Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 15 de 15
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 38(12): 2095-2104, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794306

RESUMO

More than 100 rural hospitals have closed since 2010. Some rural hospitals have affiliated with health systems to improve their financial performance and potentially avoid closure, but the effects of affiliation on rural hospitals and their patients are unclear. To examine the relationship between affiliation and performance, we compared rural hospitals that affiliated with a health system in the period 2008-17 and a propensity score-weighted set of nonaffiliating rural hospitals on twelve measures of structure, utilization, financial performance, and quality. Following health system affiliation, rural hospitals experienced a significant reduction in on-site diagnostic imaging technologies, the availability of obstetric and primary care services, and outpatient nonemergency visits, as well as a significant increase in operating margins (by 1.6-3.6 percentage points from a baseline of -1.6 percent). Changes in patient experience scores, readmissions, and emergency department visits were similar for affiliating and nonaffiliating hospitals. While joining health systems may improve rural hospitals' financial performance, affiliation may reduce access to services for patients in rural areas.

2.
Med Care ; 57(9): 680-687, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295166

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Properties of social networks and shared patient networks of physicians are associated with important outcomes, including costs, quality, information exchange, and organizational effectiveness. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether practice consolidation affects size, strength, and stability of US practice-based physician shared patient networks. RESEARCH DESIGN: We used a dynamic difference-in-differences (event study) design to determine how 2 types of vertical consolidation (hospital and health system practice acquisition) and 2 types of horizontal consolidation (medical group membership and practice-practice mergers) affect individual shared patient network characteristics, controlling for physician fixed effects and geographic market (metropolitan statistical area). SUBJECTS: Practice-based US physicians whose practices consolidated 2009-2014 are identified via health system, hospital, and medical group affiliation information and appearance/disappearance of listed practice affiliations in the SK&A Physician Database. MEASURES: Outcomes measured were network size (number of individual physicians with whom a physician shares patients within 30 d), strength (average number of shared patients within those relationships), and stability (percent of shared patient relationships that persist in the current and prior year), all generated from Medicare Shared Patient Patterns (30-d) data. RESULTS: Shared patient network stability increases significantly after acquisition of practices by horizontal practice-practice mergers [ßt=1=0.041 (P<0.001), ßt=2=0.047 (P<0.001), ßt=3=0.041 (P<0.001), ßt=4=0.031 (P<0.05), where t is the number of years after the consolidation event]. These effects were robust to sensitivity analyses. Shared patient network size and strength are not observably associated with practice consolidation events. CONCLUSIONS: Practice consolidation can increase the stability of physician networks, which may have positive implications for organizational effectiveness.


Assuntos
Redes Comunitárias/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência ao Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Prática Profissional/organização & administração , Redes Comunitárias/organização & administração , Humanos , Médicos/organização & administração , Padrões de Prática Médica/organização & administração , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Estados Unidos
3.
Digit Health ; 5: 2055207619844865, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31069103

RESUMO

Introduction: Heart disease kills nearly 300,000 US women annually, while approximately 40,000 US women die of breast cancer. Breast cancer online patient communities are well known for their high engagement and emotional support. This exploratory study compared social media discourse on breast cancer with discourse related to heart disease. Methods: Computer-assisted text analysis of two corpora composed of Twitter posts using #BreastCancer and #HeartDisease hashtags from December 2013 to December 2014. Lexical analysis (word and hashtag level) used AntConc software and lexicogrammatical analysis (style and stance) was conducted with DocuScope. Results: The #BreastCancer corpus consisted of 592,046 posts, 57% of which were not original to the user (retweets). #HeartDisease had 269,769 posts (13% retweets). Social media discourse about #BreastCancer and #HeartDisease drew attention to women, new developments, appeals for help and disease risks. The #BreastCancer corpus incorporates gendered language and associations with art and activism, while posts about #HeartDisease were discussed scientifically in concert with other diseases. The #BreastCancer corpus uniquely included community-specific initialism hashtags. Stance analysis of the #BreastCancer corpus revealed more socially oriented posts, marked by language of constructive reasoning, inclusive language and abstract thought, while #HeartDisease corpus posts were more scholarly, used contingent and oppositional reasoning, language from institutional and academic registers, citations and meta-discourse. Conclusion: The #HeartDisease social media community is less engaged, and content is less specific to both the disease and individual experience than #BreastCancer. Cultivating a women-focused heart disease online community might replicate some of the #BreastCancer community's successes.

