Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 215
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
ANZ J Surg ; 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is engrained in medical training that routine blood screening prior to arthroplasty is necessary for optimal patient care. There is little evidence to support their utility and the aggregate cost to the health system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate preoperative blood screening by identifying the frequency of an abnormal result and to examine the influence of age, gender and body mass index on the frequency of abnormal blood pathology. METHODS: This is a retrospective review of 1000 patients from a single centre who underwent elective primary hip or knee arthroplasty from 2015 to 2017. Abnormal blood results were identified and clinically relevant intervals were created for routine markers. RESULTS: A total of 939 patients had available pathology results with 84% identified as having an abnormal result and 47% having a clinically important range. Abnormal liver function tests and ferritin were most common. With increasing age, there was a significant increase in rates of abnormal clinically important range, renal dysfunction, abnormal haemoglobin and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Males and patients with body mass index >40 had an increased rate of abnormal results, particularly liver function tests. CONCLUSION: The ordering of preoperative investigations prior to lower limb arthroplasty is recommended by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines, alleviating concern of post-operative complications and covering medicolegal issues. Our study determined a high frequency of abnormal results, justifying routine blood screening is recommended prior to surgery, particularly for the elderly, males and obese patients.

2.
Med J Aust ; 2020 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981429

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the proportion of infants introduced to peanut and other common food allergens by 12 months of age; to collect information about parent-reported reactions to food. DESIGN, SETTING: Observational cohort study, applying the SmartStartAllergy SMS protocol and online questionnaire to parents of 12-month-old infants attending 69 Australian general practices between 21 September 2018 and 3 May 2019. PARTICIPANTS: 3374 parents recruited via the 69 participating general practices. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Proportions of infants who had eaten peanut and other common food allergens; proportions with parent-reported reactions to food. RESULTS: 1940 of 3374 invited parents participated in the study (response rate, 57%), of whom 836 (46%) completed the online questionnaire. At 12 months of age, 1673 of 1940 infants had eaten peanut-including foods (86.2%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 84.6-87.7%); 235 of 1831 parents (12.8%; 95% CI, 11.3-14.5%) reported food-related reactions. Questionnaire responses indicated that dairy was the food type most frequently reported to cause a food-related reaction (72 of 835 exposed infants, 8.6%; 95% CI, 6.8-11%); peanut-related reactions were reported for 20 of 764 exposed children (2.6%; 95% CI, 1.6-4.0%). 97 of 250 parent-reported reactions to food (39%) did not include symptoms that suggested an IgE-mediated allergic reaction. CONCLUSION: Infant feeding practices in Australia have changed over the past decade; a large majority of infants are now fed peanut before 12 months of age. The SmartStartAllergy program allows monitoring of infant feeding practices in primary care, as well as of parent-reported reactions to food in infants.

3.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 966, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31969610

RESUMO

Bronchospasm compresses the bronchial epithelium, and this compressive stress has been implicated in asthma pathogenesis. However, the molecular mechanisms by which this compressive stress alters pathways relevant to disease are not well understood. Using air-liquid interface cultures of primary human bronchial epithelial cells derived from non-asthmatic donors and asthmatic donors, we applied a compressive stress and then used a network approach to map resulting changes in the molecular interactome. In cells from non-asthmatic donors, compression by itself was sufficient to induce inflammatory, late repair, and fibrotic pathways. Remarkably, this molecular profile of non-asthmatic cells after compression recapitulated the profile of asthmatic cells before compression. Together, these results show that even in the absence of any inflammatory stimulus, mechanical compression alone is sufficient to induce an asthma-like molecular signature.

4.
J Med Chem ; 63(2): 714-746, 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31904959

RESUMO

The bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) family of bromodomain-containing proteins are important regulators of the epigenome through their ability to recognize N-acetyl lysine (KAc) post-translational modifications on histone tails. These interactions have been implicated in various disease states and, consequently, disruption of BET-KAc binding has emerged as an attractive therapeutic strategy with a number of small molecule inhibitors now under investigation in the clinic. However, until the utility of these advanced candidates is fully assessed by these trials, there remains scope for the discovery of inhibitors from new chemotypes with alternative physicochemical, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic profiles. Herein, we describe the discovery of a candidate-quality dimethylpyridone benzimidazole compound which originated from the hybridization of a dimethylphenol benzimidazole series, identified using encoded library technology, with an N-methyl pyridone series identified through fragment screening. Optimization via structure- and property-based design led to I-BET469, which possesses favorable oral pharmacokinetic properties, displays activity in vivo, and is projected to have a low human efficacious dose.

