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2.
Eur Heart J ; 2020 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32221582

RESUMO

AIMS: In the DAPA-HF trial, the SGLT2 inhibitor dapagliflozin reduced the risk of worsening heart failure (HF) and death in patients with HF and reduced ejection fraction. We examined whether this benefit was consistent in relation to background HF therapy. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this post hoc analysis, we examined the effect of study treatment in the following yes/no subgroups: diuretic, digoxin, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA), sacubitril/valsartan, ivabradine, implanted cardioverter-defibrillating (ICD) device, and cardiac resynchronization therapy. We also examined the effect of study drug according to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker dose, beta-blocker (BB) dose, and MRA (≥50% and <50% of target dose). We analysed the primary composite endpoint of cardiovascular death or a worsening HF event. Most randomized patients (n = 4744) were treated with a diuretic (84%), renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blocker (94%), and BB (96%); 52% of those taking a BB and 38% taking a RAS blocker were treated with ≥50% of the recommended dose. Overall, the dapagliflozin vs. placebo hazard ratio (HR) was 0.74 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.65-0.85] for the primary composite endpoint (P < 0.0001). The effect of dapagliflozin was consistent across all subgroups examined: the HR ranged from 0.57 to 0.86 for primary endpoint, with no significant randomized treatment-by-subgroup interaction. For example, the HR in patients taking a RAS blocker, BB, and MRA at baseline was 0.72 (95% CI 0.61-0.86) compared with 0.77 (95% CI 0.63-0.94) in those not on all three of these treatments (P-interaction 0.64). CONCLUSION: The benefit of dapagliflozin was consistent regardless of background therapy for HF.

3.
JAMA ; 2020 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32219386

RESUMO

Importance: Additional treatments are needed for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors may be an effective treatment for patients with HFrEF, even those without diabetes. Objective: To evaluate the effects of dapagliflozin in patients with HFrEF with and without diabetes. Design, Setting, and Participants: Exploratory analysis of a phase 3 randomized trial conducted at 410 sites in 20 countries. Patients with New York Heart Association classification II to IV with an ejection fraction less than or equal to 40% and elevated plasma N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide were enrolled between February 15, 2017, and August 17, 2018, with final follow-up on June 6, 2019. Interventions: Addition of once-daily 10 mg of dapagliflozin or placebo to recommended therapy. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the composite of an episode of worsening heart failure or cardiovascular death. This outcome was analyzed by baseline diabetes status and, in patients without diabetes, by glycated hemoglobin level less than 5.7% vs greater than or equal to 5.7%. Results: Among 4744 patients randomized (mean age, 66 years; 1109 [23%] women; 2605 [55%] without diabetes), 4742 completed the trial. Among participants without diabetes, the primary outcome occurred in 171 of 1298 (13.2%) in the dapagliflozin group and 231 of 1307 (17.7%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.73 [95% CI, 0.60-0.88]). In patients with diabetes, the primary outcome occurred in 215 of 1075 (20.0%) in the dapagliflozin group and 271 of 1064 (25.5%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.75 [95% CI, 0.63-0.90]) (P value for interaction = .80). Among patients without diabetes and a glycated hemoglobin level less than 5.7%, the primary outcome occurred in 53 of 438 patients (12.1%) in the dapagliflozin group and 71 of 419 (16.9%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.67 [95% CI, 0.47-0.96]). In patients with a glycated hemoglobin of at least 5.7%, the primary outcome occurred in 118 of 860 patients (13.7%) in the dapagliflozin group and 160 of 888 (18.0%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.74 [95% CI, 0.59-0.94]) (P value for interaction = .72). Volume depletion was reported as an adverse event in 7.3% of patients in the dapagliflozin group and 6.1% in the placebo group among patients without diabetes and in 7.8% of patients in the dapagliflozin group and 7.8% in the placebo group among patients with diabetes. A kidney adverse event was reported in 4.8% of patients in the dapagliflozin group and 6.0% in the placebo group among patients without diabetes and in 8.5% of patients in the dapagliflozin group and 8.7% in the placebo group among patients with diabetes. Conclusions and Relevance: In this exploratory analysis of a randomized trial of patients with HFrEF, dapagliflozin compared with placebo, when added to recommended therapy, significantly reduced the risk of worsening heart failure or cardiovascular death independently of diabetes status. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03036124.

4.
Can J Cardiol ; 36(2): 159-169, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036861

RESUMO

In this update, we focus on selected topics of high clinical relevance for health care providers who treat patients with heart failure (HF), on the basis of clinical trials published after 2017. Our objective was to review the evidence, and provide recommendations and practical tips regarding the management of candidates for the following HF therapies: (1) transcatheter mitral valve repair in HF with reduced ejection fraction; (2) a novel treatment for transthyretin amyloidosis or transthyretin cardiac amyloidosis; (3) angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibition in patients with HF and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF); and (4) sodium glucose cotransport inhibitors for the prevention and treatment of HF in patients with and without type 2 diabetes. We emphasize the roles of optimal guideline-directed medical therapy and of multidisciplinary teams when considering transcatheter mitral valve repair, to ensure excellent evaluation and care of those patients. In the presence of suggestive clinical indices, health care providers should consider the possibility of cardiac amyloidosis and proceed with proper investigation. Tafamidis is the first agent shown in a prospective study to alter outcomes in patients with transthyretin cardiac amyloidosis. Patient subgroups with HFpEF might benefit from use of sacubitril/valsartan, however, further data are needed to clarify the effect of this therapy in patients with HFpEF. Sodium glucose cotransport inhibitors reduce the risk of incident HF, HF-related hospitalizations, and cardiovascular death in patients with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. A large clinical trial recently showed that dapagliflozin provides significant outcome benefits in well treated patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction (left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 40%), with or without type 2 diabetes.

5.
Circulation ; 141(10): 818-827, 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910649

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is a recommended imaging test for patients with heart failure (HF); however, there is a lack of evidence showing incremental benefit over transthoracic echocardiography. Our primary hypothesis was that routine use of CMR will yield more specific diagnoses in nonischemic HF. Our secondary hypothesis was that routine use of CMR will improve patient outcomes. METHODS: Patients with nonischemic HF were randomized to routine versus selective CMR. Patients in the routine strategy underwent echocardiography and CMR, whereas those assigned to selective use underwent echocardiography with or without CMR according to the clinical presentation. HF causes was classified from the imaging data as well as by the treating physician at 3 months (primary outcome). Clinical events were collected for 12 months. RESULTS: A total of 500 patients (344 male) with mean age 59±13 years were randomized. The routine and selective CMR strategies had similar rates of specific HF causes at 3 months clinical follow-up (44% versus 50%, respectively; P=0.22). At image interpretation, rates of specific HF causes were also not different between routine and selective CMR (34% versus 30%, respectively; P=0.34). However, 24% of patients in the selective group underwent a nonprotocol CMR. Patients with specific HF causes had more clinical events than those with nonspecific caused on the basis of imaging classification (19% versus 12%, respectively; P=0.02), but not on clinical assessment (15% versus 14%, respectively; P=0.49). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with nonischemic HF, routine CMR does not yield more specific HF causes on clinical assessment. Patients with specific HF causes from imaging had worse outcomes, whereas HF causes defined clinically did not. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01281384.

6.
Circ Heart Fail ; 13(1): e006638, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spironolactone has been demonstrated to reduce heart failure (HF) hospitalization in patients with HF with preserved ejection fraction in the Americas region of the TOPCAT trial (Treatment of Preserved Cardiac Function Heart Failure With an Aldosterone Antagonist Trial). We assessed effects of 12 months of treatment with spironolactone on biomarkers reflecting myocardial stress, myocardial injury, renal function, and systemic inflammation. METHODS: This TOPCAT biorepository substudy evaluated 247 patients (14% of the total 1767 patients in the Americas region) with symptomatic HF, ejection fraction ≥45%, and elevated natriuretic peptides or a prior HF hospitalization. Paired blood samples at baseline and after 12 months of treatment with spironolactone or placebo were available in 204 patients. RESULTS: At baseline, the median (interquartile range) concentration of BNP (B-type natriuretic peptide) was 124 (69-197) ng/L, NT-proBNP (N-terminal-pro-B-type natriuretic peptide) 624 (307-1312) ng/L, hs-cTnI (high sensitivity cardiac troponin I) 6.3 (3.4-13.0) ng/L, hs-CRP (high sensitivity C-reactive protein) 2.8 (1.3-6.1) mg/L, uric acid 7.2 (5.8-8.7) mg/dL, and urine protein-creatinine ratio 0.11 (0.08-0.20) mg/mg. Compared with placebo-assigned participants at 12 months, those randomized to spironolactone experienced greater reductions from baseline in levels of NT-proBNP (P=0.017) and BNP (P=0.002); these differences persisted after adjustment for demographics, comorbidities, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and enrollment strata. No between-group differences in changes in hs-cTnI, CRP, uric acid, or urine protein-creatinine ratio were observed. CONCLUSIONS: This TOPCAT biorepository substudy suggests potential effects on markers of cardiac wall stress or filling pressures during 12 months of treatment with spironolactone in patients with chronic HF with preserved ejection fraction. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00094302.

7.
Circ Heart Fail ; 12(12): e006539, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813280

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To describe characteristics and outcomes in women and men with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. METHODS: Baseline characteristics (including biomarkers and quality of life) and outcomes (primary outcome: composite of first heart failure hospitalization or cardiovascular death) were compared in 4458 women and 4010 men enrolled in CHARM-Preserved (Candesartan in Heart failure: Assessment of Reduction in Mortality and morbidity) (EF≥45%), I-Preserve (Irbesartan in heart failure with Preserved ejection fraction), and TOPCAT-Americas (Treatment of Preserved Cardiac Function Heart Failure with an Aldosterone Antagonist trial). RESULTS: Women were older and more often obese and hypertensive but less likely to have coronary artery disease or atrial fibrillation. Women had more symptoms and signs of congestion and worse quality of life. Despite this, the risk of the primary outcome was lower in women (hazard ratio, 0.80 [95% CI, 0.73-0.88]), as was the risk of cardiovascular death (hazard ratio, 0.70 [95% CI, 0.62-0.80]), but there was no difference in the rate for first hospitalization for heart failure (hazard ratio, 0.92 [95% CI, 0.82-1.02]). The lower risk of cardiovascular death in women, compared with men, was in part explained by a substantially lower risk of sudden death (hazard ratio, 0.53 [0.43-0.65]; P<0.001). E/A ratio was lower in women (1.1 versus 1.2). CONCLUSIONS: There are significant differences between women and men with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Despite worse symptoms, more congestion, and lower quality of life, women had similar rates of hospitalization and better survival than men. Their risk of sudden death was half that of men. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00853658, NCT01035255.

8.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(23): 2858-2873, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31806129

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The PARAGON-HF (Prospective Comparison of ARNI With ARB Global Outcomes in HF With Preserved Ejection Fraction) trial tested the efficacy of sacubitril-valsartan in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Existing data on cardiac structure and function in patients with HFpEF suggest significant heterogeneity. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to characterize cardiac structure and function, quantify their associations with clinical outcomes, and contextualize these findings with other HFpEF studies. METHODS: Echocardiography was performed in 1,097 of 4,822 PARAGON-HF patients within 6 months of enrollment. Associations with incident first heart failure hospitalization or cardiovascular death were assessed using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for age, sex, region of enrollment, randomized treatment, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, and clinical risk factors. RESULTS: Average age was 74 ± 8 years, 53% of patients were women, median N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide level was 918 pg/ml (interquartile range: 485 to 1,578 pg/ml), 94% had hypertension, and 35% had atrial fibrillation. The mean left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction was 58.6 ± 9.8%, prevalence of LV hypertrophy was 21%, prevalence of left atrial enlargement was 83%, prevalence of elevated E/e' ratio was 53%, and prevalence of pulmonary hypertension was 31%. Heart failure hospitalization or cardiovascular death occurred in 288 patients at 2.8-year median follow-up. In fully adjusted models, higher LV mass index (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.05 per 10 g/m2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.00 to 1.10; p = 0.03), E/e' ratio (HR: 1.04 per unit; 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.06; p < 0.001), pulmonary artery systolic pressure (HR: 1.51 per 10 mm Hg; 95% CI: 1.29 to 1.76; p < 0.001), and right ventricular end-diastolic area (HR: 1.04 per cm2; 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.07; p = 0.003) were each associated with this composite, while LV ejection fraction and left atrial size were not (p > 0.05 for all). Appreciable differences were observed in cardiac structure compared with other HFpEF clinical trials, despite similar E/e' ratio, pulmonary artery systolic pressure, and event rates. CONCLUSIONS: Diastolic dysfunction, left atrial enlargement, and pulmonary hypertension were common in PARAGON-HF. LV hypertrophy, elevated left- and right-sided pressures, and right ventricular enlargement were independently predictive of incident heart failure hospitalization or cardiovascular death. Echocardiographic differences among HFpEF trials despite similar clinical event rates highlight the heterogeneity of this syndrome. (Efficacy and Safety of LCZ696 Compared to Valsartan, on Morbidity and Mortality in Heart Failure Patients With Preserved Ejection Fraction [PARAGON-HF]; NCT01920711).

9.
JACC Heart Fail ; 7(12): 1022-1028, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779923

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The authors examined efficacy and safety of spironolactone by age in the Americas region (N = 1,767) of the TOPCAT (Treatment of Preserved Cardiac Function Heart Failure with an Aldosterone Antagonist) trial. BACKGROUND: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction disproportionately affects older adults who may exhibit changes in physiology and variable pharmacokinetics. METHODS: TOPCAT enrolled patients with heart failure and a left ventricular ejection fraction ≥45% who were age 50 or older with an estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥30 mL/min/1.73 m2 and prior heart failure hospitalization or elevated natriuretic peptide levels. Participants were randomized to spironolactone or placebo with a mean follow-up duration of 3.3 years. We assessed treatment effect and safety by protocol-defined age categories (<65, 65 to 74, and ≥75 years). RESULTS: The mean age was 72 ± 10 years (range 50 to 97 years) with 41% over the age of 75 years. Participants ≥75 years were more commonly women and white and had a lower body mass index and estimated glomerular filtration rate compared with the younger age categories. Spironolactone reduced the primary composite outcome compared with placebo across all age categories (p interaction = 0.42). However, spironolactone was associated with an increased risk of the safety endpoint (hazard ratio: 2.54; 95% confidence interval: 1.91 to 3.37; p < 0.001), particularly in older age groups (p interaction = 0.02). Findings in the whole TOPCAT cohort were consistent with results from the Americas region. CONCLUSIONS: In this post hoc, exploratory analysis of the TOPCAT trial data from the Americas region, although there was no effect of age on efficacy, there were considerable effects of age on increased rates of adverse safety outcomes. These results should be weighed when considering spironolactone for older heart failure with preserved ejection fraction patients. (Treatment of Preserved Cardiac Function Heart Failure with an Aldosterone Antagonist [TOPCAT]; NCT00094302).

11.
ESC Heart Fail ; 6(6): 1199-1207, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591826

RESUMO

AIMS: Ivabradine has been approved in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and elevated heart rate despite guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) to reduce cardiovascular (CV) death and hospitalization for worsening HF. The median value of 77 b.p.m. is the lower bound selected for the regulatory approval in Canada, South Africa, and Australia. Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) including symptoms, quality of life, and global assessment are considered of major interest in the global plan of care of patients with HF. However, the specific impact of GDMT, and specifically ivabradine, on PRO remains poorly studied. In the subgroup of patients from the Systolic Heart failure treatment with the If inhibitor ivabradine Trial (SHIFT) who had heart rate above the median of 77 b.p.m. (pre-specified analysis) and for whom the potential for improvement was expected to be larger, we aimed (i) to evaluate the effects of ivabradine on PRO (symptoms, quality of life, and global assessment); (ii) to consolidate the effects of ivabradine on the primary composite endpoint of CV death and hospitalization for HF; and (iii) to reassess the effects of ivabradine on left ventricular (LV) remodelling. METHODS AND RESULTS: Comparisons were made according to therapy, and proportional hazards models (adjusted for baseline beta-blocker therapy) were used to estimate the association between ivabradine and various outcomes. In SHIFT, n = 3357 (51.6%) patients had a baseline heart rate > 77 b.p.m. After a median follow-up of 22.9 months (inter-quartile range 18-28 months), ivabradine on top of GDMT improved symptoms (28% vs. 23% improvement in New York Heart Association functional class, P = 0.0003), quality of life (5.3 vs. 2.2 improvement in Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire overall summary score, P = 0.005), and global assessment [from both patient (improved in 72.3%) and physician (improved in 61.0%) perspectives] significantly more than did placebo (both P < 0.0001). Ivabradine induced a 25% reduction in the combined endpoint of CV death and hospitalization for HF (hazard ratio 0.75; P < 0.0001), which translates into a number of patients needed to be treated for 1 year of 17. Patients under ivabradine treatment demonstrated a significant reduction in LV dimensions when reassessed at 8 months (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with chronic HFrEF, sinus rhythm, and a heart rate > 77 b.p.m. while on GDMT, the present analysis brings novel insights into the role of ivabradine in improving the management of HFrEF, particularly with regard to PRO (ISRCTN70429960).

12.
N Engl J Med ; 381(21): 1995-2008, 2019 11 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with type 2 diabetes, inhibitors of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) reduce the risk of a first hospitalization for heart failure, possibly through glucose-independent mechanisms. More data are needed regarding the effects of SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with established heart failure and a reduced ejection fraction, regardless of the presence or absence of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: In this phase 3, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned 4744 patients with New York Heart Association class II, III, or IV heart failure and an ejection fraction of 40% or less to receive either dapagliflozin (at a dose of 10 mg once daily) or placebo, in addition to recommended therapy. The primary outcome was a composite of worsening heart failure (hospitalization or an urgent visit resulting in intravenous therapy for heart failure) or cardiovascular death. RESULTS: Over a median of 18.2 months, the primary outcome occurred in 386 of 2373 patients (16.3%) in the dapagliflozin group and in 502 of 2371 patients (21.2%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65 to 0.85; P<0.001). A first worsening heart failure event occurred in 237 patients (10.0%) in the dapagliflozin group and in 326 patients (13.7%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.59 to 0.83). Death from cardiovascular causes occurred in 227 patients (9.6%) in the dapagliflozin group and in 273 patients (11.5%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.69 to 0.98); 276 patients (11.6%) and 329 patients (13.9%), respectively, died from any cause (hazard ratio, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.71 to 0.97). Findings in patients with diabetes were similar to those in patients without diabetes. The frequency of adverse events related to volume depletion, renal dysfunction, and hypoglycemia did not differ between treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with heart failure and a reduced ejection fraction, the risk of worsening heart failure or death from cardiovascular causes was lower among those who received dapagliflozin than among those who received placebo, regardless of the presence or absence of diabetes. (Funded by AstraZeneca; DAPA-HF ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03036124.).


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/uso terapêutico , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Compostos Benzidrílicos/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Terapia Combinada , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Glucosídeos/efeitos adversos , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Hospitalização , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/efeitos adversos , Volume Sistólico/efeitos dos fármacos , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/complicações , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/tratamento farmacológico
15.
JACC Heart Fail ; 7(8): 664-675, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302049

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to investigate the relationship between malnutrition and adverse cardiovascular (CV) events in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is associated with poor prognosis in a wide range of illnesses, however, the prognostic impact of malnutrition in HFpEF patients is not well known. METHODS: Baseline malnutrition risk was determined in 1,677 patients with HFpEF enrolled in the Americas regions of the TOPCAT (Aldosterone Antagonist Therapy for Adults With Heart Failure and Preserved Systolic Function) trial, according to 3 categories of the geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI) as previously validated: moderate to severe, GNRI of <92; low, GNRI of 92 to <98; and absence of risk, GNRI of ≥98. The relationships between malnutrition risk and the primary composite outcome of CV events (CV death, heart failure hospitalization, or resuscitated sudden death) and all-cause death were examined. RESULTS: Approximately one-third of patients were at risk for malnutrition (moderate to severe: 11%; low: 25%; and absence of risk: 64%). Over a median of 2.9-years' follow-up, compared to those with absent risk for malnutrition, moderate to severe risk was associated with significantly increased risk for the primary outcome, CV death and all-cause death (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.34; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02 to 1.76; HR: 2.06; 95% CI: 1.40 to 3.03; and HR: 1.79; 95% CI: 1.33 to 2.42, respectively) after multivariate adjustment for age, sex, history of CV diseases, and laboratory biomarkers. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with HFpEF are at an elevated risk for malnutrition, which was associated with an increased risk for CV events in this population.

16.
Eur J Clin Pharmacol ; 75(6): 837-847, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30758517

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Some evidence suggests that spironolactone may have a deleterious effect on glucose homeostasis. The objective of this study was to assess whether spironolactone use is associated with a higher risk of developing diabetes in a large cohort of patients with heart failure (HF). METHODS: Two Quebec government administrative databases were used to identify a cohort of hospitalized patients discharged between January 1995 and December 2009 with a primary discharge diagnosis of HF and without secondary discharge diagnosis of diabetes. Patients were categorized as new users of spironolactone and non-users. The primary outcome was defined as new-onset diabetes (NOD) during 5 years of follow-up and was ascertained using ICD codes for diabetes or use of hypoglycemic agents. RESULTS: Among the 2974 patients that were included in the cohort analysis, 769 were given a new prescription of spironolactone. The incidence rate of NOD was similar among spironolactone users (5.0 per 100 person-years) and non-users (4.9 per 100 person-years). There was no significant association between the use of spironolactone and NOD in the crude, unadjusted model (hazard ratio (HR) 1.01; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.80-1.28; p = 0.9217), and it remained unchanged in the adjusted Cox proportional hazard model (HR = 0.92; 95% CI = 0.72-1.18; p = 0.5227). The results were consistent with those observed in sensitivity analyses of a 1:3 propensity score-matched cohort (HR = 0.97; CI = 0.76-1.25; p = 0.8169). CONCLUSION: We found no evidence supporting the claim that use of spironolactone is associated with a higher risk of diabetes among patients hospitalized for HF.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diuréticos/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Espironolactona/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Quebeque/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
17.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(7): 795-806, 2019 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30784673

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myocardial fibrosis is an important pathophysiological mechanism underlying the development of heart failure (HF). Given the biochemical targets of sacubitril/valsartan, we hypothesized that circulating biomarkers reflecting the mechanisms that determine extracellular matrix (ECM) homeostasis, including collagen synthesis, processing, and degradation, are altered by sacubitril/valsartan in comparison to enalapril. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of sacubitril/valsartan on biomarkers of ECM homeostasis and the association between the rate of primary composite outcome (cardiovascular death or HF hospitalization) and these biomarkers. METHODS: Biomarkers at baseline (n = 2,067) and both baseline and 8 months after randomization (n = 1,776) included aldosterone, soluble ST2 (sST2), tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, Galectin-3 (Gal-3), N-terminal propeptide of collagen I (PINP), and N-terminal propeptide of collagen III (PIIINP). The effects of sacubitril/valsartan on biomarkers were compared with enalapril. Baseline biomarker values and changes from baseline to 8 months were related to primary outcome. RESULTS: At baseline, the profibrotic biomarkers aldosterone, sST2, TIMP-1, Gal-3, PINP, and PIIINP were higher, and biomarkers associated with collagen degradation, MMP-2 and -9, were lower than published referent control values. Eight months after randomization, aldosterone, sST2, TIMP-1, MMP-9, PINP, and PIIINP had decreased more in the sacubitril/valsartan than enalapril group. At baseline, higher values of sST-2, TIMP-1, and PIIINP were associated with higher primary outcome rates. Changes from baseline to 8 months in sST-2 and TIMP-1 were associated with change in outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Biomarkers associated with profibrotic signaling are altered in HF with reduced ejection fraction, sacubitril/valsartan significantly decreased many of these biomarkers, and these biomarkers have important prognostic value. These findings suggest that sacubitril/valsartan may reduce profibrotic signaling, which may contribute to the improved outcomes. (This Study Will Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of LCZ696 Compared to Enalapril on Morbidity and Mortality of Patients With Chronic Heart Failure [PARADIGM-HF]; NCT01035255).


Assuntos
Aminobutiratos/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Matriz Extracelular/fisiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Tetrazóis/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Enalapril/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia
18.
JACC Heart Fail ; 7(1): 25-32, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30606484

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the association between baseline renal function and the net benefit of spironolactone in patients with heart failure (HF) with a preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommend consideration of spironolactone to reduce HF hospitalization in HFpEF. However, spironolactone may increase risk for hyperkalemia and worsening renal function, particularly in patients with chronic kidney disease. METHODS: This investigation analyzed data from patients enrolled in the TOPCAT (Treatment of Preserved Cardiac Function Heart Failure With an Aldosterone Antagonist Trial) Americas study (N = 1,767) to examine the association between the baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and the primary composite outcome of cardiovascular death, HF hospitalization, or aborted cardiac arrest, as well as safety outcomes, including hyperkalemia, worsening renal function, and permanent drug discontinuation for adverse events (AEs). Variations in the efficacy and safety of spironolactone according to eGFR were examined in Cox models using interaction terms. RESULTS: The incidence of both the primary outcome and drug-related AEs increased with declining eGFR. Compared with placebo, across all eGFR categories, spironolactone was associated with lower relative risk for the primary efficacy outcome and for hypokalemia, but higher relative risk for hyperkalemia, worsening renal function, and drug discontinuation. During 4-year follow-up, the absolute risk for AEs that prompted drug discontinuation was amplified in the lower eGFR categories, which suggested heightened risk for drug intolerance with declining renal function. CONCLUSIONS: Although consistent efficacy of spironolactone was observed across the range of eGFR, the risk of AEs was amplified in the lower eGFR categories. These data supported use of spironolactone to treat HFpEF patients with advanced chronic kidney disease only when close laboratory surveillance is possible.

19.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 33(1): 93-101, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30122614

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess a novel hypothesis to explain delirium after cardiac surgery through the relationship between cumulative fluid balance and delirium. This hypothesis involved an inflammatory process combined with a hypervolemic state, which could lead to venous congestion reaching the brain. DESIGN: Retrospective case-control (1:1) cohort study. SETTING: University-affiliated tertiary cardiology center. PARTICIPANTS: Cardiac surgery intensive care unit (ICU) patients. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Cumulative fluid balance was evaluated at 3 times: (1) upon arrival at the ICU after surgery, (2) 24 hours post-ICU arrival, and (3) 48 hours post-ICU arrival. A generalized estimated equation was used to model the association between cumulative fluid balance and delirium occurrence 24 hours later. Covariates were selected based on the statistical differences between cases and controls on delirium risk factors and clinical characteristics. The cohort included 346 patients, of which 39 (11%), 104 (30%), and 142 patients (41%) presented delirium at 24, 48, and 72 hours post-ICU arrival, respectively. The effect of time had an odds ratio (OR) of 2.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.603 to 2.851, and a p value < 0.001. The cumulative fluid balance was associated with delirium occurrence (OR 1.20, 95% CI: 1.066-1.355, p = .003). History of neurological disorder, having both hearing and visual impairment, type of procedure, perioperative cerebral oximetry, mean pulmonary artery pressure pre-cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), and mean arterial pressure post-CPB also contributed to delirium in the model. CONCLUSION: Delirium is associated with a cumulative fluid balance, but the extent through which this plays an etiologic role remains to be determined.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Delírio/etiologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Canadá/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Delírio/epidemiologia , Delírio/metabolismo , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico
20.
Circ Heart Fail ; 11(11): e005288, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30571191

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Albuminuria predicts adverse events in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. No therapies to date have reduced albuminuria in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed 1175 participants from the Americas from the TOPCAT study (Treatment of Preserved Cardiac Function Heart Failure With an Aldosterone Antagonist) with urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (UACR) measurements at baseline. We examined the association of UACR with the primary outcome (cardiovascular death, aborted cardiac arrest, or heart failure hospitalization) and its individual components, all-cause mortality, and several safety end points using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression. We evaluated whether spironolactone reduced albuminuria at the 1-year visit in a subpopulation (N=744). Thirty-five percent had microalbuminuria, 13% had macroalbuminuria, and 80% were receiving angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers. Increasing UACR was associated with male sex, higher systolic blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, and renal dysfunction. Macroalbuminuria (hazard ratio, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.22-2.28) and microalbuminuria (hazard ratio, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.15-1.86) were independently associated with the TOPCAT primary end point (compared with normoalbuminuria). Adjusting for placebo response, spironolactone reduced albuminuria by 39% in all participants at the 1-year visit compared with baseline (geometric mean ratio, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.49-0.77) and by 76% (geometric mean ratio, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.10-0.56) among those with macroalbuminuria. Reducing UACR by 50% was independently associated with a reduction in heart failure hospitalization (hazard ratio, 0.90; P=0.017) and all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 0.91; P=0.019). The change in UACR was significantly associated with change in systolic blood pressure ( P=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In TOPCAT, albuminuria was independently associated with worse cardiovascular outcomes. Spironolactone significantly reduced albuminuria compared with placebo. Reducing albuminuria was independently associated with improved outcomes. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT00094302.


Assuntos
Albuminúria/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Espironolactona/farmacologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Albuminúria/tratamento farmacológico , Creatinina/metabolismo , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espironolactona/efeitos adversos , Volume Sistólico/efeitos dos fármacos , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
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