4.
J Palliat Med ; 21(10): 1480-1485, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30096252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Advance care planning (ACP) is fundamental to guiding medical care at the end of life. Understanding the economic impact of ACP is critical to implementation, but most economic evaluations of ACP focus on only a few actors, such as hospitals. OBJECTIVE: To develop a framework for understanding and quantifying the economic effects of ACP, particularly its distributional consequences, for use in economic evaluations. DESIGN: Literature review of economic analyses of ACP and related costs to estimate magnitude and direction of costs and benefits for each actor and how data on these costs and benefits could be obtained or estimated. RESULTS: ACP can lead to more efficient allocation of resources by reducing low-value care and reallocating resources to high-value care, and can increase welfare by aligning care to patient preferences. This economic framework considers the costs and benefits of ACP that accrue to or are borne by six actors: the patient, the patient's family and caregivers, healthcare providers, acute care settings, subacute and home care settings, and payers. Program implementation costs and nonhealthcare costs, such as time costs borne by patients and caregivers, are included. Findings suggest that out-of-pocket costs for patients and families will likely change if subacute or home care is substituted for acute care, and subacute care utilization is likely to increase while primary healthcare providers and acute care settings may experience heterogeneous effects. CONCLUSIONS: A comprehensive economic evaluation of ACP should consider how costs and benefits accrue to different actors.

5.
Rand Health Q ; 6(2): 10, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28845348

RESUMO

This study compared the Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) benefit provided by TRICARE as an early intervention for autism spectrum disorder with similar benefits in Medicaid and commercial health insurance plans. The sponsor, the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness, was particularly interested in how a proposed TRICARE reimbursement rate decrease from $125 per hour to $68 per hour for ABA services performed by a Board Certified Behavior Analyst compared with reimbursement rates (defined as third-party payment to the service provider) in Medicaid and commercial health insurance plans. Information on ABA coverage in state Medicaid programs was collected from Medicaid state waiver databases; subsequently, Medicaid provider reimbursement data were collected from state Medicaid fee schedules. Applied Behavior Analysis provider reimbursement in the commercial health insurance system was estimated using Truven Health MarketScan® data. A weighted mean U.S. reimbursement rate was calculated for several services using cross-state information on the number of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Locations of potential provider shortages were also identified. Medicaid and commercial insurance reimbursement rates varied considerably across the United States. This project concluded that the proposed $68-per-hour reimbursement rate for services provided by a board certified analyst was more than 25 percent below the U.S. mean.

6.
Clin Ther ; 39(7): 1276-1290, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28629610

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The goal of this study was to assess and compare the potential clinical and economic value of emerging bone-forming agents using the only currently available agent, teriparatide, as a reference case in patients at high, near-term (imminent, 1- to 2-year) risk of osteoporotic fractures, extending to a lifetime horizon with sequenced antiresorptive agents for maintenance treatment. METHODS: Analyses were performed by using a Markov cohort model accounting for time-specific fracture protection effects of bone-forming agents followed by antiresorptive treatment with denosumab. The alternative bone-forming agent profiles were defined by using assumptions regarding the onset and total magnitude of protection against fractures with teriparatide. The model cohort comprised 70-year-old female patients with T scores below -2.5 and a previous vertebral fracture. Outcomes included clinical fractures, direct costs, and quality-adjusted life years. The simulated treatment strategies were compared by calculating their incremental "value" (net monetary benefit). FINDINGS: Improvements in the onset and magnitude of fracture protection (vs the teriparatide reference case) produced a net monetary benefit of $17,000,000 per 10,000 treated patients during the (1.5-year) bone-forming agent treatment period and $80,000,000 over a lifetime horizon that included 3.5 years of maintenance treatment with denosumab. IMPLICATIONS: Incorporating time-specific fracture effects in the Markov cohort model allowed for estimation of a range of cost savings, quality-adjusted life years gained, and clinical fractures avoided at different levels of fracture protection onset and magnitude. Results provide a first estimate of the potential "value" new bone-forming agents (romosozumab and abaloparatide) may confer relative to teriparatide.