5.
J Exp Med ; 217(2)2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841125

RESUMO

Antibody-mediated autoimmune diseases are a major health burden. However, our understanding of how self-reactive B cells escape self-tolerance checkpoints to secrete pathogenic autoantibodies remains incomplete. Here, we demonstrate that patients with monogenic immune dysregulation caused by gain-of-function mutations in PIK3CD, encoding the p110δ catalytic subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), have highly penetrant secretion of autoreactive IgM antibodies. In mice with the corresponding heterozygous Pik3cd activating mutation, self-reactive B cells exhibit a cell-autonomous subversion of their response to self-antigen: instead of becoming tolerized and repressed from secreting autoantibody, Pik3cd gain-of-function B cells are activated by self-antigen to form plasmablasts that secrete high titers of germline-encoded IgM autoantibody and hypermutating germinal center B cells. However, within the germinal center, peripheral tolerance was still enforced, and there was selection against B cells with high affinity for self-antigen. These data show that the strength of PI3K signaling is a key regulator of pregerminal center B cell self-tolerance and thus represents a druggable pathway to treat antibody-mediated autoimmunity.

6.
Bone Joint J ; 101-B(12): 1550-1556, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786993

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to examine trends in the management of fractures of the distal radius in Ireland over a ten-year period, and to determine if there were any changes in response to the English Distal Radius Acute Fracture Fixation Trial (DRAFFT). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data was grouped into annual intervals from 2008 to 2017. All adult inpatient episodes that involved emergency surgery for fractures of the distal radius were included. RESULTS: In 2008 Kirschner-wire (K-wire) fixation accounted for 59% of operations for fractures of the distal radius, and plate fixation for 21%. In 2017, the rate of K-wire fixation had fallen to 30%, and the proportion of patients who underwent plate fixation had risen to 62%. CONCLUSION: There is an increasing trend towards open reduction and internal fixation for fractures of the distal radius in Ireland. This has been accompanied by a decrease in popularity for K-wire fixation. DRAFFT did not appear to influence trends in the management of fractures of the distal radius in Ireland. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2019;101-B:1550-1556.


Assuntos
Fixação Interna de Fraturas/tendências , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Fraturas do Rádio/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Placas Ósseas , Fios Ortopédicos , Feminino , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/instrumentação , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/métodos , Humanos , Irlanda , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Ensaios Clínicos Pragmáticos como Assunto , Adulto Jovem
7.
BMJ ; 367: l6055, 2019 11 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748235

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the relation between age and troponin level and its prognostic implication. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Five cardiovascular centres in the UK National Institute for Health Research Health Informatics Collaborative (UK-NIHR HIC). PARTICIPANTS: 257 948 consecutive patients undergoing troponin testing for any clinical reason between 2010 and 2017. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: All cause mortality. RESULTS: 257 948 patients had troponin measured during the study period. Analyses on troponin were performed using the peak troponin level, which was the highest troponin level measured during the patient's hospital stay. Troponin levels were standardised as a multiple of each laboratory's 99th centile of the upper limit of normal (ULN). During a median follow-up of 1198 days (interquartile range 514-1866 days), 55 850 (21.7%) deaths occurred. A positive troponin result (that is, higher than the upper limit of normal) signified a 3.2 higher mortality hazard (95% confidence interval 3.1 to 3.2) over three years. Mortality varied noticeably with age, with a hazard ratio of 10.6 (8.5 to 13.3) in 18-29 year olds and 1.5 (1.4 to 1.6) in those older than 90. A positive troponin result was associated with an approximately 15 percentage points higher absolute three year mortality across all age groups. The excess mortality with a positive troponin result was heavily concentrated in the first few weeks. Results were analysed using multivariable adjusted restricted cubic spline Cox regression. A direct relation was seen between troponin level and mortality in patients without acute coronary syndrome (ACS, n=120 049), whereas an inverted U shaped relation was found in patients with ACS (n=14 468), with a paradoxical decline in mortality at peak troponin levels >70×ULN. In the group with ACS, the inverted U shaped relation persisted after multivariable adjustment in those who were managed invasively; however, a direct positive relation was found between troponin level and mortality in patients managed non-invasively. CONCLUSIONS: A positive troponin result was associated with a clinically important increased mortality, regardless of age, even if the level was only slightly above normal. The excess mortality with a raised troponin was heavily concentrated in the first few weeks. STUDY REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03507309.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Troponina/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Estudos de Coortes , Tratamento Conservador/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
8.
Neurorehabil Neural Repair ; 33(11): 943-950, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660787

RESUMO

Cognitive impairment is an important target for rehabilitation as it is common following stroke, is associated with reduced quality of life and interferes with motor and other types of recovery interventions. Cognitive function following stroke was identified as an important, but relatively neglected area during the first Stroke Recovery and Rehabilitation Roundtable (SRRR I), leading to a Cognition Working Group being convened as part of SRRR II. There is currently insufficient evidence to build consensus on specific approaches to cognitive rehabilitation. However, we present recommendations on the integration of cognitive assessments into stroke recovery studies generally and define priorities for ongoing and future research for stroke recovery and rehabilitation. A number of promising interventions are ready to be taken forward to trials to tackle the gap in evidence for cognitive rehabilitation. However, to accelerate progress requires that we coordinate efforts to tackle multiple gaps along the whole translational pathway.

9.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 317(5): L690-L701, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508974

RESUMO

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disease that causes multiple airway abnormalities. Two major respiratory consequences of CF are airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and airway remodeling. Airway smooth muscle (ASM) is hypothesized to be responsible for the airway dysfunction, since their thickening is involved in remodeling, and excessive contraction by the ASM may cause AHR. It is unclear whether the ASM is intrinsically altered to favor increased contractility or proliferation or if microenvironmental influences induce pathological behavior in vivo. In this study, we examined the contractile and proliferative properties of ASM cells isolated from healthy donor and CF transplant lungs. Assays of proliferation showed that CF ASM proliferates at a higher rate than healthy cells. Through calcium analysis, no differences in contractile activation in response to histamine were found. However, CF ASM cells lagged in their reuptake of calcium in the sarcoplasmic reticulum. The combination CFTR corrector and potentiator, VX-809/770, used to restore CFTR function in CF ASM, resulted in a reduction in proliferation and in a normalization of calcium reuptake kinetics. These results show that impaired CFTR function in ASM cells causes intrinsic changes in their proliferative and contractile properties.

10.
Int J Stroke ; 14(8): 774-782, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514685

RESUMO

Cognitive impairment is an important target for rehabilitation as it is common following stroke, is associated with reduced quality of life and interferes with motor and other types of recovery interventions. Cognitive function following stroke was identified as an important, but relatively neglected area during the first Stroke Recovery and Rehabilitation Roundtable (SRRR I), leading to a Cognition Working Group being convened as part of SRRR II. There is currently insufficient evidence to build consensus on specific approaches to cognitive rehabilitation. However, we present recommendations on the integration of cognitive assessments into stroke recovery studies generally and define priorities for ongoing and future research for stroke recovery and rehabilitation. A number of promising interventions are ready to be taken forward to trials to tackle the gap in evidence for cognitive rehabilitation. However, to accelerate progress requires that we coordinate efforts to tackle multiple gaps along the whole translational pathway.

11.
Pract Neurol ; 19(5): 380-388, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350297

RESUMO

Language disorders are common in neurological practice but their accurate recognition and description can be challenging. In this review, we summarise the major landmarks in the understanding of language disorders and the organisation of language in the brain. We describe approaches to assessing language disorders at the bedside or in the clinic as well as the treatment and rehabilitation of aphasia. Finally, we describe how the field of neuroscience is providing new computational and neuroscientific approaches to study the mechanisms of recovery and rehabilitation of aphasia.

12.
Case Rep Orthop ; 2019: 8697360, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31316851

RESUMO

Background: The aetiology of trigger digits has been debated since Notta first described them in 1850. Aetiology has been segregated for adult and paediatric presentations. While an adult trigger digit is most likely an acquired inflammatory process, the same is not true for cases in children: no inflammatory reaction is seen on microscopic evaluation. We wish to add strength to a genotypical aetiology for paediatric cases. Methods: We present two cases of monozygotic twins with trigger digits managed in our institution. A comprehensive review of literature was conducted for cases of trigger digit in monozygotic twins to support our theory. Results: Our two sets of twins enjoyed a full recovery from surgery at one-month follow-up. A total of seven other cases of monozygotic twins were found in literature. Conclusion: Our cases add to the growing body of evidence supporting a genotypical aetiology for paediatric trigger digit.

13.
Am Heart J ; 215: 41-51, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277053

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) has been shown to protect against lethal ischemia-reperfusion injury in animal models and against nonlethal ischemia reperfusion injury in humans. Furthermore, GLP-1 receptor agonists have been shown to reduce major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) in large-scale studies. We sought to investigate whether GLP-1 reduced percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)-associated myocardial infarction (PMI) during elective PCI. METHODS: The study was a randomized, double-blind controlled trial in which patients undergoing elective PCI received an intravenous infusion of either GLP-1 at 1.2 pmol/kg/min or matched 0.9% saline placebo before and during the procedure. Randomization was performed in 1:1 fashion, with stratification for diabetes mellitus. Six-hour cardiac troponin I (cTnI) was measured with a primary end point of PMI defined as rise ≫×5 upper limit of normal (280 ng/L). Secondary end points included cTnI rise and MACCE at 12 months. RESULTS: A total of 192 patients were randomized with 152 (79%) male and a mean age of 68.1 ±â€¯8.9 years. No significant differences in patient demographics were noted between the groups. There was no difference in the rate of PMI between GLP-1 and placebo (9 [9.8%] vs 8 [8.3%], P = 1.0) or in the secondary end points of difference in median cTnI between groups (9.5 [0-88.5] vs 20 [0-58.5] ng/L, P = .25) and MACCE at 12 months (7 [7.3%] vs 9 [9.4%], P = .61). CONCLUSIONS: In this randomized, placebo-controlled trial, GLP-1 did not reduce the low incidence of PMI or abrogate biomarker rise during elective PCI, nor did it influence the 12-month MACCE rate which also remained low. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov Number: NCT02127996https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02127996.

14.
Eur J Nutr ; 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31325041

RESUMO

PURPOSES: Dietary free sugars (FS) are the most important risk factor for dental caries and can contribute to excess energy intake. Measuring FS intake is limited by food composition databases and appropriate dietary assessment methods. The aim of this analysis was to estimate total sugar (TS) and FS intakes for Irish pre-schoolers and examine the proportion of dietary TS and FS captured using a short food questionnaire (SFQ). METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of 3-year-old children from two national surveys; Growing Up in Ireland (GUI), N = 9793 of whom 49% were girls and the National Preschool Nutrition Survey (NPNS), N = 126 and 52% were girls. GUI used SFQs and NPNS used semi-weighed food diaries to collect dietary data from 3-year-old children. Dietary intake databases were linked using an established approach. Mean daily TS and FS intakes and frequency were calculated, and consumption patterns from foods and meals are presented. The proportion of foods that were covered or non-covered by the GUI SFQ was calculated by comparison with the NPNS food diary. RESULTS: 75% of 3 year-olds had FS intake greater than the maximum recommended by WHO guidelines for free sugar intake, while 4% met the lower threshold. The median frequency of TS and FS consumption was 5.0 (4.0-6.0) and 4.0 (3.0-5.0) times/day. Less than one-quarter of TS intake (g/day) was non-covered by the GUI SFQ while less than one-third of FS intake was non-covered. CONCLUSIONS: A large majority of 3-year-old Irish children do not meet the WHO recommended guidelines for FS intake and almost none meet the desired conditional recommendation. SFQs only capture two-thirds of FS intake at this early age.

15.
Int J Stroke ; 14(5): 450-456, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092153

RESUMO

The Stroke Recovery and Rehabilitation Roundtable (SRRR) meetings bring together an international group of preclinical and clinical researchers along with statisticians, methodologists, funders and consumers, working to accelerate the development of effective treatments for stroke recovery and to support best-evidence uptake in rehabilitation practice. The first meeting (2016) focused on four recommendation areas: translation of preclinical evidence into human discovery trials; recovery biomarkers to provide knowledge of therapeutic targets and prognosis in human stroke; intervention development, monitoring, and reporting standards; and standardized measurement in motor recovery trials. The impact of SRRR is growing, with uptake of recommendations emerging, and funders exploring ways to incorporate research targets and recommendations. At our second meeting (SRRR2, 2018), we worked on new priority areas: (1) cognitive impairment, (2) standardizing metrics for measuring quality of movement, (3) improving development of recovery trials, and (4) moving evidence-based treatments into practice. To accelerate progress towards breakthrough treatments, formation of an International Stroke Recovery and Rehabilitation Alliance is our next step, where working groups will take recommendations and build partnerships needed to achieve our goals.

16.
Global Biogeochem Cycles ; 33(2): 163-180, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31007383

RESUMO

The terrestrial carbon sink has increased since the turn of this century at a time of increased fossil fuel burning, yet the mechanisms enhancing this sink are not fully understood. Here we assess the hypothesis that regional increases in nitrogen deposition since the early 2000s has alleviated nitrogen limitation and worked in tandem with enhanced CO2 fertilization to increase ecosystem productivity and carbon sequestration, providing a causal link between the parallel increases in emissions and the global land carbon sink. We use the Community Land Model (CLM4.5-BGC) to estimate the influence of changes in atmospheric CO2, nitrogen deposition, climate, and their interactions to changes in net primary production and net biome production. We focus on two periods, 1901-2016 and 1990-2016, to estimate changes in land carbon fluxes relative to historical and contemporary baselines, respectively. We find that over the historical period, nitrogen deposition (14%) and carbon-nitrogen synergy (14%) were significant contributors to the current terrestrial carbon sink, suggesting that long-term increases in nitrogen deposition led to a substantial increase in CO2 fertilization. However, relative to the contemporary baseline, changes in nitrogen deposition and carbon-nitrogen synergy had no substantial contribution to the 21st century increase in global carbon uptake. Nonetheless, we find that increased nitrogen deposition in East Asia since the early 1990s contributed 50% to the overall increase in net biome production over this region, highlighting the importance of carbon-nitrogen interactions. Therefore, potential large-scale changes in nitrogen deposition could have a significant impact on terrestrial carbon cycling and future climate.

17.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 144(1): 236-253, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30738173

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gain-of-function (GOF) mutations in PIK3CD cause a primary immunodeficiency characterized by recurrent respiratory tract infections, susceptibility to herpesvirus infections, and impaired antibody responses. Previous work revealed defects in CD8+ T and B cells that contribute to this clinical phenotype, but less is understood about the role of CD4+ T cells in disease pathogenesis. OBJECTIVE: We sought to dissect the effects of increased phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling on CD4+ T-cell function. METHODS: We performed detailed ex vivo, in vivo, and in vitro phenotypic and functional analyses of patients' CD4+ T cells and a novel murine disease model caused by overactive PI3K signaling. RESULTS: PI3K overactivation caused substantial increases in numbers of memory and follicular helper T (TFH) cells and dramatic changes in cytokine production in both patients and mice. Furthermore, PIK3CD GOF human TFH cells had dysregulated phenotype and function characterized by increased programmed cell death protein 1, CXCR3, and IFN-γ expression, the phenotype of a TFH cell subset with impaired B-helper function. This was confirmed in vivo in which Pik3cd GOF CD4+ T cells also acquired an aberrant TFH phenotype and provided poor help to support germinal center reactions and humoral immune responses by antigen-specific wild-type B cells. The increase in numbers of both memory and TFH cells was largely CD4+ T-cell extrinsic, whereas changes in cytokine production and TFH cell function were cell intrinsic. CONCLUSION: Our studies reveal that CD4+ T cells with overactive PI3K have aberrant activation and differentiation, thereby providing mechanistic insight into dysfunctional antibody responses in patients with PIK3CD GOF mutations.

