and cannabis use (odds ratio 1.60, P = 0.025) increased the risk of TRP. Machine-learning approaches found age at onset to be the most important predictor and also identified premorbid IQ and poor social adjustment as predictors of TRP, mirroring findings from regression analyses. Genetic liability for schizophrenia was not associated with TRP. CONCLUSIONS: People with an earlier age at onset of psychosis and poor premorbid functioning are more likely to be treatment resistant. The genetic architecture of susceptibility to schizophrenia may be distinct from that of treatment outcomes.Declaration of interestNone.

8.
Am J Psychiatry ; 176(6): 477-486, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922102

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Clozapine is the only effective medication for treatment-resistant schizophrenia, but its worldwide use is still limited because of its complex titration protocols. While the discovery of pharmacogenomic variants of clozapine metabolism may improve clinical management, no robust findings have yet been reported. This study is the first to adopt the framework of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) to discover genetic markers of clozapine plasma concentrations in a large sample of patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia. METHODS: The authors used mixed-model regression to combine data from multiple assays of clozapine metabolite plasma concentrations from a clozapine monitoring service and carried out a genome-wide analysis of clozapine, norclozapine, and their ratio on 10,353 assays from 2,989 individuals. These analyses were adjusted for demographic factors known to influence clozapine metabolism, although it was not possible to adjust for all potential mediators given the available data. GWAS results were used to pinpoint specific enzymes and metabolic pathways and compounds that might interact with clozapine pharmacokinetics. RESULTS: The authors identified four distinct genome-wide significant loci that harbor common variants affecting the metabolism of clozapine or its metabolites. Detailed examination pointed to coding and regulatory variants at several CYP* and UGT* genes as well as corroborative evidence for interactions between the metabolism of clozapine, coffee, and tobacco. Individual effects of single single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) fine-mapped from these loci were large, such as the minor allele of rs2472297, which was associated with a reduction in clozapine concentrations roughly equivalent to a decrease of 50 mg/day in clozapine dosage. On their own, these single SNPs explained from 1.15% to 9.48% of the variance in the plasma concentration data. CONCLUSIONS: Common genetic variants with large effects on clozapine metabolism exist and can be found via genome-wide approaches. Their identification opens the way for clinical studies assessing the use of pharmacogenomics in the clinical management of patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia.

9.
Nat Genet ; 51(4): 659-674, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30911161

RESUMO

Transcriptomic imputation approaches combine eQTL reference panels with large-scale genotype data in order to test associations between disease and gene expression. These genic associations could elucidate signals in complex genome-wide association study (GWAS) loci and may disentangle the role of different tissues in disease development. We used the largest eQTL reference panel for the dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) to create a set of gene expression predictors and demonstrate their utility. We applied DLPFC and 12 GTEx-brain predictors to 40,299 schizophrenia cases and 65,264 matched controls for a large transcriptomic imputation study of schizophrenia. We identified 413 genic associations across 13 brain regions. Stepwise conditioning identified 67 non-MHC genes, of which 14 did not fall within previous GWAS loci. We identified 36 significantly enriched pathways, including hexosaminidase-A deficiency, and multiple porphyric disorder pathways. We investigated developmental expression patterns among the 67 non-MHC genes and identified specific groups of pre- and postnatal expression.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Expressão Gênica/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Risco , Transcriptoma/genética
10.
Br J Psychiatry ; 214(5): 297-304, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30767844

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rare copy number variants (CNVs) are associated with risk of neurodevelopmental disorders characterised by varying degrees of cognitive impairment, including schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability. However, the effects of many individual CNVs in carriers without neurodevelopmental disorders are not yet fully understood, and little is known about the effects of reciprocal copy number changes of known pathogenic loci.AimsWe aimed to analyse the effect of CNV carrier status on cognitive performance and measures of occupational and social outcomes in unaffected individuals from the UK Biobank. METHOD: We called CNVs in the full UK Biobank sample and analysed data from 420 247 individuals who passed CNV quality control, reported White British or Irish ancestry and were not diagnosed with neurodevelopmental disorders. We analysed 33 pathogenic CNVs, including their reciprocal deletions/duplications, for association with seven cognitive tests and four general measures of functioning: academic qualifications, occupation, household income and Townsend Deprivation Index. RESULTS: Most CNVs (24 out of 33) were associated with reduced performance on at least one cognitive test or measure of functioning. The changes on the cognitive tests were modest (average reduction of 0.13 s.d.) but varied markedly between CNVs. All 12 schizophrenia-associated CNVs were associated with significant impairments on measures of functioning. CONCLUSIONS: CNVs implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders, including schizophrenia, are associated with cognitive deficits, even among unaffected individuals. These deficits may be subtle but CNV carriers have significant disadvantages in educational attainment and ability to earn income in adult life.Declaration of interestNone.

11.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 180(3): 223-231, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30801977

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) are highly effective at identifying common risk variants for schizophrenia. Rare risk variants are also important contributors to schizophrenia etiology but, with the exception of large copy number variants, are difficult to detect with GWAS. Exome and genome sequencing, which have accelerated the study of rare variants, are expensive so alternative methods are needed to aid detection of rare variants. Here we re-analyze an Irish schizophrenia GWAS dataset (n = 3,473) by performing identity-by-descent (IBD) mapping followed by exome sequencing of individuals identified as sharing risk haplotypes to search for rare risk variants in coding regions. We identified 45 rare haplotypes (>1 cM) that were significantly more common in cases than controls. By exome sequencing 105 haplotype carriers, we investigated these haplotypes for functional coding variants that could be tested for association in independent GWAS samples. We identified one rare missense variant in PCNT but did not find statistical support for an association with schizophrenia in a replication analysis. However, IBD mapping can prioritize both individual samples and genomic regions for follow-up analysis but genome rather than exome sequencing may be more effective at detecting risk variants on rare haplotypes.

12.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 74, 2019 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30718481

RESUMO

Common genetic variation contributes a substantial proportion of risk for both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Furthermore, there is evidence of significant, but not complete, overlap in genetic risk between the two disorders. It has been hypothesised that genetic variants conferring risk for these disorders do so by influencing brain development, leading to the later emergence of symptoms. The comparative profile of risk gene expression for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder across development over different brain regions however remains unclear. Using genotypes derived from genome-wide associations studies of the largest available cohorts of patients and control subjects, we investigated whether genes enriched for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder association show a bias for expression across any of 13 developmental stages in prefrontal cortical and subcortical brain regions. We show that genetic association with schizophrenia is positively correlated with expression in the prefrontal cortex during early midfetal development and early infancy, and negatively correlated with expression during late childhood, which stabilises in adolescence. In contrast, risk-associated genes for bipolar disorder did not exhibit a bias towards expression at any prenatal stage, although the pattern of postnatal expression was similar to that of schizophrenia. These results highlight the dynamic expression of genes harbouring risk for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder across prefrontal cortex development and support the hypothesis that prenatal neurodevelopmental events are more strongly associated with schizophrenia than bipolar disorder.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Transtorno Bipolar/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Fetal/fisiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Expressão Gênica/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Córtex Pré-Frontal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Esquizofrenia/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Lactente , Adulto Jovem
14.
Am J Psychiatry ; 176(8): 661-666, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30606050

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Schizophrenia is associated with a marked reduction in reproductive success, yet alleles that are common contribute substantially to the liability of the disorder. Among several possible explanations for this, it has been postulated that individuals who carry risk alleles but are unaffected are at some reproductive advantage, offsetting the effects of negative selection among those who are affected. The authors sought to test this hypothesis, isolating the effects of risk alleles on fecundity from the effects that are contingent on expressing schizophrenia. METHODS: The burden of schizophrenia risk alleles, as indexed by a polygenic risk score (PRS), carried by 139,679 participants in the UK Biobank study who did not have schizophrenia was compared with the number of offspring of these individuals. RESULTS: Higher schizophrenia liability in study subjects without manifest disorder was weakly but significantly associated with having more children (B=0.006, 95% CI=0.002, 0.010). The relationship was dependent on sex, with a positive correlation between number of children and liability among females (B=0.011, 95% CI=0.006, 0.016), whereas among males, higher liability was associated with being childless (odds ratio=0.96, 95% CI=0.94, 0.98). The negative effect on number of children associated with schizophrenia itself was twofold to 15-fold greater than the positive effect associated with PRS in unaffected individuals. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that a complex relationship between liability and fecundity is consistent with sexual selection. Although the overall pattern of a weak positive correlation with liability may contribute to the persistence of schizophrenia risk alleles, these results indicate that the negative selection acting on individuals affected by schizophrenia in the general population is larger than any advantage conferred by genetic loading in unaffected individuals.

15.
Mol Psychiatry ; 24(3): 328-337, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30647433

RESUMO

Individuals of African ancestry in the United States and Europe are at increased risk of developing schizophrenia and have poorer clinical outcomes. The antipsychotic clozapine, the only licensed medication for treatment-resistant schizophrenia, is under-prescribed and has high rates of discontinuation in individuals of African ancestry, due in part to increased rates of neutropenia. The genetic basis of lower neutrophil levels in those of African ancestry has not previously been investigated in the context of clozapine treatment. We sought to identify risk alleles in the first genome-wide association study of neutrophil levels during clozapine treatment, in 552 individuals with treatment-resistant schizophrenia and robustly inferred African genetic ancestry. Two genome-wide significant loci were associated with low neutrophil counts during clozapine treatment. The most significantly associated locus was driven by rs2814778 (ß = -0.9, P = 4.21 × 10-21), a known regulatory variant in the atypical chemokine receptor 1 (ACKR1) gene. Individuals homozygous for the C allele at rs2814778 were significantly more likely to develop neutropenia and have to stop clozapine treatment (OR = 20.4, P = 3.44 × 10-7). This genotype, also termed "Duffy-null", has previously been shown to be associated with lower neutrophil levels in those of African ancestry. Our results indicate the relevance of the rs2814778 genotype for those taking clozapine and its potential as a pharmacogenetic test, dependent on the outcome of additional safety studies, to assist decision making in the initiation and on-going management of clozapine treatment.

16.
BMC Genomics ; 19(1): 867, 2018 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30509170

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Copy number variants (CNVs) have been shown to increase risk for physical anomalies, developmental, psychiatric and medical disorders. Some of them have been associated with changes in weight, height, and other physical traits. As most studies have been performed on children and young people, these effects of CNVs in middle-aged and older people are not well established. The UK Biobank recruited half a million adults who provided a variety of physical measurements. We called all CNVs from the Affymetrix microarrays and selected a set of 54 CNVs implicated as pathogenic (including their reciprocal deletions/duplications) and that were found in five or more persons. Linear regression analysis was used to establish their association with 16 physical traits relevant to human health. RESULTS: 396,725 participants of white British or Irish descent (excluding first-degree relatives) passed our quality control filters. Out of the 864 CNV/trait associations, 214 were significant at a false discovery rate of 0.1, most of them novel. Many of these traits increase risk for adverse health outcomes: e.g. increases in weight, waist-to-hip ratio, pulse rate and body fat composition. Deletions at 16p11.2, 16p12.1, NRXN1 and duplications at 16p13.11 and 22q11.2 produced the highest numbers of significant associations. Five CNVs produced average changes of over one standard deviation for the 16 traits, compared to controls: deletions at 16p11.2 and 22q11.2, and duplications at 3q29, the Williams-Beuren and Potocki-Lupski regions. CNVs at 1q21.1, 2q13, 16p11.2 and 16p11.2 distal, 16p12.1, 17p12 and 17q12 demonstrated one or more mirror image effects of deletions versus duplications. CONCLUSIONS: Carriers of many CNVs should be monitored for physical traits that increase morbidity and mortality. Genes within these CNVs can give insights into biological processes and therapeutic interventions.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30516002

RESUMO

A major controversy in psychiatric genetics is whether nonadditive genetic interaction effects contribute to the risk of highly polygenic disorders. We applied a support vector machines (SVMs) approach, which is capable of building linear and nonlinear models using kernel methods, to classify cases from controls in a large schizophrenia case-control sample of 11,853 subjects (5,554 cases and 6,299 controls) and compared its prediction accuracy with the polygenic risk score (PRS) approach. We also investigated whether SVMs are a suitable approach to detecting nonlinear genetic effects, that is, interactions. We found that PRS provided more accurate case/control classification than either linear or nonlinear SVMs, and give a tentative explanation why PRS outperforms both multivariate regression and linear kernel SVMs. In addition, we observe that nonlinear kernel SVMs showed higher classification accuracy than linear SVMs when a large number of SNPs are entered into the model. We conclude that SVMs are a potential tool for assessing the presence of interactions, prior to searching for them explicitly.

18.
Science ; 362(6420)2018 12 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30545854

RESUMO

To broaden our understanding of human neurodevelopment, we profiled transcriptomic and epigenomic landscapes across brain regions and/or cell types for the entire span of prenatal and postnatal development. Integrative analysis revealed temporal, regional, sex, and cell type-specific dynamics. We observed a global transcriptomic cup-shaped pattern, characterized by a late fetal transition associated with sharply decreased regional differences and changes in cellular composition and maturation, followed by a reversal in childhood-adolescence, and accompanied by epigenomic reorganizations. Analysis of gene coexpression modules revealed relationships with epigenomic regulation and neurodevelopmental processes. Genes with genetic associations to brain-based traits and neuropsychiatric disorders (including MEF2C, SATB2, SOX5, TCF4, and TSHZ3) converged in a small number of modules and distinct cell types, revealing insights into neurodevelopment and the genomic basis of neuropsychiatric risks.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/embriologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/genética , Neurogênese/genética , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Epigênese Genética , Epigenômica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , Análise de Célula Única , Transcriptoma
19.
Am J Psychiatry ; : appiajp201817040467, 2018 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30392412

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE:: Both rare copy number variants (CNVs) and common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) contribute to liability to schizophrenia, but their etiological relationship has not been fully elucidated. The authors evaluated an additive model whereby risk of schizophrenia requires less contribution from common SNPs in the presence of a rare CNV, and tested for interactions. METHOD:: Genetic data from 21,094 case subjects with schizophrenia and 20,227 control subjects from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium were examined. Three classes of rare CNVs were assessed: CNVs previously associated with schizophrenia, CNVs with large deletions ≥500 kb, and total CNV burden. The mean polygenic risk scores (PRSs) between study subjects with and without rare CNVs were compared, and joint effects of PRS and CNVs on schizophrenia liability were modeled by using logistic regression. RESULTS:: Schizophrenia case subjects carrying risk CNVs had a lower polygenic risk than case subjects without risk CNVs but a higher risk than control subjects. For case subjects carrying known risk CNVs, the PRS was diminished in proportion to the effect size of the CNV. The strongly associated 22q11.2 deletion required little added PRS to produce schizophrenia. Large deletions and increased CNV burden were also associated with lower polygenic risk in schizophrenia case subjects but not in control subjects or after removal of known risk CNV carriers. CONCLUSIONS:: The authors found evidence for interactive effects of PRS and previously associated CNVs for risk for schizophrenia, and the results for large deletions and total CNV burden support an additive model. These findings offer insights into the genetic architecture of schizophrenia by illuminating how different established genetic risk factors act and interact to influence liability to schizophrenia.

20.
Genome Biol ; 19(1): 194, 2018 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30419947

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic influences on gene expression in the human fetal brain plausibly impact upon a variety of postnatal brain-related traits, including susceptibility to neuropsychiatric disorders. However, to date, there have been no studies that have mapped genome-wide expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) specifically in the human prenatal brain. RESULTS: We performed deep RNA sequencing and genome-wide genotyping on a unique collection of 120 human brains from the second trimester of gestation to provide the first eQTL dataset derived exclusively from the human fetal brain. We identify high confidence cis-acting eQTL at the individual transcript as well as whole gene level, including many mapping to a common inversion polymorphism on chromosome 17q21. Fetal brain eQTL are enriched among risk variants for postnatal conditions including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder. We further identify changes in gene expression within the prenatal brain that potentially mediate risk for neuropsychiatric traits, including increased expression of C4A in association with genetic risk for schizophrenia, increased expression of LRRC57 in association with genetic risk for bipolar disorder, and altered expression of multiple genes within the chromosome 17q21 inversion in association with variants influencing the personality trait of neuroticism. CONCLUSIONS: We have mapped eQTL operating in the human fetal brain, providing evidence that these confer risk to certain neuropsychiatric disorders, and identifying gene expression changes that potentially mediate susceptibility to these conditions.

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