Assuntos
Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/tratamento farmacológico , Fraturas por Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais/economia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Denosumab/economia , Denosumab/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/economia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/economia , Proteína Relacionada ao Hormônio Paratireóideo/economia , Proteína Relacionada ao Hormônio Paratireóideo/uso terapêutico , Pós-Menopausa , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Risco , Teriparatida/economia , Teriparatida/uso terapêutico
7.
Ann Intern Med ; 166(1): 37-51, 2017 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27802478

RESUMO

Background: Gout is a common type of inflammatory arthritis in patients seen by primary care physicians. Purpose: To review evidence about treatment of acute gout attacks, management of hyperuricemia to prevent attacks, and discontinuation of medications for chronic gout in adults. Data Sources: Multiple electronic databases from January 2010 to March 2016, reference mining, and pharmaceutical manufacturers. Study Selection: Studies of drugs approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and commonly prescribed by primary care physicians, randomized trials for effectiveness, and trials and observational studies for adverse events. Data Extraction: Data extraction was performed by one reviewer and checked by a second reviewer. Study quality was assessed by 2 independent reviewers. Strength-of-evidence assessment was done by group discussion. Data Synthesis: High-strength evidence from 28 trials (only 3 of which were placebo-controlled) shows that colchicine, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and corticosteroids reduce pain in patients with acute gout. Moderate-strength evidence suggests that low-dose colchicine is as effective as high-dose colchicine and causes fewer gastrointestinal adverse events. Moderate-strength evidence suggests that urate-lowering therapy (allopurinol or febuxostat) reduces long-term risk for acute gout attacks after 1 year or more. High-strength evidence shows that prophylaxis with daily colchicine or NSAIDs reduces the risk for acute gout attacks by at least half in patients starting urate-lowering therapy, and moderate-strength evidence indicates that duration of prophylaxis should be longer than 8 weeks. Although lower urate levels reduce risk for recurrent acute attacks, treatment to a specific target level has not been tested. Limitation: Few studies of acute gout treatments, no placebo-controlled trials of management of hyperuricemia lasting longer than 6 months, and few studies in primary care populations. Conclusion: Colchicine, NSAIDs, and corticosteroids relieve pain in adults with acute gout. Urate-lowering therapy decreases serum urate levels and reduces risk for acute gout attacks. Primary Funding Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (Protocol registration: http://effectivehealth-care.ahrq.gov/ehc/products/564/1992/Gout-managment-protocol-141103.pdf).


Assuntos
Supressores da Gota/uso terapêutico , Gota/tratamento farmacológico , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/efeitos adversos , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Colchicina/efeitos adversos , Colchicina/uso terapêutico , Monitoramento de Medicamentos , Supressores da Gota/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hiperuricemia/tratamento farmacológico
8.
Ann Intern Med ; 166(1): 27-36, 2017 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27802505