18.
Br J Neurosurg ; 33(3): 352-356, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30741019

RESUMO

Study Design: Retrospective review of the practice of 3 surgeons in a single centre during a 1-year period. Objective: We aimed to investigate our adherence to the Society of British Neurological Surgeons (SBNS) guidelines regarding intra-operative imaging during lumbar surgery and to determine if this has any impact on length of surgery or complications rates, in particular rates of wrong-level surgery. Background: The SBNS recommends three x-rays for intra-operative spinal localisation - one prior to incision, the second after exposure of the laminae and before the commencement of decompression, and the third at the end of the operation to confirm the adequacy of decompression. At our centre, surgeon A performs x-rays 1 and 3 routinely, and x-ray 2 in cases where the anatomy is uncertain, surgeon B performs x-ray 2 only, and the practice of surgeon C varies depending on the complexity of cases. Method: We reviewed the surgical logbooks of 3 consultant neurosurgeons in our centre for the 1-year period between October 2015 and October 2016. Our study included 301 patients who had undergone lumbar decompression or lumbar discectomy during this period. Results: There were no cases of wrong-level surgery. The incorrect spinal level was initially exposed in 13 cases (4.3%). 10 of these had x-ray 2 only, 1 had x-ray 1, 1 had x-rays 1 and 2, and 1 had all 3 x-rays. Surgeon B performed 8 of these cases, four were performed by surgeon C, and 1 by surgeon A. The median duration of surgery was 80 minutes for lumbar decompression and 67.5 minutes for lumbar discectomy. The median duration of surgery in patients in whom the wrong level was initially exposed was 85 minutes for lumbar decompression and 80 minutes for lumbar discectomy. Conclusion: Performance of the 3 recommended x-rays may increase the identification of wrong-level exposures before the commencement of decompression and may reduce the length of surgery.


Assuntos
Vértebras Lombares/cirurgia , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Descompressão Cirúrgica/métodos , Discotomia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/métodos , Região Lombossacral/cirurgia , Masculino , Erros Médicos/prevenção & controle , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neurocirurgiões , Duração da Cirurgia , Radiografia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Cirurgia Assistida por Computador/métodos
19.
Int J Health Plann Manage ; 34(2): e1119-e1134, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30734966

RESUMO

Many health delivery services have required performance targets. Typically, these targets are presented as percentiles of patients to be seen within specified timeframes. These targets present hospital administrators with a resourcing problem complicated by conflicting objectives: How to minimize costs while maximizing throughput to achieve the performance targets? In this paper, we describe the use of a simulation model to evaluate the effect of changes to staff levels in a cytology department, investigating the trade-off between staff levels and turnaround times in light of performance targets specified by government. Standard practice for determining staffing levels in a cytology department uses average workload estimates and does not take into account target performance measures, task variability, and the interruptive nature of the workload of pathologists. We develop a simulation model for pathologist workload within a cytology department in New Zealand. We describe the model construction process that follows the hierarchical control conceptual modeling (HCCM) framework. We use the resulting simulation model to examine the trade-offs between staffing levels (and associated rosters) and task turnaround time. The results indicate that consideration of variation in task arrivals is important when considering the effect of staffing levels on turnaround time. Furthermore, as the cytology department is required to meet performance targets that involve maximum service times for a percentile of patients, such an approach is necessary in order to estimate the performance level of a staffing roster.


Assuntos
Eficiência Organizacional , Serviço Hospitalar de Patologia , Recursos Humanos/organização & administração , Humanos , Modelos Organizacionais , Modelos Teóricos , Nova Zelândia , Carga de Trabalho
20.
Telemed J E Health ; 25(12): 1244-1249, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30735103

RESUMO

Background: Intra-articular phalangeal fractures involving the proximal interphalangeal joint (PIPJ) are notoriously difficult injuries to treat and often require regular follow-up to assess progress, guide treatment, and determine outcomes. Some patients often have to travel long distances for follow-up care. The aim of our study was to assess the clinical outcomes of intra-articular fractures of the PIPJ through use of clinical pictures sent through a mobile phone. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted of a consecutive group of patients treated with a static external fixator (Micro Hoffman-2 Stryker®) between 2006 and 2016 for an intra-articular fracture of the PIPJ. Range of motion (ROM) at the PIPJ was assessed through clinical pictures taken on a mobile phone. Results: Clinical images were received from 15 patients with a mean age of 31.9 years (range 15-51), of which 73.3% of patients were male. Mean length of follow-up was 39 months. Around 73.3% of injuries occurred while playing a sport. Mean PIPJ ROM assessed through the clinical images was 67°. Conclusion: Our study shows that it was possible to assess ROM at the PIPJ through the use of clinical pictures taken by mobile phone. The use of mobile phones to take images provided a simple, easy, and convenient means of assessing outcome in this cohort of patients. We describe a method of follow-up that may have a greater role in the future.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA