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1.
Curr Oncol ; 28(6): 5346-5355, 2021 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34940085

RESUMO

Epithelioid trophoblastic tumours are rare neoplasms showing differentiation towards the chorion leave-type intermediate cytotrophoblast, with only a handful of cases being reported in the literature. These tumours are slow-growing and are typically confined to the uterus for extended periods of time. While the pathogenesis is unclear, they are thought to arise from a remnant intermediate trophoblast originating from prior normal pregnancies or, less frequently, gestational trophoblastic tumours. A protracted time period between the gestational event and tumour development is typical. This case describes a 49-year-old previously healthy female who presented with a completely asymptomatic uterine mass, discovered incidentally during a routine gynaecological assessment. The pathological analysis of the hysterectomy specimen confirmed an epithelioid trophoblastic tumour, involving the uterus and cervix. This is a rare gynaecological tumour. A comparative short tandem repeat analysis revealed genetic similarities to a previous healthy gestation seventeen years prior. She was successful treated with adjuvant pembrolizumab, with no evidence of disease recurrence to date.

2.
Transl Oncol ; 14(12): 101229, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592589

RESUMO

Tumour metastasis accounts for over 90% of cancer related deaths. The platelet is a key blood component, which facilitates efficient metastasis. This study aimed to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in tumour-platelet cell interactions. The interaction between cancer cells and platelets was examined in 15 epithelial cell lines, representing 7 cancer types. Gene expression analysis of EMT-associated and cancer stemness genes was performed by RT-PCR. Whole transcriptome analysis (WTA) was performed using Affymetrix 2.0ST arrays on a platelet co-cultured ovarian model. Platelet adhesion and activation occurred across all tumour types. WTA identified increases in cellular movement, migration, invasion, adhesion, development, differentiation and inflammation genes and decreases in processes associated with cell death and survival following platelet interaction. Increased invasive capacity was also observed in a subset of cell lines. A cross-comparison with a platelet co-cultured mouse model identified 5 common altered genes; PAI-1, PLEK2, CD73, TNC, and SDPR. Platelet cancer cell interactions are a key factor in driving the pro-metastatic phenotype and appear to be mediated by 5 key genes which have established roles in metastasis. Targeting these metastasis mediators could improve cancer patient outcomes.

3.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(18)2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34572916

RESUMO

Interactions between circulating tumour cells (CTCs) and platelets are thought to inhibit natural killer(NK)-cell-induced lysis. We attempted to correlate CTC numbers in men with advanced prostate cancer with platelet counts and circulating lymphocyte numbers. Sixty-one ExPeCT trial participants, divided into overweight/obese and normal weight groups on the basis of a BMI ≥ 25 or <25, were randomized to participate or not in a six-month exercise programme. Blood samples at randomization, and at three and six months, were subjected to ScreenCell filtration, circulating platelet counts were obtained, and flow cytometry was performed on a subset of samples (n = 29). CTC count positively correlated with absolute total lymphocyte count (r2 = 0.1709, p = 0.0258) and NK-cell count (r2 = 0.49, p < 0.0001). There was also a positive correlation between platelet count and CTC count (r2 = 0.094, p = 0.0001). Correlation was also demonstrated within the overweight/obese group (n = 123, p < 0.0001), the non-exercise group (n = 79, p = 0.001) and blood draw samples lacking platelet cloaking (n = 128, p < 0.0001). By flow cytometry, blood samples from the exercise group (n = 15) had a higher proportion of CD3+ T-lymphocytes (p = 0.0003) and lower proportions of B-lymphocytes (p = 0.0264) and NK-cells (p = 0.015) than the non-exercise group (n = 14). These findings suggest that CTCs engage in complex interactions with the coagulation cascade and innate immune system during intravascular transit, and they present an attractive target for directed therapy at a vulnerable stage in metastasis.