RESUMO

Background: Alternative strategies exist for diagnosing gout that do not rely solely on the documentation of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals. Purpose: To summarize evidence regarding the accuracy of clinical tests and classification algorithms compared with that of a reference standard of MSU crystals in joint aspirate for diagnosing gout. Data Sources: Several electronic databases from inception to 29 February 2016. Study Selection: 21 prospective cohort, cross-sectional, and case-control studies including participants with joint inflammation and no previous definitive gout diagnosis who had MSU analysis of joint aspirate. Data Extraction: Data extraction and risk-of-bias assessment by 2 reviewers independently; overall strength of evidence (SOE) judgment by group. Data Synthesis: Recently developed algorithms including clinical, laboratory, and imaging criteria demonstrated good sensitivity (up to 88%) and fair to good specificity (up to 96%) for diagnosing gout (moderate SOE). Three studies of dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) showed sensitivities of 85% to 100% and specificities of 83% to 92% for diagnosing gout (low SOE). Six studies of ultrasonography showed sensitivities of 37% to 100% and specificities of 68% to 97%, depending on the ultrasonography signs assessed (pooled sensitivity and specificity for the double contour sign: 74% [95% CI, 52% to 88%] and 88% [CI, 68% to 96%], respectively [low SOE]). Limitation: Important study heterogeneity and selection bias; scant evidence in primary and urgent care settings and in patients with conditions that may be confused with or occur with gout. Conclusion: Multidimensional algorithms, which must be validated in primary and urgent care settings, may help clinicians make a provisional diagnosis of gout. Although DECT and ultrasonography also show promise for gout diagnosis, accessibility to these methods may be limited. Primary Funding Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (Protocol registration: https://effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov/ehc/products/564/1937/gout-protocol-140716.pdf).


Assuntos
Gota/diagnóstico , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Algoritmos , Gota/classificação , Gota/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Padrões de Referência , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Líquido Sinovial/química , Ácido Úrico/análise
10.
MDM Policy Pract ; 2(1): 2381468317713718, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30288423

RESUMO

Background: Multiple medical organizations recommend using life expectancy (LE) to individualize diabetes care goals. We compare the performance of patient LE predictions made by physicians to LE predictions from a simulation model (the Chicago model) in a cohort of older diabetic patients. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of a convenience sample (n = 447) of diabetes patients over 65 years and their physicians. Measurements: Physicians provided LE estimates for individual patients during a baseline survey (2000-2003). The prognostic model included a comprehensive geriatric type 2 diabetes simulation model (the Chicago model) and combinations of the physician estimate and the Chicago model ("And," "Or," and "Average" models). Observed survival was determined based on the National Death Index through 31 December 2010. The predictive accuracy of LE predictions was assessed using c-statistic for 5-year mortality; Harrell's c-statistic, and Integrated Brier score for overall survival. Results: The patient cohort had a mean (SD) age of 73.4 (5.9) years. The majority were female (62.6%) and black (79.4%). At 5 years, 108 (24.2%) patients had died. The c-statistic for 5-year mortality was similar for physicians (0.69) and the Chicago model (0.68), while the average of estimates by physicians and Chicago model yielded the highest c-statistic of any method tested (0.73). The estimates of overall survival yielded a similar pattern of results. Limitations: Generalizability of patient cohort and lack of updated model parameters. Conclusions: Compared with individual methods, the average of LE estimates by physicians and the Chicago model had the best predictive performance. Prognostic models, such as the Chicago model, may complement and support physicians' intuitions as they consider treatment decisions and goals for older patients with chronic conditions like diabetes.

