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1.
Environ Entomol ; 50(4): 757-761, 2021 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34081129

RESUMO

As the expansion of solar power spreads through much of the United States, members of the solar industry are working to change how solar energy facilities are designed and presented to the public. This includes the addition of habitat to conserve pollinators. We highlight and discuss ongoing efforts to couple solar energy production with pollinator conservation, noting recent legal definitions of these practices. We summarize key studies from the field of ecology, bee conservation, and our experience working with members of the solar industry (e.g., contribution to legislation defining solar pollinator habitat). Several recently published studies that employed similar practices to those proposed for solar developments reveal features that should be replicated and encouraged by the industry. These results suggest the addition of native, perennial flowering vegetation will promote wild bee conservation and more sustainable honey beekeeping. Going forward, there is a need for oversight and future research to avoid the misapplication of this promising but as of yet untested practice of coupling solar energy production with pollinator-friendly habitat. We conclude with best practices for the implementation of these additions to realize conservation and agricultural benefits.


Assuntos
Polinização , Energia Solar , Agricultura , Animais , Criação de Abelhas , Abelhas , Ecossistema
2.
Curr Opin Insect Sci ; 45: 53-58, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545434

RESUMO

The soybean aphid (Aphis glycines) is an important pest of soybeans in the Midwestern US. The first aphid resistance genes were identified in the early 21st century and resistant varieties have been commercially available for 10 years, but have been very underutilized. Major seed companies have avoided commercializing aphid resistant soybean varieties for conventional farmers (i.e., not organic), in part because of the discovery of virulent biotypes in North America. The emergence of soybean aphid populations resistant to insecticides creates a greater incentive for the use of host plant resistance. New research on aphid genetics and markers, plant gene expression and in-plant refuges, suggest important avenues for insect resistance management (IRM) which may encourage more widescale commercialization of this valuable pest management tool.


Assuntos
Afídeos/fisiologia , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Herbivoria , Melhoramento Vegetal , Defesa das Plantas contra Herbivoria , Animais , Resistência a Inseticidas
3.
J Insect Sci ; 21(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33620484

RESUMO

Prairie was a dominant habitat within large portions of North America before European settlement. Conversion of prairies to farmland resulted in the loss of a large proportion of native floral resources, contributing to the decline of native pollinator populations. Efforts to reconstruct prairie could provide honey bees (Apis mellifera) a source of much-needed forage, especially in regions dominated by crop production. To what extent honey bees, which were introduced to North America by European settlers, use plants native to prairies is unclear. We placed colonies with pollen traps within reconstructed prairies in central Iowa to determine which and how much pollen is collected from prairie plants. Honey bee colonies collected more pollen from nonnative than native plants during June and July. During August and September, honey bee colonies collected more pollen from plants native to prairies. Our results suggest that honey bees' use of native prairie plants may depend upon the seasonality of both native and nonnative plants present in the landscape. This finding may be useful for addressing the nutritional health of honey bees, as colonies in this region frequently suffer from a dearth of forage contributing to colony declines during August and September when crops and weedy plants cease blooming. These results suggest that prairie can be a significant source of forage for honey bees in the later part of the growing season in the Midwestern United States; we discuss this insight in the context of honey bee health and biodiversity conservation.


Assuntos
Criação de Abelhas , Abelhas/fisiologia , Pradaria , Espécies Introduzidas , Magnoliopsida , Pólen , Animais , Comportamento Alimentar , Iowa , Magnoliopsida/fisiologia , Estações do Ano
4.
Environ Entomol ; 50(2): 455-466, 2021 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33492382

RESUMO

Populations of wild and managed pollinators are declining in North America, and causes include increases in disease pressure and decreases in flowering resources. Tallgrass prairies can provide floral resources for managed honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Apis mellifera Linnaeus) and wild bees. Honey bees kept near prairies may compete with wild bees for floral resources, and potentially transfer viral pathogens to wild bees. Measurements of these potential interactions are lacking, especially in the context of native habitat conservation. To address this, we assessed abundance and richness of wild bees in prairies with and without honey bee hives present, and the potential spillover of several honey bee viruses to bumble bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Bombus Latrielle). We found no indication that the presence of honey bee hives over 2 yr had a negative effect on population size of wild bee taxa, though a potential longer-term effect remains unknown. All levels of viruses quantified in bumble bees were lower than those observed in honey bees. Higher levels of deformed wing virus and Israeli acute paralysis virus were found in Bombus griseocollis DeGeer (Hymenoptera: Apidae) collected at sites with hives than those without hives. These data suggest that the presence of honey bees in tallgrass prairie could increase wild bee exposure to viruses. Additional studies on cross-species transmission of viruses are needed to inform decisions regarding the cohabitation of managed bees within habitat utilized by wild bees.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Vírus de RNA , Animais , Abelhas , Pradaria , América do Norte
5.
Pest Manag Sci ; 77(2): 886-894, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949094

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The profitability of farming varies based on factors such as a crop's market value, input costs and occurrence of resistant pests, all capable of altering the value of pest management tactics in an integrated pest management program. We provide a framework for calculating expected yield and expected net revenue of pest management scenarios, using the soybean aphid (Aphis glycines) as a case study. Foliar insecticide and host-plant resistance are effective management tactics for preventing yield loss from soybean aphid outbreaks; however, pyrethroid-resistant aphid populations pose a management challenge for farmers. We evaluated eight scenarios relevant to soybean aphid management in Iowa with varying probabilities of aphid outbreaks and insecticide-resistant aphids occurring. RESULTS: Our equation suggests that insecticide use is profitable when the probability of an aphid outbreak is ≥29%, and soybean production will become more costly with increasing probability of pyrethroid-resistant aphids. If farmers continue to use pyrethroids, they will not experience financial consequences from pyrethroid-resistant aphids until the chance of insecticide resistance is 48%. Aphid-resistant varieties provided consistent yield and offered the highest net revenue under all conditions. CONCLUSION: This framework can be used for other crop-pest systems to evaluate the profitability of management tactics and investigate how resistance impacts revenue for farmers. Including the cost of resistance in crop budgets can help farmers and agronomic consultants comprehend these impacts and enhance decision-making to increase revenue and curb resistance development.


Assuntos
Afídeos , Inseticidas , Piretrinas , Animais , Iowa , Soja
6.
Environ Entomol ; 49(5): 1137-1144, 2020 10 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32794557

RESUMO

Fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), is the main pest of maize in Brazil, attacking plants from emergence to reproductive stages. Here, we conducted studies to evaluate the efficacy of two seed treatments (chlorantraniliprole alone and imidacloprid combined with thiodicarb) on Bt and non-Bt maize in laboratory bioassays with distinct FAW strains that are susceptible, selected for resistance to Bt-maize single (Cry1F) or pyramided (Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2) events and F1 hybrids of the selected and susceptible strains (heterozygotes), and in the field against a natural infestation. In the laboratory, leaf-discs from seed treated Bt-maize plants at 7 d after emergence (DAE) increased the mortality of FAW resistant, heterozygote, and susceptible strains up to 24.8%, when compared with the respective maize grown without a seed treatment. In the field against natural infestations of FAW, Bt maize with a seed treatment had ~30% less FAW damage than non-Bt maize with the same seed treatment at 7 and 14 DAE. No differences in FAW damage was observed between Bt and non-Bt maize grown with and without a seed treatment at 21 DAE. Maize seeds treated with chlorantraniliprole alone or imidacloprid and thiodicarb combined presented limited protection against early infestations of FAW strains under laboratory and field studies.


Assuntos
Bacillus thuringiensis , Zea mays , Animais , Bacillus thuringiensis/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Brasil , Endotoxinas , Proteínas Hemolisinas/genética , Resistência a Inseticidas , Larva , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Sementes , Spodoptera , Zea mays/genética
7.
Insects ; 11(6)2020 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32545613

RESUMO

To study how honey bees utilize forage resources and guide pollination management plans in crops, a multitude of methods have been developed, but most are time consuming, costly, and require specialized skills. Colored pan traps for monitoring activity-density are a simple, efficient, and cost-effective alternative; however, their usefulness for studying honey bees is not well described. We examined if trap color, location within a field, and the presence of managed colonies affected estimates of honey bee activity-density within soybean fields. Soybeans are visited by pollinators but do not require these visits for seed development. Pan traps, especially those colored blue, captured more honey bees when colonies were present. There were no differences in activity-density based on placement of traps within a field nor with increasing distance from colonies. Throughout the season, activity-density in soybeans was constant but tripled after soybean ceased blooming, suggesting spikes in pan trap captures may indicate periods of forage scarcity. Activity-density did not correlate with the population size of worker bees at a site, but did correlate with number of colonies present. We conclude that pan traps can be useful for assessing honey bee activity, particularly for estimating colony presence and identifying times of forage scarcity.

8.
Insect Biochem Mol Biol ; 124: 103364, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32360957

RESUMO

Multiple biotypes of soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, occur in North America adapted for survival (virulence) on soybean, Glycine max, with one or more different resistance to A. glycines (Rag) traits. The degree of genome-wide variance between biotypes and the basis of virulence remains unknown, but the latter is hypothesized to involve secreted effector proteins. Between 167,249 and 217,750 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were predicted from whole genome re-sequencing of A. glycines avirulent biotype 1 (B1) and virulent B2, B3 and B4 colony-derived iso-female lines when compared to the draft B1 genome assembly, Ag_bt1_v6.0. Differences in nucleotide diversity indices (π) estimated within 1000 bp sliding windows demonstrated that 226 of 353 (64.0%) regions most differentiated between B1 and ≥ 2 virulent biotypes, representing < 0.1% of the 308 Mb assembled genome size, are located on 15 unordered scaffolds. Furthermore, these 226 intervals were coincident and show a significant association with 326 of 508 SNPs with significant locus-by-locus FST estimates between biotype populations (r = 0.6271; F1,70 = 45.36, P < 0.001) and genes showing evidence of directions selection (πN/πS > 2.0; r = 0.6233; F1,70 = 50.20, P < 0.001). A putative secreted effector glycoprotein is encoded in proximity to genome intervals of low estimated π (putative selective sweep) within avirulent B1 compared to all three virulent biotypes. Additionally, SNPs are clustered in or in proximity to genes putatively involved in intracellular protein cargo transport and the regulation of secretion. Results of this study indicate that factors on a small number of scaffolds of the A. glycines genome may contribute to variance in virulence towards Rag traits in G. max.


Assuntos
Afídeos/genética , Defesa das Plantas contra Herbivoria/genética , Soja/genética , Virulência/genética , Animais , Afídeos/patogenicidade , Evolução Biológica , Genes de Plantas , Genoma de Inseto , Genômica/métodos , Herbivoria , Controle de Pragas , Plantas , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
9.
Environ Entomol ; 49(3): 753-764, 2020 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32249293

RESUMO

In the last century, a global transformation of Earth's surface has occurred due to human activity with extensive agriculture replacing natural ecosystems. Concomitant declines in wild and managed bees are occurring, largely due to a lack of floral resources and inadequate nutrition, caused by conversion to monoculture-based farming. Diversified fruit and vegetable farms may provide an enhanced variety of resources through crops and weedy plants, which have potential to sustain human and bee nutrition. We hypothesized fruit and vegetable farms can enhance honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Apis mellifera Linnaeus) colony growth and nutritional state over a soybean monoculture, as well as support a more diverse wild bee community. We tracked honey bee colony growth, nutritional state, and wild bee abundance, richness, and diversity in both farm types. Honey bees kept at diversified farms had increased colony weight and preoverwintering nutritional state. Regardless of colony location, precipitous declines in colony weight occurred during autumn and thus colonies were not completely buffered from the stressors of living in a matrix dominated with monocultures. Contrary to our hypothesis, wild bee diversity was greater in soybean, specifically in August, a time when fields are in bloom. These differences were largely driven by four common bee species that performed well in soybean. Overall, these results suggest fruit and vegetable farms provide some benefits for honey bees; however, they do not benefit wild bee communities. Thus, incorporation of natural habitat, rather than diversified farming, in these landscapes, may be a better choice for wild bee conservation efforts.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Himenópteros , Agricultura , Animais , Abelhas , Produtos Agrícolas , Fazendas
10.
Annu Rev Entomol ; 65: 81-100, 2020 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923378

RESUMO

Disturbances associated with agricultural intensification reduce our ability to achieve sustainable crop production. These disturbances stem from crop-management tactics and can leave crop fields more vulnerable to insect outbreaks, in part because natural-enemy communities often tend to be more susceptible to disturbance than herbivorous pests. Recent research has explored practices that conserve natural-enemy communities and reduce pest outbreaks, revealing that different components of agroecosystems can influence natural-enemy populations. In this review, we consider a range of disturbances that influence pest control provided by natural enemies and how conservation practices can mitigate or counteract disturbance. We use four case studies to illustrate how conservation and disturbance mitigation increase the potential for biological control and provide co-benefits for the broader agroecosystem. To facilitate the adoption of conservation practices that improve top-down control across significant areas of the landscape, these practices will need to provide multifunctional benefits, but should be implemented with natural enemies explicitly in mind.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Produtos Agrícolas , Insetos , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Animais
11.
J Econ Entomol ; 113(3): 1299-1306, 2020 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971589

RESUMO

The green peach aphid [Myzus persicae (Sulzer)] is an important pest of amaranth grown for leaf consumption (i.e., leafy amaranth) in the tropics. Aphids reduce the amount of fresh leaf yield of amaranth and the value of leafy amaranth as aphid-infested leaves are not marketable. Our objective was to evaluate Amaranthus species selected by a breeding program in East Africa to develop cultivars for leaf consumption with resistance to M. persicae. We focused on antibiosis to determine whether varieties of Amaranthus spp. could be grown without producing an aphid population. Artificial infestations of aphids were placed on multiple selections of three species of Amaranthus: two selections of A. blitum, four selections of A. hybridus and one selection of A. hypochondriacus. Aphid populations were assessed over a 5-wk period. Evaluations of vegetative yield, leaf damage symptoms, and specific leaf area (SLA) were made of the seven selections at the end of this experiment. Aphid populations assessed 49 d after planting differed significantly (P ≤ 0.001) among the amaranth species and within selections of the same species. The selections of A. blitum had the lowest aphid populations, and A. hybridus had the highest populations. Selections of A. hybridus produced the most marketable leaves (i.e., aphid free). The fresh weight of A. blitum were the lowest of the seven selections, whereas A. hybridus had the greatest fresh leaf weight. Implications of these finding for further promotion of amaranth breeding are discussed related to pest management for leaf production.


Assuntos
Amaranthus , Afídeos , Prunus persica , Animais , Antibiose , Folhas de Planta
12.
J Econ Entomol ; 113(2): 940-948, 2020 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751452

RESUMO

Farmers face many choices when selecting seed for soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) production, including highly desired herbicide tolerance traits. Despite the convenience of herbicide tolerance, resistant weeds and technology fees may reduce utility and profitability of these varieties, especially when commodity prices are low. Sporadic outbreaks of soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura, Hemiptera: Aphididae) that require insecticide use for optimal yield can be a further complication for farmers in Iowa. Soybean aphid-resistant varieties are commercially available, but in limited genetic backgrounds without herbicide tolerance. We hypothesized yield and value of resistance traits will vary based on the environment. We established plots at two locations with different risks of soybean aphid outbreaks and used two planting dates at each location to mimic different yield environments. In 2016 and 2017, we planted four varieties that varied in their susceptibility to soybean aphids and glyphosate, and applied insecticides if aphid populations reached an economic threshold. Regardless of genetic background, aphid-resistant varieties prevented populations from reaching the economic threshold at all environments. We observed no significant difference in yield between resistant and susceptible varieties, revealing this trait is as effective at protecting yield as an insecticide application on susceptible varieties at the high-risk location. We also explored the value of each variety in different environments. Resistant varieties produced greater potential net revenue than susceptible varieties at the high-risk location, while the opposite occurred at the low-risk location. Resistant varieties with herbicide tolerance, if made available, would be the most valuable across all environments.


Assuntos
Afídeos , Inseticidas , Animais , Iowa , Sementes , Soja
13.
Pest Manag Sci ; 76(4): 1464-1471, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31659872

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, is an invasive insect in North America, considered one of the most important pests of soybean. Their management relies heavily on foliar insecticides, but there is growing effort to expand these tools to include aphid-resistant varieties. We explored if the LC50 and LC25 of lambda-cyhalothrin varied between virulent (resistant to Aphis glycines (Rag) soybeans) and avirulent (susceptible to Rag-genes soybeans) populations of soybean aphid with a leaf-dip bioassay. We also investigated the response to the LC25 of lambda-cyhalothrin on adults (F0) and their progeny (F1) for both avirulent and virulent soybean aphid. RESULTS: The LC50 of the virulent aphid population was significantly higher compared with the LC50 of the avirulent population. The LC25 significantly reduced fecundity of the F0 generation of avirulent soybean aphid, but no significant effect was observed for virulent aphids. In addition, the LC25 significantly shortened the adult pre-oviposition period (APOP) and lengthened the total pre-oviposition period (TPOP) of avirulent aphids, while the mean generation time (T) was significantly increased. For the virulent aphid, sublethal exposure significantly lengthened development time of first and third instars, TPOP, and adult longevity. In addition, all demographic parameters of virulent soybean aphid were significantly affected when they were exposed to the LC25 of lambda-cyhalothrin. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate lambda-cyhalothrin is less toxic to virulent aphids and exposure to the LC25 can trigger hormesis, which may have implications for the long-term management of this pest with this insecticide as well as with aphid-resistant varieties of soybean. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Afídeos , Animais , Feminino , Nitrilas , Piretrinas , Soja , Virulência
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(50): 25147-25155, 2019 12 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767769

RESUMO

Intensive agriculture can contribute to pollinator decline, exemplified by alarmingly high annual losses of honey bee colonies in regions dominated by annual crops (e.g., midwestern United States). As more natural or seminatural landscapes are transformed into monocultures, there is growing concern over current and future impacts on pollinators. To forecast how landscape simplification can affect bees, we conducted a replicated, longitudinal assessment of honey bee colony growth and nutritional health in an intensively farmed region where much of the landscape is devoted to production of corn and soybeans. Surprisingly, colonies adjacent to soybean fields surrounded by more cultivated land grew more during midseason than those in areas of lower cultivation. Regardless of the landscape surrounding the colonies, all experienced a precipitous decline in colony weight beginning in August and ended the season with reduced fat stores in individual bees, both predictors of colony overwintering failure. Patterns of forage availability and colony nutritional state suggest that late-season declines were caused by food scarcity during a period of extremely limited forage. To test if habitat enhancements could ameliorate this response, we performed a separate experiment in which colonies provided access to native perennials (i.e., prairie) were rescued from both weight loss and reduced fat stores, suggesting the rapid decline observed in these agricultural landscapes is not inevitable. Overall, these results show that intensively farmed areas can provide a short-term feast that cannot sustain the long-term nutritional health of colonies; reintegration of biodiversity into such landscapes may provide relief from nutritional stress.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Abelhas/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Polinização/fisiologia , Animais , Biodiversidade , Produtos Agrícolas , Modelos Biológicos , Estações do Ano
15.
Curr Opin Insect Sci ; 26: 1-7, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29764648

RESUMO

Preventing rapid evolution of herbivores to plant traits that confer resistance is an area of active research for applied entomologists. The subfield of insect resistance management (IRM) uses elements of population genetics and ecology to prevent increases in the frequency of virulent (i.e. resistant) sub-populations of an insect pest. Efforts to delay such an increase include using highly lethal toxins (i.e., a high dose), combining multiple resistance traits in one cultivar (i.e., pyramids), and using susceptible plants (i.e. a refuge) within or near plantings of the resistant crop. Even if fully implemented, theoretical models suggest that IRM plans for asexually-reproducing insects (e.g. aphids) cannot limit the frequency of resistance to provide sustainable use of a pest-resistant cultivar. We discuss how feeding by conspecifics aphids induces susceptibility such that a "within plant" refuge is created, allowing both virulent and avirulent (i.e. susceptible) populations to persist. We use the soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura), and the rapid occurrence of virulence in the US to resistant cultivars of soybean (Glycine max). We describe how feeding by A. glycines on soybeans alters the quality of the plant as a host. These systemic changes to the plants' physiology allow avirulent A. glycines to thrive on resistant cultivars. We explore how the induction of susceptibility by a herbivore can slow an increase in the frequency of virulent populations to resistant host plants. We suggest that a within plant refuge, combined with standard IRM practices, can allow for sustainable use of plant resistance to asexually-reproducing insect pests.


Assuntos
Afídeos/fisiologia , Evolução Biológica , Herbivoria , Soja/fisiologia , Animais , Antibiose , Afídeos/genética , América do Norte , Soja/genética
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 114(42): 11247-11252, 2017 10 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28973922

RESUMO

Loss of biodiversity and degradation of ecosystem services from agricultural lands remain important challenges in the United States despite decades of spending on natural resource management. To date, conservation investment has emphasized engineering practices or vegetative strategies centered on monocultural plantings of nonnative plants, largely excluding native species from cropland. In a catchment-scale experiment, we quantified the multiple effects of integrating strips of native prairie species amid corn and soybean crops, with prairie strips arranged to arrest run-off on slopes. Replacing 10% of cropland with prairie strips increased biodiversity and ecosystem services with minimal impacts on crop production. Compared with catchments containing only crops, integrating prairie strips into cropland led to greater catchment-level insect taxa richness (2.6-fold), pollinator abundance (3.5-fold), native bird species richness (2.1-fold), and abundance of bird species of greatest conservation need (2.1-fold). Use of prairie strips also reduced total water runoff from catchments by 37%, resulting in retention of 20 times more soil and 4.3 times more phosphorus. Corn and soybean yields for catchments with prairie strips decreased only by the amount of the area taken out of crop production. Social survey results indicated demand among both farming and nonfarming populations for the environmental outcomes produced by prairie strips. If federal and state policies were aligned to promote prairie strips, the practice would be applicable to 3.9 million ha of cropland in Iowa alone.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Biodiversidade , Valores Sociais , Animais , Aves , Humanos , Insetos , Iowa , Solo , Soja , Zea mays
17.
Environ Entomol ; 46(2): 284-290, 2017 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28334190

RESUMO

Cover crops are beneficial to agroecosystems because they decrease soil erosion and nutrient loss while increasing within-field plant diversity. Greater plant diversity within cropping systems can positively affect beneficial arthropod communities. We hypothesized that increasing plant diversity within annually rotated corn and soybean with the addition of a rye cover crop would positively affect the beneficial ground and canopy-dwelling communities compared with rotated corn and soybean grown without a cover crop. From 2011 through 2013, arthropod communities were measured at two locations in Iowa four times throughout each growing season. Pitfall traps were used to sample ground-dwelling arthropods within the corn and soybean plots and sweep nets were used to measure the beneficial arthropods in soybean canopies. Beneficial arthropods captured were identified to either class, order, or family. In both corn and soybean, community composition and total community activity density and abundance did not differ between plots that included the rye cover crop and plots without the rye cover crop. Most taxa did not significantly respond to the presence of the rye cover crop when analyzed individually, with the exceptions of Carabidae and Gryllidae sampled from soybean pitfall traps. Activity density of Carabidae was significantly greater in soybean plots that included a rye cover crop, while activity density of Gryllidae was significantly reduced in plots with the rye cover crop. Although a rye cover crop may be agronomically beneficial, there may be only limited effects on beneficial arthropods when added within an annual rotation of corn and soybean.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Biodiversidade , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Secale/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Iowa , Distribuição Aleatória , Estações do Ano
18.
PLoS One ; 11(11): e0166190, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27832169

RESUMO

Evidence of inter-species pathogen transmission from managed to wild bees has sparked concern that emerging diseases could be causing or exacerbating wild bee declines. While some pathogens, like RNA viruses, have been found in pollen and wild bees, the threat these viruses pose to wild bees is largely unknown. Here, we tested 169 bees, representing 4 families and 8 genera, for five common honey bee (Apis mellifera) viruses, finding that more than 80% of wild bees harbored at least one virus. We also quantified virus titers in these bees, providing, for the first time, an assessment of viral load in a broad spectrum of wild bees. Although virus detection was very common, virus levels in the wild bees were minimal-similar to or lower than foraging honey bees and substantially lower than honey bees collected from hives. Furthermore, when we experimentally inoculated adults of two different bee species (Megachile rotundata and Colletes inaequalis) with a mixture of common viruses that is lethal to honey bees, we saw no effect on short term survival. Overall, we found that honey bee RNA viruses can be commonly detected at low levels in many wild bee species, but we found no evidence that these pathogens cause elevated short-term mortality effects. However, more work on these viruses is greatly needed to assess effects on additional bee species and life stages.


Assuntos
Abelhas/virologia , Vírus de Insetos/fisiologia , Vírus de RNA/fisiologia , Carga Viral , Animais , Abelhas/classificação , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Geografia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Vírus de Insetos/classificação , Iowa , Vírus de RNA/classificação , Especificidade da Espécie
19.
Environ Entomol ; 45(5): 1154-1160, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27550160

RESUMO

Crop rotation alters agroecosystem diversity temporally, and increasing the number of crops in rotation schemes can increase crop yields and reduce reliance on pesticides. We hypothesized that increasing the number of crops in annual rotation schemes would positively affect ground-dwelling beneficial arthropod communities. During 2012 and 2013, pitfall traps were used to measure activity-density and diversity of ground-dwelling communities within three previously established, long-term crop rotation studies located in Wisconsin and Illinois. Rotation schemes sampled included continuous corn, a 2-yr annual rotation of corn and soybean, and a 3-yr annual rotation of corn, soybean, and wheat. Insects captured were identified to family, and non-insect arthropods were identified to class, order, or family, depending upon the taxa. Beneficial arthropods captured included natural enemies, granivores, and detritivores. The beneficial community from continuous corn plots was significantly more diverse compared with the community in the 2-yr rotation, whereas the community in the 3-yr rotation did not differ from either rotation scheme. The activity-density of the total community and any individual taxa did not differ among rotation schemes in either corn or soybean. Crop species within all three rotation schemes were annual crops, and are associated with agricultural practices that make infield habitat subject to anthropogenic disturbances and temporally unstable. Habitat instability and disturbance can limit the effectiveness and retention of beneficial arthropods, including natural enemies, granivores, and detritivores. Increasing non-crop and perennial species within landscapes in conjunction with more diverse rotation schemes may increase the effect of biological control of pests by natural enemies.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Artrópodes/fisiologia , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Animais , Illinois , Densidade Demográfica , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Wisconsin , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento
20.
J Econ Entomol ; 109(5): 2096-104, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27498115

RESUMO

Western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), and northern corn rootworm, Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence, are major pests of corn (Zea mays L.). Corn producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins are widely used to manage Diabrotica spp.; however, Bt resistance by D. v. virgifera has led to high levels of feeding injury in the field. We tested whether field history affected root injury and abundance of adult Diabrotica spp. In 2013 and 2014, four types of cornfields were sampled: 1) recently rotated fields, 2) continuous cornfields, 3) fields with a history of injury to Bt corn (past problem fields), and 4) fields with greater than one node of injury to Bt corn at the time of sampling (current problem fields). Data were collected on field history, root injury, and the abundance of adult Diabrotica spp. from each field. Root injury and the abundance of D. v. virgifera were significantly greater in current problem fields compared to the other field types, while D. barberi were significantly more abundant in recently rotated fields. Root injury and the abundance of D. v. virgifera did not differ among recently rotated fields, continuous cornfields, and past problem fields. Analysis of field history showed that recently rotated fields were characterized by significantly less Bt corn, soil-applied insecticides, and years planted to corn continuously. These results suggest that greater cropping practice diversity can reduce management inputs for Diabrotica spp.; however, its effects on resistance evolution remain undetermined.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/farmacologia , Besouros/fisiologia , Produção Agrícola/métodos , Endotoxinas/farmacologia , Proteínas Hemolisinas/farmacologia , Resistência a Inseticidas , Zea mays/fisiologia , Animais , Bacillus thuringiensis/química , Toxinas de Bacillus thuringiensis , Besouros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Herbivoria , Iowa , Larva/fisiologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/química , Dinâmica Populacional , Especificidade da Espécie
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