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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(3): e211778, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33720373

RESUMO

Importance: Youth anxiety and depression are common and undertreated. Pediatric transdiagnostic interventions for anxiety and/or depression may be associated with improved access to treatment among youths. Objective: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a pediatric transdiagnostic brief behavioral therapy (BBT) program for anxiety and/or depression compared with assisted referral to community outpatient mental health care (ARC). Design, Setting, and Participants: In this economic evaluation, an incremental cost-effectiveness analysis was performed from the societal perspective using data from a randomized clinical trial of youths with full or probable diagnoses of anxiety or depression who were recruited from pediatric clinics in San Diego, California, and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The trial was conducted from October 6, 2010, through December 5, 2014, and this analysis was performed from January 1, 2019, through October 20, 2020. Interventions: In the randomized clinical trial, youths were randomized to BBT (n = 95) or ARC (n = 90). The BBT program consisted of 8 to 12 weekly 45-minute sessions of behavioral therapy delivered in pediatric clinics by master's-level therapists. Families randomized to ARC received personalized referrals to mental health care and telephone calls to support access to care. Main Outcomes and Measures: Anxiety-free days, depression-free days, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and costs based on incremental cost-effectiveness ratios from intake through 32-week follow-up. A cost-effectiveness acceptability curve for QALYs was used to assess the probability that BBT was cost-effective compared with ARC over a range of amounts that a decision-maker might be willing to pay for an additional outcome. Results: Enrolled patients included 185 youths (mean [SD] age, 11.3 [2.6] years; 107 [57.8%] female; 144 [77.8%] White; and 38 [20.7%] Hispanic). Youths who received BBT experienced significantly more anxiety-free days (difference, 28.63 days; 95% CI, 5.86-50.71 days; P = .01) and QALYs (difference, 0.026; 95% CI, 0.009-0.046; P = .007) compared with youths who received ARC. Youths who received BBT experienced more depression-free days than did youths who received ARC (difference, 10.52 days; 95% CI, -4.50 to 25.76 days; P = .18), but the difference was not statistically significant. The mean incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was -$41 414 per QALY (95% CI, -$220 601 to $11 468). The cost-effectiveness acceptability curve analysis indicated that, at a recommended willingness-to-pay threshold of $50 000 per QALY, the probability that BBT would be cost-effective compared with ARC at 32 weeks was 95.6%. Conclusions and Relevance: In this economic evaluation, BBT in primary care was significantly associated with better outcomes and a greater probability of cost-effectiveness at 32 weeks compared with ARC. The findings suggest that transdiagnostic BBT may be associated with improved youth anxiety and functioning at a reasonable cost.

2.
Cancer ; 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146913

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) has heterogeneous recurrence and progression outcomes. Available risk calculators estimate recurrence and progression but do not predict the recurrence stage or grade, which may influence downstream treatment. The objective of this study was to predict risk-stratified NMIBC recurrence and progression based on recurrence tumor classification and grade. METHODS: In total, 2956 patients with NMIBC (

3.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 31(7): 1594-1601, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32487562

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CKD is associated with higher health care costs that increase with disease progression. However, research is lacking on the type of health care costs associated with CKD across all stages in a general population with a substantial comorbidity burden. METHODS: Using electronic medical records of an integrated delivery system, we evaluated health care costs by expenditure type in general and in patients with CKD by eGFR and presence of comorbidities. We categorized 146,132 patients with eGFR data in 2016 or 2017 and examined nonmutually exclusive groups according to presence of diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, or heart failure. We used 1 year of follow-up data to calculate outpatient, inpatient, emergency, pharmaceutical, dialysis, and total health care costs by eGFR (Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes-defined eGFR categories), adjusted for age, sex, and nonwhite race. RESULTS: Mean total health care costs among patients with CKD without comorbidities were 31% higher than among patients without CKD ($7374 versus $5631, respectively). Hospitalizations accounted for 35% of total costs among those with CKD and no comorbidities but up to 55% among patients with CKD and heart failure. The proportion of costs attributable to hospitalizations accelerated with declining kidney function, reaching as high as 66%. CONCLUSIONS: Poorer kidney function and the presence of diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, or heart failure drive substantial health care costs and increase the proportion of costs attributable to inpatient care. The large contribution of inpatient costs begins in earlier stages of CKD and escalates as kidney function declines. Additional therapies to reduce CKD incidence, slow CKD progression, and lower hospitalization risk are needed to benefit patients and reduce CKD's economic burden.

4.
Urol Oncol ; 38(9): 737.e17-737.e23, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32409197

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) disproportionately affects older adults who often have coexisting chronic conditions such as metabolic syndrome (MetS). Although prior research suggests that MetS is a risk factor for NMIBC, limited data exists on whether MetS is associated with NMIBC recurrence. Our objective was to evaluate the association between MetS and recurrence in older adults treated for NMIBC. METHODS: We identified 1,485 older (age ≥60 years) NMIBC patients (American Joint Committee on Cancer Stage ≤1) from 2community-based health systems. Using data from the health systems' electronic medical record, MetS was defined as the presence of three of the following: diagnosis codes indicating hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, or body mass index >30. Follow up time was determined by date of the last follow up in the tumor registry and censored at 10 years. Cox proportional hazards regression of time to recurrence that accounts for the competing risk of death included adjustment for age, sex, smoking status, health system, NMIBC stage/grade, tumor size, and number of specimens with cancer. RESULTS: Overall, 341 patients (23%) met MetS criteria. Median follow up was 5.9 years and 582 patients (39.2%) died. Patients with MetS were more frequently male (84.2%), and mostly current/former smokers (82.6%). By 10 years, 34.1% of the cohort had experienced a recurrence. After accounting for the competing risk of death, there was no association between MetS and time to recurrence (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.88, 95% confidence interval 0.70-1.11, P = 0.28). Patients without MetS had more 0a/low grade recurrences (49.1% vs. 41.4%), though differences were not significant. CONCLUSION: We found no association between MetS and risk of NMIBC recurrence in this large, multisite cohort of older adults with NMIBC. In order to design personalized care for older NMIBC patients, future research is needed to evaluate associations between common chronic conditions and a variety of oncologic outcomes.

5.
Urol Oncol ; 38(2): 39.e21-39.e27, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711836

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To externally validate the European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) risk calculator and National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines in a contemporary population of U.S. non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) patients treated in a community-based setting and compare our findings to those from another U.S. health system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified 1,491 NMIBC patients with a median follow-up of 2.1 years (recurrence) and 4.1 years (progression). We calculated NCCN risk groupings and EORTC prognostic index for recurrence and progression. We followed Royston and Altman's guidelines for the external validation of prognostic calculators. RESULTS: For predicting recurrence using the EORTC framework, Harrell's C (a measure of discrimination) was smaller in our sample (0.66) than in the European Association of Urology sample (0.61), whereas for progression, Harrell's C was larger in our sample (0.78 vs. 0.75). The EORTC calculator overestimated progression risk in the highest stratum for our sample; calibration and discrimination were adequate for all groups except the highest risk group. For NCCN risk groupings, Harrell's C was 0.54 for recurrence and 0.62 for progression, suggesting poor to fair discrimination in our sample. The NCCN framework had slightly better performance for predicting progression vs. recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: Existing NMIBC risk-stratification frameworks have acceptable accuracy to predict outcomes. However, further innovation in NMIBC care will require predictive tools with more granularity to reflect the differential risks of subgroups of NMIBC recurrence, prior treatment histories, and other prognostic variables.

6.
Qual Life Res ; 29(4): 879-889, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811594

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The Bladder Cancer Quality of Life Study collected detailed and sensitive patient-reported outcomes from bladder cancer survivors in the period after bladder removal surgery, when participation in survey research may present a burden. This paper describes the study recruitment methods and examines the response rates and patterns of missing data. METHODS: Detailed surveys focusing on quality of life, healthcare decision-making, and healthcare expenses were mailed to patients 5-7 months after cystectomy. We conducted up to 10 follow-up recruitment calls. We analyzed survey completion rates following each contact in relation to demographic and clinical characteristics, and patterns of missing data across survey content areas. RESULTS: The overall response rate was 71% (n = 269/379). This was consistent across patient clinical characteristics; response rates were significantly higher among patients over age 70 and significantly lower among racial and ethnic minority patients compared to non-Hispanic white patients. Each follow-up contact resulted in marginal survey completion rates of at least 10%. Rates of missing data were low across most content areas, even for potentially sensitive questions. Rates of missing data differed significantly by sex, age, and race/ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the effort required to participate in research, this population of cancer survivors showed willingness to share detailed information about quality of life, health care decision-making, and expenses, soon after major cancer surgery. Additional contacts were effective at increasing participation. Response patterns differed by race/ethnicity and other demographic factors. Our data collection methods show that it is feasible to gather detailed patient-reported outcomes during this challenging period.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Cistectomia/economia , Cistectomia/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Adulto , Tomada de Decisões , Assistência à Saúde/economia , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupos Minoritários , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/economia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 17(10): 1166-1172, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590146

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oral tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been the standard of care for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) since 2001. However, few studies have evaluated changes in the treatment landscape of CML over time. This study assessed the long-term treatment patterns of oral anticancer therapies among patients with CML. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included patients newly diagnosed with CML between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2016, from 10 integrated healthcare systems. The proportion of patients treated with 5 FDA-approved oral TKI agents-bosutinib, dasatinib, imatinib, nilotinib, and ponatinib-in the 12 months after diagnosis were measured, overall and by year, between 2000 and 2017. We assessed the use of each oral agent through the fourth-line setting. Multivariable logistic regression estimated the odds of receiving any oral agent, adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: Among 853 patients with CML, 81% received an oral agent between 2000 and 2017. Use of non-oral therapies decreased from 100% in 2000 to 5% in 2005, coinciding with imatinib uptake from 65% in 2001 to 98% in 2005. Approximately 28% of patients switched to a second-line agent, 9% switched to a third-line agent, and 2% switched to a fourth-line agent. Adjusted analysis showed that age at diagnosis, year of diagnosis, and comorbidity burden were statistically significantly associated with odds of receiving an oral agent. CONCLUSIONS: A dramatic shift was seen in CML treatments away from traditional, nonoral chemotherapy toward use of novel oral TKIs between 2000 and 2017. As the costs of oral anticancer agents reach new highs, studies assessing the long-term health and financial outcomes among patients with CML are warranted.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Oncol Pract ; 15(7): e616-e627, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31107629

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Spending for patients with advanced cancer is substantial. Past efforts to characterize this spending usually have not included patients with recurrence (who may differ from those with de novo stage IV disease) or described which services drive spending. METHODS: Using SEER-Medicare data from 2008 to 2013, we identified patients with breast, colorectal, and lung cancer with either de novo stage IV or recurrent advanced cancer. Mean spending/patient/month (2012 US dollars) was estimated from 12 months before to 11 months after diagnosis for all services and by the type of service. We describe the absolute difference in mean monthly spending for de novo versus recurrent patients, and we estimate differences after controlling for type of advanced cancer, year of diagnosis, age, sex, comorbidity, and other factors. RESULTS: We identified 54,982 patients with advanced cancer. Before diagnosis, mean monthly spending was higher for recurrent patients (absolute difference: breast, $1,412; colorectal, $3,002; lung, $2,805; all P < .001), whereas after the diagnosis, it was higher for de novo patients (absolute difference: breast, $2,443; colorectal, $4,844; lung, $2,356; all P < .001). Spending differences were driven by inpatient, physician, and hospice services. Across the 2-year period around the advanced cancer diagnosis, adjusted mean monthly spending was higher for de novo versus recurrent patients (spending ratio: breast, 2.39 [95% CI, 2.05 to 2.77]; colorectal, 2.64 [95% CI, 2.31 to 3.01]; lung, 1.46 [95% CI, 1.30 to 1.65]). CONCLUSION: Spending for de novo cancer was greater than spending for recurrent advanced cancer. Understanding the patterns and drivers of spending is necessary to design alternative payment models and to improve value.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/economia , Neoplasias Colorretais/economia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Neoplasias Pulmonares/economia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/economia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Medicare , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Programa de SEER , Estados Unidos
9.
JCO Clin Cancer Inform ; 3: 1-10, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30995122

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Hospitalizations are a common occurrence during chemotherapy for advanced cancer. Validated risk stratification tools could facilitate proactive approaches for reducing hospitalizations by identifying at-risk patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We assembled two retrospective cohorts of patients receiving chemotherapy for advanced nonhematologic cancer; cohorts were drawn from three integrated health plans of the Cancer Research Network. We used these cohorts to develop and validate logistic regression models estimating 30-day hospitalization risk after chemotherapy initiation. The development cohort included patients in two health plans from 2005 to 2013. The validation cohort included patients in a third health plan from 2007 to 2016. Candidate predictor variables were derived from clinical data in institutional data warehouses. Models were validated based on the C-statistic, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value. Positive predictive value and negative predictive value were calculated in reference to a prespecified risk threshold (hospitalization risk ≥ 18.0%). RESULTS: There were 3,606 patients in the development cohort (median age, 63 years) and 634 evaluable patients in the validation cohort (median age, 64 years). Lung cancer was the most common diagnosis in both cohorts (26% and 31%, respectively). The selected risk stratification model included two variables: albumin and sodium. The model C-statistic in the validation cohort was 0.69 (95% CI, 0.62 to 0.75); 39% of patients were classified as high risk according to the prespecified threshold; 30-day hospitalization risk was 24.2% (95% CI, 19.9% to 32.0%) in the high-risk group and 8.7% (95% CI, 6.1% to 12.0%) in the low-risk group. CONCLUSION: A model based on data elements routinely collected during cancer treatment can reliably identify patients at high risk for hospitalization after chemotherapy initiation. Additional research is necessary to determine whether this model can be deployed to prevent chemotherapy-related hospitalizations.


Assuntos
Hospitalização , Modelos Teóricos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
10.
JCO Clin Cancer Inform ; 3: 1-9, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30869998

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We previously developed and validated informatic algorithms that used International Classification of Diseases 9th revision (ICD9)-based diagnostic and procedure codes to detect the presence and timing of cancer recurrence (the RECUR Algorithms). In 2015, ICD10 replaced ICD9 as the worldwide coding standard. To understand the impact of this transition, we evaluated the performance of the RECUR Algorithms after incorporating ICD10 codes. METHODS: Using publicly available translation tables along with clinician and other expertise, we updated the algorithms to include ICD10 codes as additional input variables. We evaluated the performance of the algorithms using gold standard recurrence measures associated with a contemporary cohort of patients with stage I to III breast, colorectal, and lung (excluding IIIB) cancer and derived performance measures, including the area under the receiver operating curve, average absolute prediction error, and correct classification rate. These values were compared with the performance measures derived from the validation of the original algorithms. RESULTS: A total of 659 colorectal, 280 lung, and 2,053 breast cancer cases were identified. Area under the receiver operating curve derived from the updated algorithms was 89.0% (95% CI, 82.3% to 95.7%), 88.9% (95% CI, 79.3% to 98.2%), and 80.5% (95% CI, 72.8% to 88.2%) for the colorectal, lung, and breast cancer algorithms, respectively. Average absolute prediction errors for recurrence timing were 2.7 (SE, 11.3%), 2.4 (SE, 10.4%), and 5.6 months (SE, 21.8%), respectively, and timing estimates were within 6 months of actual recurrence for more than 80% of colorectal, more than 90% of lung, and more than 50% of breast cancer cases using the updated algorithm. CONCLUSION: Performance measures derived from the updated and original algorithms had overlapping confidence intervals, suggesting that the ICD9 to ICD10 transition did not affect the RECUR Algorithm performance.


Assuntos
Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Algoritmos , Terapia Combinada , Diagnóstico por Imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Classificação Internacional de Doenças/normas , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias/terapia , Recidiva , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Popul Health Manag ; 22(1): 83-89, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29927702

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) causes more than 50,000 deaths each year in the United States but early detection through screening yields survival gains; those diagnosed with early stage disease have a 5-year survival greater than 90%, compared to 12% for those diagnosed with late stage disease. Using data from a large integrated health system, this study evaluates the cost-effectiveness of fecal immunochemical testing (FIT), a common CRC screening tool. A probabilistic decision-analytic model was used to examine the costs and outcomes of positive test results from a 1-FIT regimen compared with a 2-FIT regimen. The authors compared 5 diagnostic cutoffs of hemoglobin concentration for each test (for a total of 10 screening options). The principal outcome from the analysis was the cost per additional advanced neoplasia (AN) detected. The authors also estimated the number of cancers detected and life-years gained from detecting AN. The following costs were included: program management of the screening program, patient identification, FIT kits and their processing, and diagnostic colonoscopy following a positive FIT. Per-person costs ranged from $33 (1-FIT at 150ng/ml) to $92 (2-FIT at 50ng/ml) across screening options. Depending on willingness to pay, the 1-FIT 50 ng/ml and the 2-FIT 50 ng/ml are the dominant strategies with cost-effectiveness of $11,198 and $28,389, respectively, for an additional AN detected. The estimates of cancers avoided per 1000 screens ranged from 1.46 to 4.86, depending on the strategy and the assumptions of AN to cancer progression.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Imuno-Histoquímica , Sangue Oculto , Análise Custo-Benefício , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/economia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Fezes/química , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica/economia , Imuno-Histoquímica/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
Cancer ; 124(23): 4477-4485, 2018 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30289971

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple chronic conditions (MCC) are common among older patients with cancer; however, the exclusion of these patients from clinical trials has resulted in scarce knowledge concerning outcomes, resulting in variations in treatment. Superficial bladder cancer (SBC) disproportionately affects older adults, yet to the authors' knowledge few studies to date have examined whether treatment improves long-term survival. In the current study, the authors evaluated the association between treatment of SBC and 10-year mortality in medically complex older adults. METHODS: The authors identified 1800 older (aged ≥60 years) patients with SBC (American Joint Committee on Cancer stage ≤I) from 2 community-based health systems who received treatment (bladder instillation and/or transurethral resection) or observation. Cox proportional hazards regression was performed adjusting for age, sex, race, health system, stage of disease/grade, and MCC (≥2 baseline chronic conditions). Propensity score analysis using stabilized inverse probability of treatment weights was used to compare 10-year mortality in the 2 treatment groups with adjustment for covariates. RESULTS: Overall, 1485 patients (82.5%) and 315 patients (17.5%) received treatment and observation, respectively. In unweighted multivariable analysis, treatment was associated with a 30% reduction in death (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 0.70; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.58-0.85 [P<.01]) and MCC with a 72% increase in death (adjusted HR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.44-2.05 [P<.01]). Weighted analysis with adjustment (doubly robust) also demonstrated a survival benefit for treatment (adjusted HR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.52-0.84 [P<.01]). CONCLUSIONS: The results of the current study demonstrated a clinically meaningful association between cancer treatment and survival benefit in older, medically complex patients with SBC, even after adjustment for medical complexity. These data provide a foundation for future work aimed at personalizing the treatment guidance of older patients with cancer with MCC.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Múltiplas Afecções Crônicas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/terapia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos/métodos , Administração Intravesical , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Am J Cardiol ; 122(7): 1128-1132, 2018 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30086877

RESUMO

High triglyceride (TG) levels are associated with higher medical costs, but the long-term impact of high TG on costs among patients with statin-controlled low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is unclear. We compared medical utilization and costs over 6.5years between patients with high (200 to 400 mg/dl) versus normal (<150 mg/dl) TG levels, all of whom had established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). This was an observational cohort study of 17,183 patients with TG measured in 2010 and followed until death, disenrollment or the end of 2016. All patients had LDL-C levels between 40 and 100 mg/dl and were receiving statin therapy at the time of their TG measurement. We compared annualized medical utilization adjusted for differences between group in age, sex, race, and study site. We also compared annualized medical costs, further adjusting for baseline costs as a proxy for resource-intensive comorbidities. After multivariable adjustment, patients with high TG levels (n=2,702) had a mean of 13% more inpatient admissions per year (p <0.001). Despite adjustment for comorbidities such as diabetes and chronic kidney disease, total outpatient costs were 5% greater (p = 0.035) among those with high TG, including emergency care costs (6% greater) and hospital ambulatory costs (25% greater). The overall difference in annual costs of $964 per patient in the high TG cohort totaled over $2.6million per year in excess annual costs and more than $13.5million over the mean follow-up of 5.2years.


Assuntos
LDL-Colesterol/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Hipertrigliceridemia/tratamento farmacológico , Revisão da Utilização de Recursos de Saúde , Idoso , California , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/economia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
Health Serv Res ; 53(6): 5106-5128, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30043542

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To address the knowledge gap regarding medical care costs for advanced cancer patients, we compared costs for recurrent versus de novo stage IV breast, colorectal, and lung cancer patients. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Virtual Data Warehouse (VDW) information from three Kaiser Permanente regions: Colorado, Northwest, and Washington. STUDY DESIGN: We identified patients aged ≥21 with de novo or recurrent breast (nde novo  = 352; nrecurrent  = 765), colorectal (nde novo  = 1,072; nrecurrent  = 542), and lung (nde novo  = 4,041; nrecurrent  = 340) cancers diagnosed 2000-2012. We estimated average total monthly and annual costs in the 12 months preceding, month of, and 12 months following the index de novo/recurrence date, stratified by age at diagnosis (<65, ≥65). Generalized linear repeated-measures models controlled for demographics and comorbidity. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the pre-index period, monthly costs were higher for recurrent than for de novo breast (<65: +$2,431; ≥65: +$1,360), colorectal (<65: +$3,219; ≥65: +$2,247), and lung cancer (<65: +$3,086; ≥65: +$2,260) patients. Conversely, during the index and post-index periods, costs were higher for de novo patients. Average total annual pre-index costs were five- to ninefold higher for recurrent versus de novo patients <65. CONCLUSIONS: Cost differences by type of advanced cancer and by age suggest heterogeneous patterns of care that merit further investigation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
16.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 16(4): 402-410, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29632060

RESUMO

Background: The high economic burden of cancer is projected to continue growing. Cost-of-care estimates are key inputs for comparative effectiveness and economic analyses that aim to inform policies associated with cancer care. Existing estimates are based largely on SEER-Medicare data in the elderly, leaving a knowledge gap regarding costs for patients aged <65 years. Methods: We estimated total and net medical care costs using data on individuals diagnosed with breast, colorectal, lung, or prostate cancer (n=45,522) and noncancer controls (n=314,887) enrolled in 1 of 4 participating health plans. Net costs were defined as the difference in mean total costs between patients with cancer and controls. The phase-of-care approach and Kaplan-Meier Sample Average method were used to estimate mean total and net 1- and 5-year costs (in 2015 US dollars) by cancer site, stage at diagnosis, and age group (<65 and ≥65 years). Results: Total and net costs were consistently highest for lung cancer and lowest for prostate cancer. Net costs were higher across all cancer sites for patients aged <65 years than those aged ≥65 years. Medical care costs for all cancers increased with advanced stage at diagnosis. Conclusions: This study improves understanding of medical care costs for the 4 most common invasive cancers in the United States. Higher costs among patients aged <65 years highlight limitations of relying on SEER-Medicare data alone to understand the national burden of cancer, whereas higher costs for patients with advanced-stage cancer underscore the importance of early detection to curtail high long-term costs. These cost estimates can be used in the development and evaluation of interventions and policies across the cancer care continuum.


Assuntos
Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/economia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Custos e Análise de Custo , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Medicare , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/terapia , Programa de SEER , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
Dig Dis Sci ; 63(1): 270, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29181742

RESUMO

The article Early Colorectal Cancer Detected by Machine Learning Model Using Gender, Age, and Complete Blood Count Data, written by Mark C. Hornbrook, Ran Goshen, Eran Choman, Maureen O'Keeffe-Rosetti, Yaron Kinar, Elizabeth G. Liles, and Kristal C. Rust, was originally published Online First without open access.

18.
Dig Dis Sci ; 62(10): 2719-2727, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28836087

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Machine learning tools identify patients with blood counts indicating greater likelihood of colorectal cancer and warranting colonoscopy referral. AIMS: To validate a machine learning colorectal cancer detection model on a US community-based insured adult population. METHODS: Eligible colorectal cancer cases (439 females, 461 males) with complete blood counts before diagnosis were identified from Kaiser Permanente Northwest Region's Tumor Registry. Control patients (n = 9108) were randomly selected from KPNW's population who had no cancers, received at ≥1 blood count, had continuous enrollment from 180 days prior to the blood count through 24 months after the count, and were aged 40-89. For each control, one blood count was randomly selected as the pseudo-colorectal cancer diagnosis date for matching to cases, and assigned a "calendar year" based on the count date. For each calendar year, 18 controls were randomly selected to match the general enrollment's 10-year age groups and lengths of continuous enrollment. Prediction performance was evaluated by area under the curve, specificity, and odds ratios. RESULTS: Area under the receiver operating characteristics curve for detecting colorectal cancer was 0.80 ± 0.01. At 99% specificity, the odds ratio for association of a high-risk detection score with colorectal cancer was 34.7 (95% CI 28.9-40.4). The detection model had the highest accuracy in identifying right-sided colorectal cancers. CONCLUSIONS: ColonFlag® identifies individuals with tenfold higher risk of undiagnosed colorectal cancer at curable stages (0/I/II), flags colorectal tumors 180-360 days prior to usual clinical diagnosis, and is more accurate at identifying right-sided (compared to left-sided) colorectal cancers.


Assuntos
Contagem de Células Sanguíneas , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Mineração de Dados/métodos , Diagnóstico por Computador/métodos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Algoritmos , Área Sob a Curva , Colonoscopia , Neoplasias Colorretais/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Curva ROC , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Sistema de Registros , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
19.
J Oncol Pract ; 13(5): e441-e450, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28221895

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The overuse of imaging, particularly for staging of low-risk prostate cancer, is well documented and widespread. The existing literature, which focuses on the elderly in fee-for-service settings, points to financial incentives as a driver of overuse and may not identify factors relevant to policy solutions within integrated health care systems, where physicians are salaried. METHODS: Imaging rates were analyzed among men with incident prostate cancer diagnosed between 2004 and 2011 within the Colorado and Northwest regions of Kaiser Permanente. The sample was stratified according to indication for imaging, ie, high risk for whom imaging was necessary versus low risk for whom imaging was discouraged. Logistic regression was used to model the association between imaging receipt and clinical/demographic patient characteristics by risk strata. RESULTS: Of the men with low-risk prostate cancer, 35% received nonindicated imaging at diagnosis, whereas 42% of men with high-risk prostate cancer did not receive indicated imaging. Compared with men diagnosed in 2004, those diagnosed in subsequent years were less likely to receive imaging across both risk groups. Men with high-risk cancer diagnosed at ≥ 65 years of age and those with clinical stage ≥ T2 were more likely to receive indicated imaging. Men with comorbidities were more likely to receive imaging across both risk groups. Men with low-risk prostate cancer who had higher median household incomes were less likely to receive nonindicated imaging. CONCLUSION: Nonindicated imaging for diagnostic staging of patients with low-risk prostate cancer was common, but has decreased over the past decade. These findings suggest that factors other than financial incentives may be driving overuse of imaging.


Assuntos
Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/organização & administração , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Diagnóstico por Imagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Idoso , Colorado/epidemiologia , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Razão de Chances , Oregon/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Risco , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
20.
Am J Cardiol ; 119(3): 410-415, 2017 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27890243

RESUMO

High triglyceride (TG) levels among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) are associated with higher medical costs. We analyzed the economic impact of TG-lowering therapies and whether the association between medical costs and therapy differed according to TG reduction. We conducted an observational cohort study of 184,932 patients with diabetes mellitus who had a TG measurement between January 2012 and June 2013 and a second TG measurement 3 to 15 months later. We identified 4 therapy groups (statin monotherapy, TG-specific monotherapy, statin/TG-specific combination therapy, or no therapy) and stratified those groups by percent change in TG (increased ≥5%, change of ≤4.9%, decreased 5% to 29%, decreased ≥30%). We compared change in medical costs between the year before and after therapy, adjusted for demographic and clinical characteristics. Of the 184,932 total patients, 143,549 (77.6%) received statin monotherapy, 900 (0.5%) received TG-specific monotherapy, 1,956 (1.1%) received statin and TG-specific combination therapy, and 38,527 (20.8%) received no prescription lipid agents. After covariate adjustment, statin/TG-specific agent recipients had a mean 1-year total cost reduction of $1,110. The greatest cost reduction was seen among statin/TG-specific combination therapy patients who reduced TG levels by ≥30% (-$2,859). Statin monotherapy patients who reduced TG by ≥30% also had a large reduction in adjusted costs (-$1,079). In conclusion, we found a substantial economic benefit to treating diabetic patients with statin/TG-specific combination lipid therapy compared with monotherapy of either type or no lipid pharmacotherapy. A TG reduction of ≥30% produced a particularly large reduction in 1-year medical costs.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Hipercolesterolemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertrigliceridemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipolipemiantes/uso terapêutico , Idoso , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Análise Custo-Benefício , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/economia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Ácidos Fíbricos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/complicações , Hipercolesterolemia/economia , Hipertrigliceridemia/complicações , Hipertrigliceridemia/economia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Niacina/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Triglicerídeos/sangue
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