4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360598

RESUMO

Gynecological cancers (GCs) are currently among the major threats to female health. Moreover, there are different histologic subtypes of these cancers, which are defined as 'rare' due to an annual incidence of <6 per 100,000 women. The majority of these tend to be associated with a poor prognosis. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a critical role in the normal development of organisms as well as in tumorigenesis. LncRNAs can be classified into tumor suppressor genes or oncogenes, depending on their function within the cellular context and the signaling pathways in which they are involved. These regulatory RNAs are potential therapeutic targets for cancer due to their tissue and tumor specificity. However, there still needs to be a deeper understanding of the mechanisms by which lncRNAs are involved in the regulation of numerous biological functions in humans, both in normal health and disease. The lncRNA Mortal Obligate RNA Transcript (MORT; alias ZNF667-AS1) has been identified as a tumor-related lncRNA. ZNF667-AS1 gene, located in the human chromosome region 19q13.43, has been shown to be silenced by DNA hypermethylation in several cancers. In this review, we report on the biological functions of ZNF667-AS1 from recent studies and describe the regulatory functions of ZNF667-AS1 in human disease, including cancer. Furthermore, we discuss the emerging insights into the potential role of ZNF667-AS1 as a biomarker and novel therapeutic target in cancer, including GCs (ovarian, cervical, and endometrial cancers).


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos/patologia , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Animais , Feminino , Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos/genética , Humanos
5.
HRB Open Res ; 4: 44, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34458677

RESUMO

Background:  Cervical screening uptake is declining in several countries. Primary care practitioners could play a greater role in maximising uptake, but better understanding is needed of practitioners' cervical screening-related behaviours. Among general practitioners (GPs) and practice nurses, we aimed to identify cervical screening-related clinical behaviours; clarify practitioners' roles/responsibilities; and determine factors likely to influence clinical behaviours. Methods: Telephone interviews were conducted with GPs and practice nurses in Ireland. Interview transcripts were analysed using the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF), a comprehensive psychological framework of factors influencing clinical behaviour. Results: 14 GPs and 19 practice nurses participated. Key clinical behaviours identified were offering smears and encouraging women to attend for smears. Smeartaking responsibility was considered a predominantly female role. Of 12 possible theoretical domains, 11 were identified in relation to these behaviours. Those judged to be the most important were beliefs about capabilities; environmental context and resources; social influences; and behavioural regulation. Difficulties in obtaining smears from certain subgroups of women and inexperience of some GPs in smeartaking arose in relation to beliefs about capabilities. The need for public health education and reluctance of male practitioners to discuss cervical screening with female patients emerged in relation to social influences.   Conclusions: We identified - for the first time - primary care practitioners' cervical-screening related clinical behaviours, their perceived roles and responsibilities, and factors likely to influence behaviours. The results could inform initiatives to enable practitioners to encourage women to have smear tests which in turn, may help increase cervical screening uptake.

6.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 17(8): e1009289, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34415913

RESUMO

The epidemic increase in the incidence of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) related Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinomas (OPSCCs) in several countries worldwide represents a significant public health concern. Although gender neutral HPV vaccination programmes are expected to cause a reduction in the incidence rates of OPSCCs, these effects will not be evident in the foreseeable future. Secondary prevention strategies are currently not feasible due to an incomplete understanding of the natural history of oral HPV infections in OPSCCs. The key parameters that govern natural history models remain largely ill-defined for HPV related OPSCCs and cannot be easily inferred from experimental data. Mathematical models have been used to estimate some of these ill-defined parameters in cervical cancer, another HPV related cancer leading to successful implementation of cancer prevention strategies. We outline a "double-Bayesian" mathematical modelling approach, whereby, a Bayesian machine learning model first estimates the probability of an individual having an oral HPV infection, given OPSCC and other covariate information. The model is then inverted using Bayes' theorem to reverse the probability relationship. We use data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) cancer registry, SEER Head and Neck with HPV Database and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES), representing the adult population in the United States to derive our model. The model contains 8,106 OPSCC patients of which 73.0% had an oral HPV infection. When stratified by age, sex, marital status and race/ethnicity, the model estimated a higher conditional probability for developing OPSCCs given an oral HPV infection in non-Hispanic White males and females compared to other races/ethnicities. The proposed Bayesian model represents a proof-of-concept of a natural history model of HPV driven OPSCCs and outlines a strategy for estimating the conditional probability of an individual's risk of developing OPSCC following an oral HPV infection.


Assuntos
Alphapapillomavirus/patogenicidade , Teorema de Bayes , Aprendizado de Máquina , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/virologia , Probabilidade , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/virologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/epidemiologia , Programa de SEER , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/epidemiologia
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204445

RESUMO

Choriocarcinoma (CC), a subtype of trophoblastic disease, is a rare and highly aggressive neoplasm. There are two main CC subtypes: gestational and non-gestational, (so called when it develops as a component of a germ cell tumor or is related to a somatic mutation of a poorly differentiated carcinoma), each with very diverse biological activity. A therapeutic approach is highly effective in patients with early-stage CC. The advanced stage of the disease also has a good prognosis with around 95% of patients cured following chemotherapy. However, advancements in diagnosis and treatment are always needed to improve outcomes for patients with CC. Long non-coding (lnc) RNAs are non-coding transcripts that are longer than 200 nucleotides. LncRNAs can act as oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes. Deregulation of their expression has a key role in tumor development, angiogenesis, differentiation, migration, apoptosis, and proliferation. Furthermore, detection of cancer-associated lncRNAs in body fluids, such as blood, saliva, and urine of cancer patients, is emerging as a novel method for cancer diagnosis. Although there is evidence for the potential role of lncRNAs in a number of cancers of the female genital tract, their role in CC is poorly understood. This review summarizes the current knowledge of lncRNAs in gestational CC and how this may be applied to future therapeutic strategies in the treatment of this rare cancer.


Assuntos
Coriocarcinoma/genética , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Neoplasias Uterinas/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Coriocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Coriocarcinoma/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Gravidez , Neoplasias Uterinas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Uterinas/metabolismo
8.
Nat Protoc ; 16(7): 3716-3735, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34117476

RESUMO

Raman spectroscopy can provide a rapid, label-free, nondestructive measurement of the chemical fingerprint of a sample and has shown potential for cancer screening and diagnosis. Here we report a protocol for Raman microspectroscopic analysis of different exfoliative cytology samples (cervical, oral and lung), covering sample preparation, spectral acquisition, preprocessing and data analysis. The protocol takes 2 h 20 min for sample preparation, measurement and data preprocessing and up to 8 h for a complete analysis. A key feature of the protocol is that it uses the same sample preparation procedure as commonly used in diagnostic cytology laboratories (i.e., liquid-based cytology on glass slides), ensuring compatibility with clinical workflows. Our protocol also covers methods to correct for the spectral contribution of glass and sample pretreatment methods to remove contaminants (such as blood and mucus) that can obscure spectral features in the exfoliated cells and lead to variability. The protocol establishes a standardized clinical routine allowing the collection of highly reproducible data for Raman spectral cytopathology for cancer diagnostic applications for cervical and lung cancer and for monitoring suspicious lesions for oral cancer.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/patologia , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos , Algoritmos , Colo do Útero/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Pulmão/patologia
9.
Transl Lung Cancer Res ; 10(4): 1773-1791, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34012792

RESUMO

Background: In the absence of targetable mutations or immune checkpoints, cisplatin-doublet chemotherapy remains the standard of care in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Drug resistance has however become a significant clinical challenge. Exploring a role for small non-coding microRNAs (miRNA) as biomarker candidates in cisplatin resistant (CisR) lung cancer is lacking and warrants further investigation. Methods: miRNA expression profiling was assessed in a panel of cisplatin sensitive and resistant NSCLC cell lines and validated by qPCR. Modulation of altered miRNAs was studied using antagomiRs and pre-miRs while functional assays were used to assess cisplatin response. The translational relevance of these miRNAs as potential biomarkers was assessed in serum and matched normal and tumour lung tissues from chemo-naïve NSCLC patients, in addition to xenograft formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumours derived from cisplatin sensitive and resistant cell lines. Results: Differential expression of a 5-miR signature (miR-30a-3p, miR-30b-5p, miR-30c-5p, miR-34a-5p, miR-4286) demonstrated their ability to distinguish between normal and tumour lung tissue and between NSCLC histologies. In squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC), tissue miRNA expression was associated with poor survival. miR-4286 showed promise as a blood-based diagnostic biomarker that could distinguish between adenocarcinoma and SqCC histologies. In a xenograft model of cisplatin resistance, using 7-9 week old female NOD/SCID mice (NOD.CB17-Prkdcscid/NCrCrl), a 5-miRNA panel showed altered expression between sensitive and resistant tumours. Conclusions: This study identified a panel of miRNAs which may have diagnostic and prognostic potential as novel biomarkers in lung cancer and furthermore, may have a predictive role in monitoring the emergence of resistance to cisplatin.

10.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(9)2021 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33921939

RESUMO

The role of persistent high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the development of cervical precancer and cancer is now well accepted, and HPV testing has recently been introduced for primary cervical screening. However, the low specificity of HPV DNA testing can result in large numbers of women with an HPV-positive result, and additional triage approaches are needed to avoid over-referral to colposcopy and overtreatment. The aim of this study was to assess Raman spectroscopy as a potential triage test to discriminate between transient and persistent HPV infection. HPV DNA status and mRNA status were confirmed in ThinPrep® cervical samples (n = 60) using the Cobas 4800 and APTIMA HPV test, respectively. Raman spectra were recorded from single-cell nuclei and subjected to partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA). In addition, the PLSDA classification model was validated using a blinded independent test set (n = 14). Sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 92% were achieved for the classification of transient and persistent HPV infection, and this increased to 90% sensitivity and 100% specificity when mean sample spectra were used instead of individual cellular spectra. This study showed that Raman spectroscopy has potential as a triage test for HPV-positive women to identify persistent HPV infection.

11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(8)2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33917022

RESUMO

Gynecological cancers pose an important public health issue, with a high incidence among women of all ages. Gynecological cancers such as malignant germ-cell tumors, sex-cord-stromal tumors, uterine sarcomas and carcinosarcomas, gestational trophoblastic neoplasia, vulvar carcinoma and melanoma of the female genital tract, are defined as rare with an annual incidence of <6 per 100,000 women. Rare gynecological cancers (RGCs) are associated with poor prognosis, and given the low incidence of each entity, there is the risk of delayed diagnosis due to clinical inexperience and limited therapeutic options. There has been a growing interest in the field of microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small non-coding RNAs of ∼22 nucleotides in length, because of their potential to regulate diverse biological processes. miRNAs usually induce mRNA degradation and translational repression by interacting with the 3' untranslated region (3'-UTR) of target mRNAs, as well as other regions and gene promoters, as well as activating translation or regulating transcription under certain conditions. Recent research has revealed the enormous promise of miRNAs for improving the diagnosis, therapy and prognosis of all major gynecological cancers. However, to date, only a few studies have been performed on RGCs. In this review, we summarize the data currently available regarding RGCs.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos/diagnóstico , Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNA Circulante , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos/terapia , Humanos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/normas , Gravidez , Prognóstico , Interferência de RNA , RNA Mensageiro , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
J Oral Pathol Med ; 50(7): 692-699, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33733523

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Considering the shared aetiology of Human Papillomavirus infections in oropharyngeal and cervical cancers and the possible role for sexual transmission, several key aspects of the relationship between cervical and oral infections merit investigation, including prevalence of concomitant oral HPV infection and type-specific concordance with concurrent cervical infections. METHODS: A cross-section study was performed on women referred to colposcopy clinics with cytological abnormalities and a cervical HPV infection. An oral rinse sample was taken from the participants at their baseline visit for HPV testing, and a demographic and risk factor questionnaire was also administered. HPV DNA testing was carried out on the Cobas 4800 platform and extended genotyping was carried out with the INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra II assay. HPV genotyping was also carried out on the concurrent cervical tissue samples on all women who had a positive oral HPV infection. RESULTS: The prevalence of oral HPV infections was 10.0% (95%CI:5.9-13.7) in the study population. HPV18 was the most frequent genotype (7.0%). Concordant oral and cervical HPV infections were detected in 28.6% of women. Age (p = 0.005) and level of education (p = 0.02) were significantly associated with a prevalent oral HPV infection. CONCLUSION: Concomitant oral HPV infections were present in 10.0% of women referred to colposcopy with a pre-existing cervical HPV infections and cytological abnormalities. Although mild type-specific concordance was observed between oral and cervical HPV infections, findings suggest that infections at these sites may not be independent of each other.


Assuntos
Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Colposcopia , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Papillomaviridae/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Prevalência
13.
Thromb Res ; 200: 91-98, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571724

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Ovarian cancer patients are at high risk of thrombosis particularly during chemotherapy treatment however the mechanism is not understood. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of the activated protein C (aPC) pathway in the procoagulant activity observed in ovarian cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thrombin generation was determined before and after addition of thrombomodulin (TM) in high grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (n = 29) compared with HGSOC patients who were chemo naïve (n = 23) and patients with benign tumours (n = 29). Plasma expression of proteins from the aPC pathway was analysed. mRNA expression was determined in endothelial (EA.hy926) and ovarian (OAW42) cell lines following addition of carboplatin and paclitaxel. RESULTS: Lower levels of ETP (p < 0.007; p < 0.003) and peak thrombin (p < 0.0008; p < 0.0018) were found in the neoadjuvant group compared with both chemo naïve and benign groups. Following addition of TM, ETP (p < 0.0005) and peak thrombin (p < 0.0049) were higher in the neoadjuvant group compared with the benign controls indicating an increase in aPC resistance. Increased TM and lower levels of protein S were found in the neoadjuvant group compared with benign controls (p < 0.05; p < 0.003). Factor V levels were increased in the neoadjuvant group compared with the chemo naïve group (p < 0.05). Carboplatin and paclitaxel altered the expression of EPCR and thrombomodulin in OAW42 cells with a modest effect on EA.hy926 cells. CONCLUSION: Chemotherapy induced procoagulant activity in HGSOC is associated with an alteration in expression of key members of the aPC pathway. This acquired aPC resistance may explain the procoagulant phenotype associated with ovarian cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ovarianas , Proteína C , Carboplatina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico
14.
Gynecol Oncol ; 160(2): 514-519, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33213897

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether HE4 and CA125 could identify endometrioid adenocarcinoma patients who might most benefit from full staging surgery with lymphadenectomy. METHODS: Sequential patients with a preoperative banked serum and histology of endometrioid adenocarcinoma of endometrium who had undergone surgical staging with lymph node dissection over a 5-year period between 2011 and 2016 were included from a tertiary Gynaecological Cancer Centre, Dublin, Ireland. Preoperative serum HE4 and CA125 were measured using ELISA, with the cut-offs HE4 81 pmol/L and CA125 35 U/ml. Predictive values were estimated using AUC, sensitivity, specificity and odds ratios. RESULTS: 9.5% of the cohort had lymph node metastases. A HE4 cut-off of 81 pmol/L yielded a sensitivity of 78.6% and specificity of 53.4% for predicting lymph node metastases. Sensitivity of CA125 at 35 U/ml was 57% and specificity 91.4%. The AUC was 0.66 (0.52-0.80) for HE4 and 0.74 (0.58-0.91) for CA125. Sensitivity was 92.8% and specificity 51.1% when an elevation of either HE4 or CA125 was included, AUC was 0.72 (0.61-0.83), this combination yielded the highest NPV of 98.6%. Sensitivity was 42.9% and specificity 93.8% if both markers were elevated simultaneously, AUC was 0.68 (0.51-0.86). Preoperative clinical predictors of high-grade preoperative histology and radiology had sensitivities of 21.4% and 41.7%, respectively. Patients with a HE4 above 81 pmol/L had an odds ratio of 4.2 (1.12-15.74), p < 0.05, of lymph node metastases and CA125 had an odds ratio of 14.2 (4.16-48.31), p < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Serum HE4 and CA125 improved on existing methods for risk stratification of endometrioid carcinomas and warrant further investigation.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Antígeno Ca-125/sangue , Carcinoma Endometrioide/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Endométrio/diagnóstico , Metástase Linfática/diagnóstico , Proteínas de Membrana/sangue , Proteína 2 do Domínio Central WAP de Quatro Dissulfetos/análise , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Endometrioide/sangue , Carcinoma Endometrioide/patologia , Carcinoma Endometrioide/cirurgia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/sangue , Neoplasias do Endométrio/patologia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/cirurgia , Endométrio/patologia , Endométrio/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Histerectomia , Excisão de Linfonodo/estatística & dados numéricos , Linfonodos/patologia , Linfonodos/cirurgia , Metástase Linfática/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores/estatística & dados numéricos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/estatística & dados numéricos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Período Pré-Operatório , Curva ROC , Valores de Referência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Salpingo-Ooforectomia
15.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243715, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370338

RESUMO

Despite the use of front-line anticancer drugs such as paclitaxel for ovarian cancer treatment, mortality rates have remained almost unchanged for the past three decades and the majority of patients will develop recurrent chemoresistant disease which remains largely untreatable. Overcoming chemoresistance or preventing its onset in the first instance remains one of the major challenges for ovarian cancer research. In this study, we demonstrate a key link between senescence and inflammation and how this complex network involving the biomarkers MAD2, TLR4 and MyD88 drives paclitaxel resistance in ovarian cancer. This was investigated using siRNA knockdown of MAD2, TLR4 and MyD88 in two ovarian cancer cell lines, A2780 and SKOV-3 cells and overexpression of MyD88 in A2780 cells. Interestingly, siRNA knockdown of MAD2 led to a significant increase in TLR4 gene expression, this was coupled with the development of a highly paclitaxel-resistant cell phenotype. Additionally, siRNA knockdown of MAD2 or TLR4 in the serous ovarian cell model OVCAR-3 resulted in a significant increase in TLR4 or MAD2 expression respectively. Microarray analysis of SKOV-3 cells following knockdown of TLR4 or MAD2 highlighted a number of significantly altered biological processes including EMT, complement, coagulation, proliferation and survival, ECM remodelling, olfactory receptor signalling, ErbB signalling, DNA packaging, Insulin-like growth factor signalling, ion transport and alteration of components of the cytoskeleton. Cross comparison of the microarray data sets identified 7 overlapping genes including MMP13, ACTBL2, AMTN, PLXDC2, LYZL1, CCBE1 and CKS2. These results demonstrate an important link between these biomarkers, which to our knowledge has never before been shown in ovarian cancer. In the future, we hope that triaging patients into alterative treatment groups based on the expression of these three biomarkers or therapeutic targeting of the mechanisms they are involved in will lead to improvements in patient outcome and prevent the development of chemoresistance.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Paclitaxel/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Senescência Celular/genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Proteínas Mad2/genética , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Paclitaxel/uso terapêutico , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética
16.
Obstet Gynecol Sci ; 63(5): 643-654, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872764

RESUMO

Objective: The therapeutic benefits of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors highlight the need to evaluate BRCA1/2 defects in tubal/ovarian cancer (OC). We sought to determine the pattern and disease characteristics associated with tumor BRCA1/2 mutations and BRCA1 methylation in women with OC. Methods: We obtained 111 OC specimens from 2 university hospitals and assessed BRCA1/2 mutations and BRCA1 methylation in tumor DNA. The frequency and pattern of BRCA1/2 defects were examined. Associations between patient/disease characteristics and BRCA1/2 defects were ascertained (Fisher's exact test). Platinum-free interval (PFI), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) based on the underlying BRCA1/2 defect were determined (Kaplan-Meier analysis [log-rank test]). Results: We observed a BRCA1/2 dysfunction rate of 40% (28/70) in high-grade serous tubal/ovarian cancer (HGSC), including 14.3% BRCA1 methylation (n=10), 7.1% BRCA1 mutation (n=5), and 18.6% BRCA2 mutation (n=13). Defects in BRCA1/2 genes were associated with stage III/IV HGSC (BRCA1 methylation: P=0.005 [stage III/IV] and P=0.004 [HGSC]; BRCA1/2 mutation: P=0.03 [stage III/IV] and P<0.001 [HGSC]). Patients with BRCA1/2-mutated cancers showed improved OS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.43-0.99; P=0.045) and a trend toward improved PFI (HR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.22-1.06; P=0.07) and PFS (HR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.51-1.03; P=0.07). No survival differences were observed between BRCA1-methylated and BRCA1/2 wild-type non-BRCA1-methylated cancers. Conclusion: We observed a high tumor BRCA1/2 dysfunction rate in HGSC with a unique predominance of BRCA2 over BRCA1 mutations. While BRCA1/2 mutations conferred survival benefits in OC, no such association was observed with BRCA1 methylation.

17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(40): 24964-24973, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958663

RESUMO

Influenza A virus (IAV) infection during pregnancy causes severe maternal and perinatal complications, despite a lack of vertical transmission of IAV across the placenta. Here, we demonstrate a significant alteration in the maternal vascular landscape that underpins the maternal and downstream fetal pathology to IAV infection in mice. In IAV infection of nonpregnant mice, the local lung inflammatory response was contained to the lungs and was self-resolving, whereas in pregnant mice, virus dissemination to major maternal blood vessels, including the aorta, resulted in a peripheral "vascular storm," with elevated proinflammatory and antiviral mediators and the influx of Ly6Clow and Ly6Chigh monocytes, plus neutrophils and T cells. This vascular storm was associated with elevated levels of the adhesion molecules ICAM and VCAM and the pattern-recognition receptors TLR7 and TLR9 in the vascular wall, resulting in profound vascular dysfunction. The sequalae of this IAV-driven vascular storm included placental growth retardation and intrauterine growth restriction, evidence of placental and fetal brain hypoxia, and increased circulating cell free fetal DNA and soluble Flt1. In contrast, IAV infection in nonpregnant mice caused no obvious alterations in endothelial function or vascular inflammation. Therefore, IAV infection during pregnancy drives a significant systemic vascular alteration in pregnant dams, which likely suppresses critical blood flow to the placenta and fetus. This study in mice provides a fundamental mechanistic insight and a paradigm into how an immune response to a respiratory virus, such as IAV, is likely to specifically drive maternal and fetal pathologies during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa/genética , Imunidade Inata/genética , Inflamação/genética , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Animais , Vasos Sanguíneos/metabolismo , Vasos Sanguíneos/patologia , Feminino , Feto/imunologia , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , Inflamação/virologia , Vírus da Influenza A/patogenicidade , Influenza Humana/genética , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos , Monócitos/metabolismo , Monócitos/patologia , Placenta/irrigação sanguínea , Placenta/imunologia , Placenta/virologia , Gravidez , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/virologia , Receptor 7 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor Toll-Like 9/genética
18.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 68: 101793, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841926

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is considered the strongest epidemiologic risk factor for cervical cancer. However, it is not a sufficient cause given the high prevalence of transient infections. We examined the relationship between exposure to tobacco smoke, measured using urinary nicotine metabolite concentrations, and p16/Ki-67 co-expression in cervical smears and subsequent risk of developing CIN2+/CIN3+ lesions in HPV positive women. METHODS: This prospective longitudinal study enrolled women presenting to colposcopy with cytological abnormalities LSIL/ASCUS at the National Maternity Hospital, Dublin. Women gave a urine sample which was used to perform the Nicotine Metabolite Assay (Siemens). HPV positive (HC2) cervical smears were stained by immunocytochemistry for p16/Ki-67 (CINtec PLUS, Roche). Two year follow-up data, including histological diagnosis, was collected for each woman. Crude and adjusted odds ratios were calculated using logistic regression to investigate associations between tobacco smoke, p16/Ki-67 positivity and CIN2+/CIN3 + . RESULTS: In total, 275 HPV positive women were included. Women with nicotine metabolite concentrations above 500 ng/mL, indicative of smoking, were classified as smokers. Smokers were at an increased risk of testing positive for p16/Ki-67 (OR 1.678; 1.027-2.740) and CIN2+ and CIN3+ (OR 1.816; 1.107-2.977 and OR 2.453; 1.200-5.013) in compared to non-smokers. In p16/Ki-67 positive women, smoking further increased their risk of CIN2+/CIN3+ (OR 2.290; 1.017-5.159 and OR 3.506 (1.534-8.017). CONCLUSION: HPV positive women exposed to tobacco smoke are at a higher risk of testing positive for p16/Ki-67 co-expression. Risk of high-grade disease is almost doubled in women who are exposed to tobacco smoke.


Assuntos
Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/epidemiologia , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Antígeno Ki-67/metabolismo , Nicotina/urina , Infecções por Papillomavirus/complicações , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/análise , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/metabolismo , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/patologia , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/virologia , Colposcopia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Gradação de Tumores , Teste de Papanicolaou , Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 112(12): 1190-1203, 2020 12 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413141

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: BRCA1 methylation has been associated with homologous recombination deficiency, a biomarker of platinum sensitivity. Studies evaluating BRCA1-methylated tubal and ovarian cancer (OC) do not consistently support improved survival following platinum chemotherapy. We examine the characteristics of BRCA1-methylated OC in a meta-analysis of individual participant data. METHODS: Data of 2636 participants across 15 studies were analyzed. BRCA1-methylated tumors were defined according to their original study. Associations between BRCA1 methylation and clinicopathological characteristics were evaluated. The effects of methylation on overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were examined using mixed-effects models. All statistical tests were 2-sided. RESULTS: 430 (16.3%) tumors were BRCA1-methylated. BRCA1 methylation was associated with younger age and advanced-stage, high-grade serous OC. There were no survival differences between BRCA1-methylated and non-BRCA1-methylated OC (median PFS = 20.0 vs 18.5 months, hazard ratio [HR] = 1.01, 95% CI = 0.87 to 1.16; P = .98; median OS = 46.6 vs 48.0 months, HR = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.87 to 1.18; P = .96). Where BRCA1/2 mutations were evaluated (n = 1248), BRCA1 methylation displayed no survival advantage over BRCA1/2-intact (BRCA1/2 wild-type non-BRCA1-methylated) OC. Studies used different methods to define BRCA1 methylation. Where BRCA1 methylation was determined using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction and gel electrophoresis (n = 834), it was associated with improved survival (PFS: HR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.66 to 0.97; P = .02; OS: HR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.63 to 1.00; P = .05) on mixed-effects modeling. CONCLUSION: BRCA1-methylated OC displays similar clinicopathological features to BRCA1-mutated OC but is not associated with survival. Heterogeneity within BRCA1 methylation assays influences associations. Refining these assays may better identify cases with silenced BRCA1 function and improved patient outcomes.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/diagnóstico , Metilação de DNA , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/genética , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/mortalidade , Feminino , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/mortalidade , Prognóstico , Análise de Sobrevida
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