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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1078, 2021 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33597508

RESUMO

Breast cancer (BC) risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers varies by genetic and familial factors. About 50 common variants have been shown to modify BC risk for mutation carriers. All but three, were identified in general population studies. Other mutation carrier-specific susceptibility variants may exist but studies of mutation carriers have so far been underpowered. We conduct a novel case-only genome-wide association study comparing genotype frequencies between 60,212 general population BC cases and 13,007 cases with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. We identify robust novel associations for 2 variants with BC for BRCA1 and 3 for BRCA2 mutation carriers, P < 10-8, at 5 loci, which are not associated with risk in the general population. They include rs60882887 at 11p11.2 where MADD, SP11 and EIF1, genes previously implicated in BC biology, are predicted as potential targets. These findings will contribute towards customising BC polygenic risk scores for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Alelos , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Fatores de Risco
2.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 13906, 2020 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807831

RESUMO

ROR1 and ROR2 are receptor tyrosine kinases with altered expression in a range of cancers. Silencing ROR1 or ROR2 in different tumour types has been shown to inhibit proliferation and decrease metastatic potential. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of ROR1 and ROR2 in endometrial cancer via immunohistochemistry (IHC) in a large endometrial cancer patient cohort (n = 499) and through in vitro analysis in endometrial cancer cell lines. Correlation was assessed between ROR1/2 expression and clinicopathological parameters. Kaplan Meier curves were produced for 5-year progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) with low/moderate versus high ROR1/2 intensity. Cox multivariate regression was applied to analyse the effect of selected covariates on the PFS and OS. The effect of ROR1 and/or ROR2 modulation on cell proliferation, adhesion, migration and invasion was analysed in two endometrial cancer cell lines (KLE and MFE-296). We observed a significant decrease in OS and PFS in patients with high ROR1 expression. ROR1 silencing and ROR2 overexpression significantly inhibited proliferation of KLE endometrial cancer cells and decreased migration. This study supports the oncogenic role of ROR1 in endometrial cancer, and warrants investigation of future application of ROR1-targeting therapies in endometrial cancer patients.

3.
Clin Epigenetics ; 12(1): 102, 2020 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641106

RESUMO

Both colorectal (CRC, 15%) and endometrial cancers (EC, 30%) exhibit microsatellite instability (MSI) due to MLH1 hypermethylation and silencing. The MLH1 promoter polymorphism, rs1800734 is associated with MSI CRC risk, increased methylation and reduced MLH1 expression. In EC samples, we investigated rs1800734 risk using MSI and MSS cases and controls. We found no evidence that rs1800734 or other MLH1 SNPs were associated with the risk of MSI EC. We found the rs1800734 risk allele had no effect on MLH1 methylation or expression in ECs. We propose that MLH1 hypermethylation occurs by different mechanisms in CRC and EC.

4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3353, 2020 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620889

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have led to the identification of hundreds of susceptibility loci across cancers, but the impact of further studies remains uncertain. Here we analyse summary-level data from GWAS of European ancestry across fourteen cancer sites to estimate the number of common susceptibility variants (polygenicity) and underlying effect-size distribution. All cancers show a high degree of polygenicity, involving at a minimum of thousands of loci. We project that sample sizes required to explain 80% of GWAS heritability vary from 60,000 cases for testicular to over 1,000,000 cases for lung cancer. The maximum relative risk achievable for subjects at the 99th risk percentile of underlying polygenic risk scores (PRS), compared to average risk, ranges from 12 for testicular to 2.5 for ovarian cancer. We show that PRS have potential for risk stratification for cancers of breast, colon and prostate, but less so for others because of modest heritability and lower incidence.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Modelos Genéticos , Herança Multifatorial , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Animais , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Neoplasias/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco
5.
Br J Cancer ; 123(7): 1045-1046, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32624578

RESUMO

Recent large-scale genetic studies, particularly genome-wide association studies (GWAS), have emphasised the importance of common genetic variation in endometrial cancer susceptibility. Although each of these variants only confer modest effects on endometrial cancer risk, together they are likely to explain a substantial amount of the familial relative risk of the disease. Therefore, methods to combine genetic risk variants, such as polygenic risk scores (PRS) have gained traction as an attractive method for individualised risk prediction and management. Here, we discuss the benefits of a PRS for endometrial cancer and considerations required for clinical implementation.

6.
Nat Genet ; 52(6): 572-581, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424353

RESUMO

Breast cancer susceptibility variants frequently show heterogeneity in associations by tumor subtype1-3. To identify novel loci, we performed a genome-wide association study including 133,384 breast cancer cases and 113,789 controls, plus 18,908 BRCA1 mutation carriers (9,414 with breast cancer) of European ancestry, using both standard and novel methodologies that account for underlying tumor heterogeneity by estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status and tumor grade. We identified 32 novel susceptibility loci (P < 5.0 × 10-8), 15 of which showed evidence for associations with at least one tumor feature (false discovery rate < 0.05). Five loci showed associations (P < 0.05) in opposite directions between luminal and non-luminal subtypes. In silico analyses showed that these five loci contained cell-specific enhancers that differed between normal luminal and basal mammary cells. The genetic correlations between five intrinsic-like subtypes ranged from 0.35 to 0.80. The proportion of genome-wide chip heritability explained by all known susceptibility loci was 54.2% for luminal A-like disease and 37.6% for triple-negative disease. The odds ratios of polygenic risk scores, which included 330 variants, for the highest 1% of quantiles compared with middle quantiles were 5.63 and 3.02 for luminal A-like and triple-negative disease, respectively. These findings provide an improved understanding of genetic predisposition to breast cancer subtypes and will inform the development of subtype-specific polygenic risk scores.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Mutação , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
7.
Nat Med ; 26(2): 252-258, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32042192

RESUMO

Testosterone supplementation is commonly used for its effects on sexual function, bone health and body composition, yet its effects on disease outcomes are unknown. To better understand this, we identified genetic determinants of testosterone levels and related sex hormone traits in 425,097 UK Biobank study participants. Using 2,571 genome-wide significant associations, we demonstrate that the genetic determinants of testosterone levels are substantially different between sexes and that genetically higher testosterone is harmful for metabolic diseases in women but beneficial in men. For example, a genetically determined 1 s.d. higher testosterone increases the risks of type 2 diabetes (odds ratio (OR) = 1.37 (95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.22-1.53)) and polycystic ovary syndrome (OR = 1.51 (95% CI: 1.33-1.72)) in women, but reduces type 2 diabetes risk in men (OR = 0.86 (95% CI: 0.76-0.98)). We also show adverse effects of higher testosterone on breast and endometrial cancers in women and prostate cancer in men. Our findings provide insights into the disease impacts of testosterone and highlight the importance of sex-specific genetic analyses.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/sangue , Testosterona/sangue , Testosterona/farmacologia , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Composição Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Análise por Conglomerados , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Neoplasias do Endométrio/sangue , Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Razão de Chances , Fenótipo , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/etiologia , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Fatores Sexuais , Software , Reino Unido
8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 3621, 2020 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32108150

RESUMO

Leiomyomas, adenomyosis, and endometriosis are reported to be risk factors for endometrial carcinoma (EC), and adenomyosis and endometriosis also for ovarian carcinoma (OC). We aimed to describe the prevalence of these conditions in EC patients with or without an OC diagnosis, and to investigate their relationship with EC risk and prognostic factors in these patients. We evaluated the co-existence of these three conditions in 1399 EC patients, and compared the prevalence of epidemiological risk factors and tumor prognostic features in patients with each condition versus not. Prevalence of conditions was also assessed in the subset of patients with prior/concurrent OC. The observed coexistence of leiomyomas, adenomyosis and endometriosis significantly deviated from that expected (P = 1.2 × 10-8). Patients were more likely to: report a younger age at menarche (PTrend = 0.004) if they had leiomyomas; have used oral contraceptives (P = 6.6 × 10-5) or had ≥2 full-term pregnancies (PTrend = 2.0 × 10-9) if they had adenomyosis; be diagnosed with EC at younger age (P = 5.0 × 10-11) if they had endometriosis. Patients with prior/concurrent OC were more likely to be diagnosed at younger age (P = 5.0 × 10-5), have endometriosis (P = 9.9 × 10-7), and present with higher stage EC (PTrend = 6.6 × 10-5). These findings justify further consideration of these gynecologic conditions as independent risk and prognostic factors for EC.