11.
Syst Rev ; 5(1): 186, 2016 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27814744

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of knee osteoarthritis (OA)/degenerative joint disease (DJD) is increasing in the USA. Systematic reviews of treatment efficacy and adverse events (AEs) of hyaluronic acid (HA) injections report conflicting evidence about the balance of benefits and harms. We review evidence on efficacy and AEs of intraarticular viscosupplementation with HA in older individuals with knee osteoarthritis and account for differences in these conclusions from another systematic review. METHODS: We searched PubMed and eight other databases and gray literature sources from 1990 to December 12, 2014. Double-blind placebo-controlled randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reporting functional outcomes or quality-of-life; RCTs and observational studies on delay/avoidance of arthroplasty; RCTs, case reports, and large cohort studies and case series assessing safety; and systematic reviews reporting on knee pain were considered for inclusion. A standardized, pre-defined protocol was applied by two independent reviewers to screen titles and abstracts, review full text, and extract details on study design, interventions, outcomes, and quality. We compared our results with those of a prior systematic review and found them to be discrepant; our analysis of why this discrepancy occurred is the focus of this manuscript. RESULTS: Eighteen RCTs reported functional outcomes: pooled analysis of ten placebo-controlled, blinded trials showed a standardized mean difference of -0.23 (95 % confidence interval (CI) -0.45 to -0.01) favoring HA at 6 months. Studies reported few serious adverse events (SAEs) and no significant differences in non-serious adverse events (NSAEs) (relative risk (RR) [95 % CI] 1.03 [0.93-1.15] or SAEs (RR [95 % CI] 1.39 [0.78-2.47]). A recent prior systematic review reported similar functional outcomes, but significant SAE risk. Differences in SAE inclusion and synthesis accounted for the disparate conclusions. CONCLUSIONS: Trials show a small but significant effect of HA on function on which recent systematic reviews agree, but lack of AE synthesis standardization leads to opposite conclusions about the balance of benefits and harms. A limitation of the re-analysis of the prior systematic review is that it required imputation of missing data.


Assuntos
Ácido Hialurônico/efeitos adversos , Osteoartrite do Joelho/tratamento farmacológico , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Humanos , Ácido Hialurônico/uso terapêutico , Injeções Intra-Articulares , Articulação do Joelho
12.
J Palliat Med ; 19(9): 995-1008, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27533892

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Evidence supports palliative care effectiveness. Given workforce constraints and the costs of new services, payers and providers need help to prioritize their investments. They need to know which patients to target, which personnel to hire, and which services best improve outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To inform how payers and providers should identify patients with "advanced illness" and the specific interventions they should implement, we reviewed the evidence to identify (1) individuals appropriate for palliative care and (2) elements of health service interventions (personnel involved, use of multidisciplinary teams, and settings of care) effective in achieving better outcomes for patients, caregivers, and the healthcare system. EVIDENCE REVIEW: Systematic searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews databases (1/1/2001-1/8/2015). RESULTS: Randomized controlled trials (124) met inclusion criteria. The majority of studies in cancer (49%, 38 of 77 studies) demonstrated statistically significant patient or caregiver outcomes (e.g., p < 0.05), as did those in congestive heart failure (CHF) (62%, 13 of 21), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; 58%, 11 of 19), and dementia (60%, 15 of 25). Most prognostic criteria used clinicians' judgment (73%, 22 of 30). Most interventions included a nurse (70%, 69 of 98), and many were nurse-only (39%, 27 of 69). Social workers were well represented, and home-based approaches were common (56%, 70 of 124). Home interventions with visits were more effective than those without (64%, 28 of 44; vs. 46%, 12 of 26). Interventions improved communication and care planning (70%, 12 of 18), psychosocial health (36%, 12 of 33, for depressive symptoms; 41%, 9 of 22, for anxiety), and patient (40%, 8 of 20) and caregiver experiences (63%, 5 of 8). Many interventions reduced hospital use (65%, 11 of 17), but most other economic outcomes, including costs, were poorly characterized. Palliative care teams did not reliably lower healthcare costs (20%, 2 of 10). CONCLUSIONS: Palliative care improves cancer, CHF, COPD, and dementia outcomes. Effective models include nurses, social workers, and home-based components, and a focus on communication, psychosocial support, and the patient or caregiver experience. High-quality research on intervention costs and cost outcomes in palliative care is limited.


Assuntos
Assistência Terminal , Cuidadores , Demência , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Cuidados Paliativos
13.
Rand Health Q ; 5(4): 14, 2016 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28083424

