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1.
Circulation ; 144(15): e238-e250, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503343

RESUMO

Among the estimated 6.2 million Americans living with heart failure (HF), ≈5%/y may progress to advanced, or stage D, disease. Advanced HF has a high morbidity and mortality, such that early recognition of this condition is important to optimize care. Delayed referral or lack of referral in patients who are likely to derive benefit from an advanced HF evaluation can have important adverse consequences for patients and their families. A 2-step process can be used by practitioners when considering referral of a patient with advanced HF for consideration of advanced therapies, focused on recognizing the clinical clues associated with stage D HF and assessing potential benefits of referral to an advanced HF center. Although patients are often referred to an advanced HF center to undergo evaluation for advanced therapies such as heart transplantation or implantation of a left ventricular assist device, there are other reasons to refer, including access to the infrastructure and multidisciplinary team of the advanced HF center that offers a broad range of expertise. The intent of this statement is to provide a framework for practitioners and health systems to help identify and refer patients with HF who are most likely to derive benefit from referral to an advanced HF center.

2.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524397

RESUMO

Importance: Impaired myocardial flow reserve (MFR) and stress myocardial blood flow (MBF) on positron emission tomography (PET) myocardial perfusion imaging may identify adverse myocardial characteristics, including myocardial stress and injury in aortic stenosis (AS). Objective: To investigate whether MFR and stress MBF are associated with LV structure and function derangements, and whether these parameters improve after aortic valve replacement (AVR). Design, Setting, and Participants: In this single-center prospective observational study in Boston, Massachusetts, from 2018 to 2020, patients with predominantly moderate to severe AS underwent ammonia N13 PET myocardial perfusion imaging for myocardial blood flow (MBF) quantification, resting transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) for assessment of myocardial structure and function, and measurement of circulating biomarkers for myocardial injury and wall stress. Evaluation of health status and functional capacity was also performed. A subset of patients underwent repeated assessment 6 months after AVR. A control group included patients without AS matched for age, sex, and summed stress score who underwent symptom-prompted ammonia N13 PET and TTE within 90 days. Exposures: MBF and MFR quantified on ammonia N13 PET myocardial perfusion imaging. Main Outcomes and Measures: LV structure and function parameters, including echocardiographic global longitudinal strain (GLS), circulating high-sensitivity troponin T (hs-cTnT), N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-pro BNP), health status, and functional capacity. Results: There were 34 patients with AS (1 mild, 9 moderate, and 24 severe) and 34 matched control individuals. MFR was independently associated with GLS and LV ejection fraction, (ß,-0.31; P = .03; ß, 0.41; P = .002, respectively). Stress MBF was associated with hs-cTnT (unadjusted ß, -0.48; P = .005) and log NT-pro BNP (unadjusted ß, -0.37; P = .045). The combination of low stress MBF and high hs-cTnT was associated with higher interventricular septal thickness in diastole, relative wall thickness, and worse GLS compared with high stress MBF and low hs-cTnT (12.4 mm vs 10.0 mm; P = .008; 0.62 vs 0.46; P = .02; and -13.47 vs -17.11; P = .006, respectively). In 9 patients studied 6 months after AVR, mean (SD) MFR improved from 1.73 (0.57) to 2.11 (0.50) (P = .008). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, in AS, MFR and stress MBF were associated with adverse myocardial characteristics, including markers of myocardial injury and wall stress, suggesting that MFR may be an early sensitive marker for myocardial decompensation.

3.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 14(15): 1717-1726, 2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34353602

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine real-world experience with repeat transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) in a population-based national database. BACKGROUND: Repeat TAVR is a growing option in patients requiring reintervention for TAVR. However, large-scale studies with longitudinal follow-up are limited. METHODS: All Medicare beneficiaries who underwent TAVR from 2012 to 2017 were included. Outcomes included 30-day and longitudinal mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events, defined as death, stroke, pacemaker insertion, major bleeding, acute kidney injury, or cardiac arrest. Outcomes of repeat TAVR were compared with surgical explantation after TAVR (TAVR explantation) in a matched analysis. RESULTS: Of 133,250 patients who underwent TAVR, 617 (0.46%) underwent subsequent repeat TAVR at a median interval of 154 days (interquartile range: 58-537 days). Mortality at 30 days and 1 year was 6.0% and 22.0%, respectively. Rates of 30-day stroke and pacemaker insertion were 1.8% and 4.2%. Mortality at 30 days was lower in those who underwent their first TAVR during the later era (2015-2017) compared with earlier years (2012-2014) (4.6% vs 8.7%; P = 0.049). Repeat TAVR was associated with lower 30-day mortality compared with a matched group undergoing TAVR explantation (6.2% vs 12.3%; P = 0.05), although 1-year mortality was similar (21.0% vs 20.8%; P = 1.000). The incidence of 30-day major adverse cardiovascular events was higher with TAVR explantation compared with repeat TAVR (risk ratio: 2.92; 95% CI: 1.88-4.99; P ≤ 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Repeat TAVR was performed with acceptable 30-day mortality in this high-risk population. Short-term outcomes were superior to surgical explantation, but 1-year outcomes were similar. Repeat TAVR will likely be an important option for aortic valve reintervention after TAVR.

6.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 162(2): e183-e353, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33972115
7.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 78(1): 1-9, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33945832

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transcatheter edge-to-edge (TEER) mitral repair may be complicated by residual or recurrent mitral regurgitation. An increasing need for surgical reintervention has been reported, but operative outcomes are ill defined. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated national outcomes of mitral surgery after TEER. METHODS: The Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) Adult Cardiac Surgery Database was used to identify 524 adults who underwent mitral surgery after TEER between July 2014 and June 2020. Emergencies (5.0%; n = 26), previous mitral surgery (5.3%; n = 28), or open implantation of transcatheter prostheses (1.5%; n = 8) were excluded. The primary outcome was 30-day or in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: In the study cohort of 463 patients, the median age was 76 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 67 to 81 years), median left ventricular ejection fraction was 57% (IQR: 48% to 62%), and 177 (38.2%) patients had degenerative disease. Major concomitant cardiac surgery was performed in 137 (29.4%) patients: in patients undergoing isolated mitral surgery, the median STS-predicted mortality was 6.5% (IQR: 3.9% to 10.5%), the observed mortality was 10.2% (n = 23 of 225), and the ratio of observed to expected mortality was 1.2 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.8 to 1.9). Predictors of mortality included urgent surgery (odds ratio [OR]: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.3 to 4.6), nondegenerative/unknown etiology (OR: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.1 to 4.5), creatinine of >2.0 mg/dl (OR: 3.8; 95% CI: 1.9 to 7.9) and age of >80 years (OR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.1 to 4.4). In a volume outcomes analysis in an expanded cohort of 591 patients at 227 hospitals, operative mortality was 2.6% (n = 2 of 76) in 4 centers that performed >10 cases versus 12.4% (n = 64 of 515) in centers performing fewer (p = 0.01). The surgical repair rate after failed TEER was 4.8% (n = 22) and was 6.8% (n = 12) in degenerative disease. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that mitral repair is infrequently achieved after failed TEER, which may have implications for treatment choice in lower-risk and younger patients with degenerative disease. These findings should inform patient consent for TEER, clinical trial design, and clinical performance measures.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Cardíaco , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral , Valva Mitral , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Reoperação , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Cateterismo Cardíaco/efeitos adversos , Cateterismo Cardíaco/métodos , Feminino , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/patologia , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/métodos , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Mitral/patologia , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral/métodos , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/etiologia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/mortalidade , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/cirurgia , Prognóstico , Recidiva , Reoperação/efeitos adversos , Reoperação/métodos , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos
9.
JAMA Cardiol ; 6(5): 548, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33656513
10.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 77(6): 713-724, 2021 02 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573741

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether to repair nonsevere tricuspid regurgitation (TR) during surgery for ischemic mitral valve regurgitation (IMR) remains uncertain. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to investigate the incidence, predictors, and clinical significance of TR progression and presence of ≥moderate TR after IMR surgery. METHODS: Patients (n = 492) with untreated nonsevere TR within 2 prospectively randomized IMR trials were included. Key outcomes were TR progression (either progression by ≥2 grades, surgery for TR, or severe TR at 2 years) and presence of ≥moderate TR at 2 years. RESULTS: Patients' mean age was 66 ± 10 years (67% male), and TR distribution was 60% ≤trace, 31% mild, and 9% moderate. Among 2-year survivors, TR progression occurred in 20 (6%) of 325 patients. Baseline tricuspid annular diameter (TAD) was not predictive of TR progression. At 2 years, 37 (11%) of 323 patients had ≥moderate TR. Baseline TR grade, indexed TAD, and surgical ablation for atrial fibrillation were independent predictors of ≥moderate TR. However, TAD alone had poor discrimination (area under the curve, ≤0.65). Presence of ≥moderate TR at 2 years was higher in patients with MR recurrence (20% vs. 9%; p = 0.02) and a permanent pacemaker/defibrillator (19% vs. 9%; p = 0.01). Clinical event rates (composite of ≥1 New York Heart Association functional class increase, heart failure hospitalization, mitral valve surgery, and stroke) were higher in patients with TR progression (55% vs. 23%; p = 0.003) and ≥moderate TR at 2 years (38% vs. 22%; p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: After IMR surgery, progression of unrepaired nonsevere TR is uncommon. Baseline TAD is not predictive of TR progression and is poorly discriminative of ≥moderate TR at 2 years. TR progression and presence of ≥moderate TR are associated with clinical events. (Comparing the Effectiveness of a Mitral Valve Repair Procedure in Combination With Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting [CABG] Versus CABG Alone in People With Moderate Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation, NCT00806988; Comparing the Effectiveness of Repairing Versus Replacing the Heart's Mitral Valve in People With Severe Chronic Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation, NCT00807040).


Assuntos
Progressão da Doença , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Isquemia Miocárdica/complicações , Insuficiência da Valva Tricúspide/epidemiologia , Idoso , Desfibriladores Implantáveis , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Marca-Passo Artificial , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Valva Tricúspide/diagnóstico por imagem
11.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 14(2): e010009, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541102

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) is associated with adverse outcomes in patients with radiation-associated aortic stenosis. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) may improve outcomes in this population. METHODS: We evaluated 1668 TAVR and 2611 patients with SAVR enrolled in the Society of Thoracic Surgeons' database between 2011 and 2018. Multiple logistic regression was used to compare 30- day outcomes between TAVR and SAVR. Propensity-matched analysis was performed to confirm results of the overall cohort. Additionally, the cohort was stratified into early (2011-2014) versus contemporary (2015-2018) TAVR eras, and 30-day outcomes for TAVR and SAVR were compared. Finally, outcomes with transfemoral TAVR versus SAVR were compared. RESULTS: In the overall cohort, TAVR was associated with significantly reduced 30-day mortality (odds ratio [OR]TAVR/SAVR=0.60 [0.40-0.91]). Postoperative atrial fibrillation, pneumonia, pleural effusion, renal failure, and bleeding also occurred less frequently with TAVR. Stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA; ORTAVR/SAVR, 2.03 [1.09-3.77]) and pacemaker implantation (ORTAVR/SAVR, 1.62 [1.21-2.17]) were higher with TAVR. Propensity-matched analysis yielded similar results as the overall cohort. Following stratification by era, TAVR versus SAVR was associated with reduced 30-day mortality in the contemporary but not early era (OREarly, 0.78 [0.48-1.28]; ORContemporary, 0.31 [0.14-0.65]). Pacemaker implantation was higher with TAVR versus SAVR in both eras (OREarly, 1.60 [1.03-2.46]; ORContemporary, 1.64 [1.10-2.45]). There was also a nonsignificant trend towards increased stroke/TIA with TAVR during both eras (OREarly, 1.39 [0.58-3.36]; ORContemporary, 2.46 [0.99-6.10]). Finally, transfemoral TAVR (N=1369) versus SAVR revealed similar findings as the overall cohort; however, the association of TAVR with stroke/TIA was not statistically significant (ORStroke/TIA, 1.57 [0.79-3.09]). CONCLUSIONS: TAVR provides an effective and evolving alternative to SAVR for radiation-associated severe aortic stenosis and was associated with lower 30-day mortality and postoperative complications. TAVR was associated with increased pacemaker implantation and a trend towards increased stroke/TIA. In this unique population with extensive valvular and vascular calcifications, the risk of stroke/TIA with TAVR requires careful consideration and further investigation.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
J Nucl Cardiol ; 28(2): 579-588, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31044406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We investigated role of coronary microvascular disease (CMD) in maladaptive LV remodeling and prognosis in patients with aortic sclerosis or stenosis and no overt CAD. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of patients with aortic sclerosis or stenosis, normal myocardial perfusion and LV ejection fraction (EF) > 50% (n = 43) and matched controls without AS (n = 43). PET and echocardiograms were performed within 1 year of each other. Myocardial perfusion and myocardial flow reserve (MFR) were quantified using PET imaging. LV structure and function, including global longitudinal strain (GLS), were quantified by transthoracic echocardiography. RESULTS: Global MFR declined with increasing AS severity (P = 0.04). Probability of impaired MFR increased with severity of adverse LV remodeling (OR 1.88, CI 1.03 to 3.41, P =0.04). Reduced MFR associated with impaired GLS (r = - 0.29, P = 0.002) and associated with reduced MACE-free survival at 7.27 years median follow-up. Adjusted annualized rate of MACE was highest in those with impaired GLS and MFR and lowest in those with normal GLS and MFR (30.99% vs 1.86%, P =0.002). CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE: In patients with AS and no overt CAD, impaired MFR associates with adverse LV remodeling and subclinical LV mechanical dysfunction, and is a marker increased clinical risk.

14.
JAMA Cardiol ; 6(1): 58-66, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052376

RESUMO

Importance: Women with aortopathy conditions are at risk for pregnancy-related aortic dissection, and these conditions may not be recognized until after the aortic dissection occurs. Objective: To examine the clinical characteristics, imaging features, and outcomes in women with pregnancy-related acute aortic dissection. Design, Setting, and Participants: A cohort study, comprising data from the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection (IRAD) (February 1, 1998, to February 28, 2018). The multicenter referral center study included 29 women with aortic dissection during pregnancy or less than 12 weeks post partum in IRAD from 1998 to 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures: Clinical features of pregnancy-related aortic dissection to be studied included underlying aortopathy, aortic size, type of aortic dissection, timing of dissection, hypertension, and previous aortic surgery. Results: A total of 29 women (mean [SD] age, 32 [6] years) had pregnancy-related aortic dissection, representing 0.3% of all aortic dissections and 1% of aortic dissection in women in the IRAD. Among women younger than 35 years, aortic dissection was related to pregnancy in 20 of 105 women (19%). Thirteen women (45%) had type A aortic dissection, and 16 women (55%) had type B. Aortic dissection onset was known in 27 women (93%): 15 during pregnancy, 4 in the first trimester, and 11 in the third trimester; 12 were post partum, occurring a mean (SD) of 12.5 (14) days post partum. At type A aortic dissection diagnosis, the mean (SD) aortic diameters were sinus of Valsalva, 54.5 (5) mm and ascending aorta, 54.7 (6) mm. At type B aortic dissection diagnosis, the mean (SD) descending aortic diameter was 32.5 (5) mm. Twenty women (69%) had an aortopathy condition or a positive family history: 13 women (65%) with Marfan syndrome, 2 women (10%) with Loeys-Dietz syndrome, 2 women (10%) with bicuspid aortic valves, 2 women (10%) with a family history of aortic disease, and 1 woman (5%) with familial thoracic aortic aneurysm. Aortopathy was not recognized until after aortic dissection in 47% of the women. Twenty-eight women (97%) survived aortic dissection hospitalization. Conclusions and Relevance: Aortic dissection complicating pregnancy is rare. Most pregnancy-related aortic dissection is due to an aortopathy often not diagnosed until after aortic dissection. In this study, type A aortic dissections were associated with a dilated aorta, and type B aortic dissections often were not. Recognition of underlying conditions and risks for aortic dissection may improve management of pregnancy in women with aortopathy.

15.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 77(4): 450-500, 2021 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33342587

RESUMO

AIM: This executive summary of the valvular heart disease guideline provides recommendations for clinicians to diagnose and manage valvular heart disease as well as supporting documentation to encourage their use. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted from January 1, 2010, to March 1, 2020, encompassing studies, reviews, and other evidence conducted on human subjects that were published in English from PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Reports, and other selected database relevant to this guideline. STRUCTURE: Many recommendations from the earlier valvular heart disease guidelines have been updated with new evidence and provides newer options for diagnosis and treatment of valvular heart disease. This summary includes only the recommendations from the full guideline which focus on diagnostic work-up, the timing and choice of surgical and catheter interventions, and recommendations for medical therapy. The reader is referred to the full guideline for graphical flow charts, text, and tables with additional details about the rationale for and implementation of each recommendation, and the evidence tables detailing the data considered in developing these guidelines.

18.
Circulation ; 143(5): e35-e71, 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332149

RESUMO

AIM: This executive summary of the valvular heart disease guideline provides recommendations for clinicians to diagnose and manage valvular heart disease as well as supporting documentation to encourage their use. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted from January 1, 2010, to March 1, 2020, encompassing studies, reviews, and other evidence conducted on human subjects that were published in English from PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Reports, and other selected database relevant to this guideline. Structure: Many recommendations from the earlier valvular heart disease guidelines have been updated with new evidence and provides newer options for diagnosis and treatment of valvular heart disease. This summary includes only the recommendations from the full guideline which focus on diagnostic work-up, the timing and choice of surgical and catheter interventions, and recommendations for medical therapy. The reader is referred to the full guideline for graphical flow charts, text, and tables with additional details about the rationale for and implementation of each recommendation, and the evidence tables detailing the data considered in developing these guidelines.

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