Assuntos
Adenomiose/complicações , Neoplasias do Endométrio/complicações , Endometriose/complicações , Leiomioma/complicações , Adenomiose/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Austrália , Neoplasias do Endométrio/diagnóstico , Endometriose/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Leiomioma/diagnóstico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
9.
Genome Biol ; 21(1): 7, 2020 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic variants identified through genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are predominantly non-coding and typically attributed to altered regulatory elements such as enhancers and promoters. However, the contribution of non-coding RNAs to complex traits is not clear. RESULTS: Using targeted RNA sequencing, we systematically annotated multi-exonic non-coding RNA (mencRNA) genes transcribed from 1.5-Mb intervals surrounding 139 breast cancer GWAS signals and assessed their contribution to breast cancer risk. We identify more than 4000 mencRNA genes and show their expression distinguishes normal breast tissue from tumors and different breast cancer subtypes. Importantly, breast cancer risk variants, identified through genetic fine-mapping, are significantly enriched in mencRNA exons, but not the promoters or introns. eQTL analyses identify mencRNAs whose expression is associated with risk variants. Furthermore, chromatin interaction data identify hundreds of mencRNA promoters that loop to regions that contain breast cancer risk variants. CONCLUSIONS: We have compiled the largest catalog of breast cancer-associated mencRNAs to date and provide evidence that modulation of mencRNAs by GWAS variants may provide an alternative mechanism underlying complex traits.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , RNA não Traduzido/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Análise de Sequência de RNA
11.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(10)2019 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561579

RESUMO

The identification of target genes at genome-wide association study (GWAS) loci is a major obstacle for GWAS follow-up. To identify candidate target genes at the 16 known endometrial cancer GWAS risk loci, we performed HiChIP chromatin looping analysis of endometrial cell lines. To enrich for enhancer-promoter interactions, a mechanism through which GWAS variation may target genes, we captured chromatin loops associated with H3K27Ac histone, characteristic of promoters and enhancers. Analysis of HiChIP loops contacting promoters revealed enrichment for endometrial cancer GWAS heritability and intersection with endometrial cancer risk variation identified 103 HiChIP target genes at 13 risk loci. Expression of four HiChIP target genes (SNX11, SRP14, HOXB2 and BCL11A) was associated with risk variation, providing further evidence for their targeting. Network analysis functionally prioritized a set of proteins that interact with those encoded by HiChIP target genes, and this set was enriched for pan-cancer and endometrial cancer drivers. Lastly, HiChIP target genes and prioritized interacting proteins were over-represented in pathways related to endometrial cancer development. In summary, we have generated the first global chromatin looping data from normal and tumoral endometrial cells, enabling analysis of all known endometrial cancer risk loci and identifying biologically relevant candidate target genes.

12.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(7): 1095-1102, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31040137

RESUMO

Endometrial cancer, the most commonly diagnosed cancer of the female reproductive tract in developed countries, has a heritable component. To date, 16 genetic risk regions have been robustly discovered by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of endometrial cancer. Post-GWAS analyses including expression quantitative trait loci analysis and laboratory-based functional studies have been successful in identifying genes and pathways involved in endometrial carcinogenesis. Mendelian randomization analysis studies have confirmed factors causal for endometrial cancer risk, including increased body mass index and early onset of menarche. In this review, we summarize findings from GWAS and post-GWAS analyses of endometrial cancer. We discuss clinical implications of these findings, current knowledge gaps, and future directions for the study of endometrial cancer genetics.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Feminino , Humanos
13.
Front Oncol ; 9: 182, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30972295

RESUMO

Endometrial cancer is the most commonly diagnosed gynecological cancer in developed countries. Based on evidence from observational studies which suggest selenium inhibits the development of several cancers (including lung and prostate cancer), selenium supplementation has been touted as a potential cancer preventative agent. However, randomized controlled trials have not reported benefit for selenium supplementation in reducing cancer risk. For endometrial cancer, limited observational studies have been conducted assessing whether selenium intake, or blood selenium levels, associated with reduced risk, and no randomized controlled trials have been conducted. We performed a two-sample Mendelian randomization analysis to examine the relationship between selenium levels (using a composite measure of blood and toenail selenium) and endometrial cancer risk, using summary statistics for four genetic variants associated with selenium levels at genome-wide significance levels (P < 5 × 10-8), from a study of 12,906 endometrial cancer cases and 108,979 controls, all of European ancestry. Inverse variance weighted (IVW) analysis indicated no evidence of a causal role for selenium levels in endometrial cancer development (OR per unit increase in selenium levels Z-score = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.87-1.14). Similar results were observed for sensitivity analyses robust to the presence of unknown pleiotropy (OR per unit increase in selenium levels Z-score = 0.98, 95% CI 0.89-1.08 for weighted median; OR per unit increase in selenium levels Z-score = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.53-1.50 for MR-Egger). In conclusion, these results do not support the use of selenium supplementation to prevent endometrial cancer.

15.
Bioinformatics ; 35(13): 2315-2317, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30475984

RESUMO

SUMMARY: Assessing the pathogenicity of genetic variants can be a complex and challenging task. Spliceogenic variants, which alter mRNA splicing, may yield mature transcripts that encode non-functional protein products, an important predictor of Mendelian disease risk. However, most variant annotation tools do not adequately assess spliceogenicity outside the native splice site and thus the disease-causing potential of variants in other intronic and exonic regions is often overlooked. Here, we present a plugin for the Ensembl Variant Effect Predictor that packages MaxEntScan and extends its functionality to provide splice site predictions using a maximum entropy model. The plugin incorporates a sliding window algorithm to predict splice site loss or gain for any variant that overlaps a transcript feature. We also demonstrate the utility of the plugin by comparing our predictions to two mRNA splicing datasets containing several cancer-susceptibility genes. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: Source code is freely available under the Apache License, Version 2.0: https://github.com/Ensembl/VEP_plugins. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.


Assuntos
Processamento de RNA , Software , Algoritmos , Éxons , Íntrons
16.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3166, 2018 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30093612

RESUMO

Endometrial cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer of the female reproductive tract in developed countries. Through genome-wide association studies (GWAS), we have previously identified eight risk loci for endometrial cancer. Here, we present an expanded meta-analysis of 12,906 endometrial cancer cases and 108,979 controls (including new genotype data for 5624 cases) and identify nine novel genome-wide significant loci, including a locus on 12q24.12 previously identified by meta-GWAS of endometrial and colorectal cancer. At five loci, expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analyses identify candidate causal genes; risk alleles at two of these loci associate with decreased expression of genes, which encode negative regulators of oncogenic signal transduction proteins (SH2B3 (12q24.12) and NF1 (17q11.2)). In summary, this study has doubled the number of known endometrial cancer risk loci and revealed candidate causal genes for future study.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Alelos , Cromatina/química , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Fatores de Risco , Transdução de Sinais
17.
Cancer Med ; 7(5): 1978-1987, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29608257

RESUMO

Epidemiological, biological, and molecular data suggest links between endometriosis and endometrial cancer, with recent epidemiological studies providing evidence for an association between a previous diagnosis of endometriosis and risk of endometrial cancer. We used genetic data as an alternative approach to investigate shared biological etiology of these two diseases. Genetic correlation analysis of summary level statistics from genomewide association studies (GWAS) using LD Score regression revealed moderate but significant genetic correlation (rg  = 0.23, P = 9.3 × 10-3 ), and SNP effect concordance analysis provided evidence for significant SNP pleiotropy (P = 6.0 × 10-3 ) and concordance in effect direction (P = 2.0 × 10-3 ) between the two diseases. Cross-disease GWAS meta-analysis highlighted 13 distinct loci associated at P ≤ 10-5 with both endometriosis and endometrial cancer, with one locus (SNP rs2475335) located within PTPRD associated at a genomewide significant level (P = 4.9 × 10-8 , OR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.07-1.15). PTPRD acts in the STAT3 pathway, which has been implicated in both endometriosis and endometrial cancer. This study demonstrates the value of cross-disease genetic analysis to support epidemiological observations and to identify biological pathways of relevance to multiple diseases.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Endometriose/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Proteínas Tirosina Fosfatases Classe 2 Semelhantes a Receptores/genética , Austrália/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/epidemiologia , Endometriose/epidemiologia , Endométrio/patologia , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo
18.
J Gynecol Oncol ; 29(3): e39, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29533022

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The risk of developing endometrial cancer (EC) and/or survival following a diagnosis of EC might differ by tumor DNA mismatch repair (MMR) status. We assessed the association between tumor MMR status (classified as MMR-proficient, somatic MMR-deficient, germline MMR-deficient) and the risk of developing EC and survival following a diagnosis of EC. METHODS: We analyzed data from women who participated in the Australian National Endometrial Cancer Study (ANECS) conducted between 2005 and 2007. Risk analyses (698 cases/691 population controls) utilized sociodemographic and lifestyle information obtained from telephone interviews at recruitment. For survival analyses (728 cases), patients' clinical data was abstracted from medical records, and survival data were obtained via linkage with the Australian National Death Index. We used logistic regression analysis to evaluate the associations between tumor MMR status and EC risk, and proportional hazards models to perform survival analyses with adjustment of known prognostic factors. RESULTS: Established risk factors for EC did not differ significantly by tumor MMR status. In analyses including all EC subtypes, overall and EC-specific survival did not differ by tumor MMR status. Among women with the most common endometrioid subtype, EC-specific survival was worse for women with somatic MMR-deficient EC compared to women with MMR-proficient EC (hazard ratio [HR]=2.18; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.19-4.01). CONCLUSION: The risk of EC is not associated with MMR status. Accurate separation of germline from somatic causes of MMR deficiency suggests that patients with endometrioid subtype somatic MMR-deficient tumors have poorer EC-specific survival than those with MMR-proficient tumors, after accounting for other prognostic factors.


Assuntos
Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Idoso , Anticoncepcionais Orais Hormonais/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias do Endométrio/etiologia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/mortalidade , Neoplasias do Endométrio/patologia , Feminino , Genes p53 , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos
19.
Front Pharmacol ; 8: 896, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29270124

RESUMO

The development of new drugs has become challenging as the necessary investments in time and money have increased while drug approval rates have decreased. A potential solution to this problem is drug repositioning which aims to use existing drugs to treat conditions for which they were not originally intended. One approach that may enhance the likelihood of success is to reposition drugs against a target that has a genetic basis. The multitude of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) conducted in recent years represents a large potential pool of novel targets for drug repositioning. Although trait-associated variants identified from GWAS still need to be causally linked to a target gene, recently developed functional genomic techniques, databases, and workflows are helping to remove this bottleneck. The pre-clinical validation of repositioning against these targets also needs to be carefully performed to ensure that findings are not confounded by off-target effects or limitations of the techniques used. Nevertheless, the approaches described in this review have the potential to provide a faster, cheaper and more certain route to clinical approval.

20.
Oncotarget ; 8(39): 64670-64684, 2017 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29029385

RESUMO

We previously identified associations with ovarian cancer outcome at five genetic loci. To identify putatively causal genetic variants and target genes, we prioritized two ovarian outcome loci (1q22 and 19p12) for further study. Bioinformatic and functional genetic analyses indicated that MEF2D and ZNF100 are targets of candidate outcome variants at 1q22 and 19p12, respectively. At 19p12, the chromatin interaction of a putative regulatory element with the ZNF100 promoter region correlated with candidate outcome variants. At 1q22, putative regulatory elements enhanced MEF2D promoter activity and haplotypes containing candidate outcome variants modulated these effects. In a public dataset, MEF2D and ZNF100 expression were both associated with ovarian cancer progression-free or overall survival time. In an extended set of 6,162 epithelial ovarian cancer patients, we found that functional candidates at the 1q22 and 19p12 loci, as well as other regional variants, were nominally associated with patient outcome; however, no associations reached our threshold for statistical significance (p<1×10-5). Larger patient numbers will be needed to convincingly identify any true associations at these loci.

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