RESUMO

The Veterans Access, Choice, and Accountability Act of 2014 addressed the need for access to timely, high-quality health care for veterans. Section 201 of the legislation called for an independent assessment of various aspects of veterans' health care. The RAND Corporation was tasked with an assessment of the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) current and projected health care capabilities and resources. An examination of data from a variety of sources, along with a survey of VA medical facility leaders, revealed the breadth and depth of VA resources and capabilities: fiscal resources, workforce and human resources, physical infrastructure, interorganizational relationships, and information resources. The assessment identified barriers to the effective use of these resources and capabilities. Analysis of data on access to VA care and the quality of that care showed that almost all veterans live within 40 miles of a VA health facility, but fewer have access to VA specialty care. Veterans usually receive care within 14 days of their desired appointment date, but wait times vary considerably across VA facilities. VA has long played a national leadership role in measuring the quality of health care. The assessment showed that VA health care quality was as good or better on most measures compared with other health systems, but quality performance lagged at some VA facilities. VA will require more resources and capabilities to meet a projected increase in veterans' demand for VA care over the next five years. Options for increasing capacity include accelerated hiring, full nurse practice authority, and expanded use of telehealth.

14.
Evid Rep Technol Assess (Full Rep) ; (224): 1-826, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30307735

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To update a prior systematic review on the effects of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FA) on maternal and child health and to assess the evidence for their effects on, and associations with, additional outcomes. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE®, Embase®, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Centre for Agriculture and Biosciences (CAB) Abstracts from 2000 to August 2015; eligible studies from the original report; and relevant systematic reviews. REVIEW METHODS: We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of any defined dose of n-3 FA (or combination) compared to placebo, any other n-3 FA, or alternative dose with an outcome of interest conducted in pregnant or breastfeeding women or neonates (preterm or term). We also included prospective observational studies that analyzed the association between baseline n-3 FA intake or biomarker level and followup outcomes. Postnatal interventions began within a week of birth for term infants and within a week of beginning enteral or oral feeding for preterm infants. Standard methods were used for data abstraction and analysis, according to the Evidence-based Practice Center Methods Guide. RESULTS: We identified 4,275 potentially relevant titles from our searches, of which 95 RCTs and 48 observational studies met the inclusion criteria. Risk of bias was a concern with both RCTs and observational studies. Outcomes for which evidence was sufficient to draw a conclusion are summarized here with the Strength of Evidence (SoE). (Outcomes for which the evidence was insufficient to draw a conclusion are summarized in Appendix G of the report.).Maternal Exposures and Outcomes: Gestational length and risk for preterm birth: Prenatal algal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or DHA-enriched fish oil supplementation had a small positive effect on length of gestation (moderate SoE), but no effect on risk for preterm birth (low SoE). Prenatal EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) plus DHA-containing fish oil supplementation has no effect on length of gestation (low SoE). Supplementation with DHA, or EPA plus DHA-, or DHA-enriched fish oil does not decreaserisk for preterm birth (low SoE).Birth weight and risk for low birth weight: Changes in maternal n-3 FA biomarkers were significantly associated with birth weight. Prenatal algal DHA or DHA-enriched fish oil supplementation had a positive effect on birth weight among healthy term infants (moderate SoE), but prenatal DHA supplementation had no effect on risk for low birth weight (low SoE). Prenatal EPA plus DHA or alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) supplementation had no effect on birth weight (low SoE).Risk for peripartum depression: Maternal n-3 FA biomarkers had no association with risk for peripartum depression. Maternal DHA, EPA, or DHA-enriched fish oil supplementation had no effect on risk for peripartum depression (low SoE).Risk for gestational hypertension/preeclampsia: Prenatal DHA supplementation among high-risk pregnant women had no effect on the risk for gestational hypertension or preeclampsia (moderate SoE). Prenatal supplementation of any n-3 FA in normal-risk women also had no significant effect on risk for gestational hypertension or preeclampsia (low SoE).Fetal, Infant, and Child Exposures and Outcomes: Postnatal growth patterns: Maternal fish oil or DHA plus EPA supplementation had no effect on postnatal growth patterns (attainment of weight, length, and head circumference) when administered prenatally (moderate SoE) or both pre- and postnatally (low SoE). Fortification of infant formulas with DHA plus arachidonic acid (AA, an n-6 FA) had no effect on growth patterns of preterm or term infants (low SoE).Visual acuity: Prenatal supplementation with DHA had no effect on development of visual acuity (low SoE). Supplementing or fortifying preterm infant formula with any n-3 FA had no significant effect on visual acuity assessed by visual evoked potentials (VEP) at 4 or 6 months corrected age (low SoE). Data conflicted on the effectiveness of supplementing infant formula for term infants with n-3 FA depending on when and how visual acuity was assessed (i.e. by VEP or by behavioral methods) and the type of essential FA provided (low SoE).Neurological development: Prenatal or postnatal n-3 FA supplementation had no consistent effect on neurological development (low SoE).Cognitive development: Prenatal DHA supplementation with AA or EPA had no effect on cognitive development (moderate SoE). Supplementing breastfeeding women with DHA plus EPA also had no effect on cognitive development in infants and children (low SoE). Supplementing or fortifying preterm infants' formula with DHA plus AA had a positive effect on infant cognition at some short-term followup times (moderate SoE). Supplementing or fortifying infant formula for term infants with any n-3 FA had no effect on cognitive development (low SoE). Evidence is insufficient to support any effect of n-3 FA infant supplementation on long-term cognitive outcomes.Autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and learning disorders: Maternal or infant n-3 FA supplementation had no effect on risk for autism spectrum disorders or ADHD (low SoE). No studies on other learning disorders were identified.Atopic dermatitis (AD), allergies, and respiratory disorders: Pre- and postnatal (maternal and infant) n-3 FA supplementation had no consistent effect on the risk for AD/eczema, allergies, asthma, and other respiratory illnesses (moderate SoE). Biomarkers and intakes had no consistent association with the risk for AD, allergies, and respiratory disorders (low SoE).Adverse events: Prenatal and infant supplementation with n-3 FA or fortification of foods with n-3 FA did not result in any serious or nonserious adverse events (moderate SoE); with the exception of an increased risk for mild gastrointestinal symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Most studies in this report examined the effects of fish oil (or other combinations of DHA and EPA) supplements on pregnant or breastfeeding women or the effects of infant formula fortified with DHA plus AA. As with the original report, with the exception of small increases in birth weight and length of gestation,n-3 FA supplementation or fortification has no consistent evidence of effects on peripartum maternal or infant health outcomes. No effects of n-3 FA were seen on gestational hypertension, peripartum depression, or postnatal growth. Apparent effects of n-3 FA supplementation were inconsistent across assessment methods and followup times for outcomes related to infant visual acuity, cognitive development and prevention of allergy and asthma. Future RCTs need to assess standardized preparations of n-3 and n-6 FA, using a select group of clinically important outcomes, on populations with baseline n-3 FA intakes typical of those of most western populations.

15.
J Fluor Chem ; 137: 27-33, 2012 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22675234

RESUMO

Theranostic nanoparticle development recently took center stage in the field of drug delivery nanoreagent design. Theranostic nanoparticles combine therapeutic delivery systems (liposomes, micelles, nanoemulsions, etc.) with imaging reagents (MRI, optical, PET, CT). This combination allows for non-invasive in vivo monitoring of therapeutic nanoparticles in diseased organs and tissues. Here, we report a novel perfluoropolyether (PFPE) nanoemulsion with a water-insoluble lipophilic drug. The formulation enables non-invasive monitoring of nanoemulsion biodistribution using two imaging modalities, (19)F MRI and near-infrared (NIR) optical imaging. The nanoemulsion is composed of PFPE-tyramide as a (19)F MRI tracer, hydrocarbon oil, surfactants, and a NIR dye. Preparation utilizes a combination of self-assembly and high energy emulsification methods, resulting in droplets with average diameter 180 nm and low polydispersity index (PDI less than 0.2). A model nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), celecoxib, was incorporated into the formulation at 0.2 mg/mL. The reported nanoemulsion's properties, including small particle size, visibility under (19)F NMR and NIR fluorescence spectroscopy, and the ability to carry drugs make it an attractive potential theranostic agent for cancer imaging and treatment.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA