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1.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 128: 112306, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474857

RESUMO

Osteomyelitis is caused by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), with associated progressive bone loss. This study developed for the first time a calcium phosphate cement (CPC) for delivery of doxycycline (DOX) and human platelet lysate (hPL) to fight against S. aureus infection and enhance the osteogenesis of human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs). Chitosan-containing CPC scaffolds were fabricated in the absence (CPCC) or presence of DOX (CPCC+DOX). In addition, hPL was encapsulated in alginate microbeads and incorporated into CPCC+DOX (CPCC+DOX+ hPL). Flexural strength of CPCC+DOX + hPL was (5.56 ± 0.55) MPa, lower than (8.26 ± 1.6) MPa of CPCC+DOX (p < 0.05), but exceeding the reported strength of cancellous bone. CPCC+DOX and CPCC+DOX + hPL exhibited strong antibacterial activity against S. aureus, reducing biofilm CFU by 4 orders of magnitude. The hPDLSCs encapsulated in microbeads were co-cultured with the CPCs. The hPDLSCs were able to be released from the microbeads and showed a high proliferation rate, increasing by about 8 folds at 14 days for all groups. The hPL was released from the scaffold and promoted the osteogenic differentiation of hPDLSCs. ALP activity was 28.07 ± 5.15 mU/mg for CPCC+DOX + hPL, higher than 17.36 ± 2.37 mU/mg and 1.34 ± 0.37 mU/mg of CPCC+DOX and CPCC, respectively (p < 0.05). At 7 days, osteogenic genes (ALP, RUNX2, COL-1, and OPN) in CPCC+DOX + hPL were 3-10 folds those of control. The amount of hPDLSC-synthesized bone mineral with CPCC+DOX + hPL was 3.8 folds that of CPCC (p < 0.05). In summary, the novel CPC + DOX + hPL-hPDLSCs scaffold exhibited strong antibacterial activity, excellent cytocompatibility and hPDLSC osteogenic differentiation, showing a promising approach for treatment and prevention of bone infection and enhancement of bone regeneration.


Assuntos
Osteogênese , Ligamento Periodontal , Biofilmes , Fosfatos de Cálcio/farmacologia , Diferenciação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus , Células-Tronco
2.
J Dent ; 113: 103789, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455017

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Composites with remineralizing and antibacterial properties are favorable for caries inhibition. The objectives of this study were to develop a new bioactive nanocomposite with remineralizing and antibiofilm properties by incorporating dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM) and nano-calcium fluoride (nCaF2). METHODS: nCaF2 was produced via a spray-drying method and integrated at 15% mass fraction into composite. DMAHDM was added at 3% mass fraction. Mechanical properties and F and Ca ion releases were assessed. Colony-forming units (CFU), lactic acid and metabolic activity of biofilms on composites were performed. RESULTS: The new composites had flexural strengths of (95.28±6.32) MPa and (125.93±7.49) MPa, which were within the ISO recommendations. Biofilm CFU were reduced by 3-4 log (p<0.05). The composites achieved high F releases of (0.89±0.01) mmol/L and (0.44±0.01) mmol/L, and Ca releases of (1.46±0.05) mmol/L and (0.54±0.005) mmol/L. CONCLUSIONS: New nanocomposites were developed with good mechanical properties, potent antibacterial activity against salivary biofilms, and high F and Ca ion releases with potential for remineralization. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Novel nanocomposites using nCaF2 and DMAHDM were developed with potent antibacterial and remineralizing effects and high F and Ca ion releases. They are promising to inhibit recurrent caries, promote remineralization, and possess long-term sustainability.

3.
Dent Mater ; 37(6): 1009-1019, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33879343

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Fluoride (F)-releasing restoratives typically are either weak mechanically or release only low levels of F ions. The objectives of this study were to: (1) develop a novel photo-cured nanocomposite with strong mechanical properties and high levels of sustained F ion release via a two-step "co-precipitation + spray-drying" technique to synthesize CaF2 nanoparticles (nCaF2); and (2) investigate the effect of spray-drying treatment after co-precipitation of nCaF2 on mechanical properties and F ion release of composite. METHODS: Two types of CaF2 particles were synthesized: A co-precipitation method yielded CaF2cp; "co-precipitation + spray-drying" yielded nCaF2cpsd. Composites were fabricated with fillers of: (1) 0% CaF2 + 70% glass; (2) 10% CaF2cp + 60% glass; (3) 15% CaF2cp + 55% glass; (4) 20% CaF2cp + 50% glass; (5) 10% nCaF2cpsd + 60% glass; (6) 15% nCaF2cpsd + 55% glass; and (7) 20% nCaF2cpsd + 50% glass. A commercial F-releasing nanocomposite served as control. RESULTS: The nCaF2cpsd had much smaller particle size (median = 32 nm) and narrower distribution (22-57 nm) than CaF2cp (median = 5.25 µm, 162 nm-67 µm). The composite containing nCaF2cpsd had greater flowability, flexural strength, elastic modulus and hardness than CaF2cp composite and commercial control composite. At 84-day immersion in water, the nanocomposites containing 20% nCaF2cpsd had 65 times higher cumulative F release, and 77 times greater long-term F-release rate, than commercial control. CONCLUSIONS: A novel two-step "co-precipitation + spray-drying" technique of synthesizing nCaF2 was developed. The photo-cured nanocomposite containing 20% nCaF2cpsd possessed strong mechanical properties and excellent long-term F-release ability, and hence is promising for dental restoration applications to inhibit secondary caries.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Nanocompostos , Resinas Compostas , Fluoretos , Cimentos de Ionômeros de Vidro , Humanos , Teste de Materiais
5.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 120: 111688, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545850

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is the major pathogen for osteomyelitis, which can lead to bone necrosis and destruction. There has been no report on antibacterial calcium phosphate cement (CPC) against S. aureus. The aims of this study were to: (1) develop novel antibacterial CPC-chitosan-alginate microbead scaffold; (2) investigate mechanical and antibacterial properties of CPC-chitosan-penicillin-alginate scaffold; (3) evaluate the encapsulation and delivery of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs). Flexural strength, elastic modulus and work-of-fracture of the CPC-chitosan-penicillin-alginate microbeads scaffold and CPC-chitosan scaffold were evaluated. Penicillin release profile and antibacterial effects on S. aureus were determined. The hUCMSC delivery and release from penicillin-alginate microbeads were investigated. Injectable CPC-chitosan-penicillin-alginate microbeads scaffold was developed for the first time. CPC-chitosan-penicillin-alginate microbeads scaffold had a flexural strength of 3.16 ± 0.55 MPa, matching that of cancellous bone. With sustained penicillin release, the new scaffold had strong antibacterial effects on S. aureus, with an inhibition zone diameter of 32.2 ± 2.5 mm, greater than that of penicillin disk control (15.1 ± 2.0 mm) (p < 0.05). Furthermore, this injectable and antibacterial scaffold had no toxic effects, yielding excellent hUCMSC viability, which was similar to that of CPC control without antibacterial activity (p > 0.05). CPC-chitosan-penicillin-microbeads scaffold had injectability, good strength, strong antibacterial effects, and good biocompatibility to support stem cell viability for osteogenesis. CPC-chitosan-penicillin-microbeads scaffold is promising for dental, craniofacial and orthopedic applications to combat infections and promote bone regeneration.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Staphylococcus aureus , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cimentos Ósseos/farmacologia , Regeneração Óssea , Fosfatos de Cálcio/farmacologia , Diferenciação Celular , Humanos , Osteogênese , Células-Tronco , Engenharia Tecidual , Tecidos Suporte
6.
J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater ; 109(8): 1124-1134, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33386668

RESUMO

The aims are: (a) To develop the first low-shrinkage-stress nanocomposite with antibacterial and remineralization capabilities through the incorporation of dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM) and nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP); (b) to investigate the effects of the new composite on biofilm inhibition, mechanical properties, shrinkage stress, and calcium (Ca) and phosphate (P) ion releases. The low-shrinkage-stress resin consisted of urethane dimethacrylate and triethylene glycol divinylbenzyl ether. Composite was formulated with 3% DMAHDM and 20% NACP. Mechanical properties, shrinkage stress, and degree of conversion were evaluated. Streptococcus mutans biofilm growth on composites was assessed. Ca and P ion releases were measured. The shrinkage stress of the low-shrinkage-stress composite containing 3% DMAHDM and 20% NACP was 36% lower than that of traditional composite control (p < 0.05), with similar degrees of conversion of 73.9%. The new composite decreased the biofilm colony-forming unit by 4 log orders and substantially reduced biofilm lactic acid production compared to control composite (p < 0.05). Incorporating DMAHDM to the low-shrinkage-stress composite did not adversely affect the Ca and P ion release. A novel bioactive nanocomposite was developed with low shrinkage stress, strong antibiofilm activity, and high levels of ion release for remineralization, without undermining the mechanical properties and degree of conversion.

7.
J Tissue Eng Regen Med ; 15(3): 232-243, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33434402

RESUMO

Infectious bone defects remain a significant challenge in orthopedics and dentistry. Calcium phosphate cement (CPC) have attracted significant interest in use as local drug delivery system, which with great potential to control release of antibiotics for the treatment of infectious bone defects. Within the current study, a novel antibacterial scaffold of chitosan-reinforced calcium phosphate cement delivering doxycycline hyclate (CPCC + DOX) was developed. Furthermore, the capacity of CPCC + DOX scaffolds for bone regeneration was enhanced by the human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) encapsulated in alginate beads. CPCC + DOX scaffolds were fabricated to contain different concentrations of DOX. Flexural strength of CPCC + DOX ranged from 5.56 ± 0.70 to 6.2 ± 0.72 MPa, which exceeded the reported strength of cancellous bone. Scaffolds exhibited continual DOX release, reaching 80% at 21 days. Scaffold with 5 mg/ml DOX (CPCC + DOX5mg) had a strong antibacterial effect, with a 4-log colony forming unit reduction against S. aureus and P. gingivalis. The proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hPDLSCs encapsulated in alginate hydrogel microbeads were investigated in culture with CPCC + DOX scaffolds. CPCC + DOX5mg had no negative effect on proliferation of hPDLSCs. Alkaline phosphatase activity, mineral synthesis, and osteogenic gene expressions for CPCC + DOX5mg group were much higher than control group. DOX did not compromise the osteogenic induction. In summary, the novel CPCC + DOX scaffold exhibited excellent mechanical properties and strong antibacterial activity, while supporting the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hPDLSCs. The CPCC + DOX + hPDLSCs construct is promising to enhance bone regeneration and combat bone infections in dental, craniofacial, and orthopedic applications.

8.
Tissue Eng Part A ; 2021 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33261521

RESUMO

Calcium phosphate cement (CPC) is promising for bone and dentin repair and regeneration. However, there has been no report of biphasic CPC for inducing dentin regeneration. The aim of this study was to develop a novel biphasic CPC containing ß-tricalcium phosphate (ß-TCP), and investigate its effects on odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) and macrophage polarization. New biphasic CPC was formulated with different ratios of ß-TCP to an equimolar mixture of tetracalcium phosphate and dicalcium phosphate anhydrous. Mechanical properties, biocompatibility, and odontogenic differentiation induction ability of the cements and the inflammatory reaction to the cements were examined. A series of CPC containing ß-TCP were developed. CPC with 20% ß-TCP exhibited homogeneity and injectability, an acceptable setting time, and a twofold increase in compressive strength. Significant increases in hDPSCs' alkaline phosphatase activity, mineral deposit, DMP1 and DSPP gene, and protein expressions were obtained for 20% TCP-CPC, compared with traditional CPC (p < 0.01). The addition of ß-TCP did not promote macrophage polarization to the proinflammation phenotype. The addition of 10% and 20% ß-TCP promoted macrophage polarization to the anti-inflammatory phenotype. In conclusion, a biphasic ß-TCP-modified CPC was developed for the first time, demonstrating substantially increased dentin regeneration capability, while promoting macrophages to an anti-inflammation phenotype. The novel biphasic CPC is promising for tooth tissue engineering and dentin regeneration applications.

9.
Materials (Basel) ; 13(21)2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33158111

RESUMO

Decays in the roots of teeth is prevalent in seniors as people live longer and retain more of their teeth to an old age, especially in patients with periodontal disease and gingival recession. The objectives of this study were to develop a biocompatible nanocomposite with nano-sized calcium fluoride particles (Nano-CaF2), and to investigate for the first time the effects on osteogenic and cementogenic induction of periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) from human donors.Nano-CaF2 particles with a mean particle size of 53 nm were produced via a spray-drying machine.Nano-CaF2 was mingled into the composite at 0%, 10%, 15% and 20% by mass. Flexural strength (160 ± 10) MPa, elastic modulus (11.0 ± 0.5) GPa, and hardness (0.58 ± 0.03) GPa for Nano-CaF2 composite exceeded those of a commercial dental composite (p < 0.05). Calcium (Ca) and fluoride (F) ions were released steadily from the composite. Osteogenic genes were elevated for hPDLSCs growing on 20% Nano-CaF2. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) peaked at 14 days. Collagen type 1 (COL1), runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and osteopontin (OPN) peaked at 21 days. Cementogenic genes were also enhanced on 20% Nano-CaF2 composite, promoting cementum adherence protein (CAP), cementum protein 1 (CEMP1) and bone sialoprotein (BSP) expressions (p < 0.05). At 7, 14 and 21 days, the ALP activity of hPDLSCs on 20% Nano-CaF2 composite was 57-fold, 78-fold, and 55-fold greater than those of control, respectively (p < 0.05). Bone mineral secretion by hPDLSCs on 20% Nano-CaF2 composite was 2-fold that of control (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the novel Nano-CaF2 composite was biocompatible and supported hPDLSCs. Nano-CaF2 composite is promising to fill tooth root cavities and release Ca and F ions to enhance osteogenic and cementogenic induction of hPDLSCs and promote periodontium regeneration.

10.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 10(10)2020 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050559

RESUMO

Oral biofilm accumulation at the tooth-restoration interface often leads to recurrent dental caries and restoration failure. The objectives of this study were to: (1) develop a novel bioactive crown cement containing dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM) and nano-sized amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP), and (2) investigate the mechanical properties, anti-biofilm activity, and calcium (Ca2+) and phosphate (PO43-) ion release of the crown cement for the first time. The cement matrix consisted of pyromellitic glycerol dimethacrylate and ethoxylated bisphenol-A dimethacrylate monomers and was denoted PEHB resin matrix. The following cements were tested: (1) RelyX luting cement (commercial control); (2) 55% PEHB + 45% glass fillers (experimental control); (3) 55% PEHB + 20% glass + 25% NACP + 0% DMAHDM; (4) 52% PEHB + 20% glass + 25% NACP + 3% DMAHDM; (5) 51% PEHB + 20% glass + 25% NACP + 4% DMAHDM; (6) 50% PEHB + 20% glass + 25% NACP + 5% DMAHDM. Mechanical properties and ion release were measured. Streptococcusmutans (S. mutans) biofilms were grown on cements, and colony-forming units (CFUs) and other biofilm properties were measured. The novel bioactive cement demonstrated strong antibacterial properties and high levels of Ca2+ and PO43- ion release to remineralize tooth lesions. Adding NACP and DMAHDM into the cement did not adversely affect the mechanical properties and dentin bonding strength. In conclusion, the novel NACP + DMAHDM crown cement has excellent potential for restoration cementation to inhibit caries by suppressing oral biofilm growth and increasing remineralization via Ca2+ and PO43- ions. The NACP + DMAHDM composition may have wide applicability to other biomaterials to promote hard-tissue formation and combat bacterial infection.

11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(17)2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887330

RESUMO

Secondary caries often occurs at the tooth-composite margins. This study developed a novel bioactive composite containing DMAHDM (dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate) and NACP (nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate), inhibiting caries at the enamel restoration margins in an in vitro saliva-derived biofilm secondary caries model for the first time. Four composites were tested: (1) Heliomolar nanocomposite, (2) 0% DMAHDM + 0% NACP, (3) 3% DMAHDM + 0% NACP, (D) 3% DMAHDM + 30% NACP. Saliva-derived biofilms were tested for antibacterial effects of the composites. Bovine enamel restorations were cultured with biofilms, Ca and P ion release of nanocomposite and enamel hardness at the enamel restoration margins was measured. Incorporation of DMAHDM and NACP into composite did not affect the mechanical properties (p > 0.05). The biofilms' CFU (colony-forming units) were reduced by 2 logs via DMAHDM (p < 0.05). Ca and P ion release of the nanocomposite was increased at cariogenic low pH. Enamel hardness at the margins for DMAHDM group was 25% higher than control (p < 0.05). With DMAHDM + NACP, the enamel hardness was the greatest and about 50% higher than control (p < 0.05). Therefore, the novel composite containing DMAHDM and NACP was strongly antibacterial and inhibited enamel demineralization, resulting in enamel hardness at the margins under biofilms that approached the hardness of healthy enamel.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfatos de Cálcio/farmacologia , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Esmalte Dentário/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanocompostos/química , Saliva/microbiologia , Animais , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Cárie Dentária/patologia , Esmalte Dentário/microbiologia , Esmalte Dentário/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Dureza , Técnicas In Vitro
12.
Microorganisms ; 8(9)2020 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933157

RESUMO

The objectives were to investigate a novel combination of gene-knockout with antimicrobial dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM) composite in regulating oral biofilm from a cariogenic state toward a non-cariogenic state. A tri-species biofilm model included cariogenic Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), and non-cariogenic Streptococcus sanguinis (S. sanguinis) and Streptococcus gordonii (S. gordonii). Biofilm colony-forming-units (CFUs), lactic acid and polysaccharide production were measured. TaqMan real-time-polymerase-chain reaction was used to determine the percentage of each species in biofilm. The rnc gene-knockout for S. mutans with DMAHDM composite reduced biofilm CFU by five logs, compared to control (p < 0.05). Using parent S. mutans, an overwhelming S. mutans percentage of 68.99% and 69.00% existed in biofilms on commercial composite and 0% DMAHDM composite, respectively. In sharp contrast, with a combination of S. mutans rnc knockout and DMAHDM composite, the cariogenic S. mutans percentage in biofilm was reduced to only 6.33%. Meanwhile, the non-cariogenic S. sanguinis + S. gordonii percentage was increased to 93.67%. Therefore, combining rnc-knockout with bioactive and therapeutic dental composite achieved the greatest reduction in S. mutans, and the greatest increase in non-cariogenic species, thereby yielding the least lactic acid-production. This novel method is promising to obtain wide applications to regulate biofilms and inhibit dental caries.

13.
J Am Board Fam Med ; 33(5): 687-697, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32989063

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To 1) quantify practitioner activities of the National Dental Practice-Based Research Network (Network) for which Continuing Education (CE) credits were received (study training, videos, webinars, meetings, and symposia); 2) quantify practitioner coauthoring Network publications and presentations; and 3) test whether practitioner characteristics were associated with participation in these activities. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 4361 practitioners who enrolled in the Network between April 12, 2012 and October 12, 2018. RESULTS: Overall, 59% (n = 2586) of practitioners earned CE credit from the Network; among these, 68% (n = 1757) from a video, 38% (n = 993) attended an annual Network meeting, 31% (n = 798) due to training for a Network clinical study, 9% (n = 226) attended a national symposium, and 7% (n = 170) participated in a Network webinar. Members of 2 large group practices earned on average more CEs than practitioners from other practice settings. Four percent (n = 159) of practitioners coauthored a Network presentation or publication. Practitioners who received their dental degree before 2000, were general practitioners, or were members of 2 large group practices, were more likely to have coauthored a publication or presentation. CONCLUSION: This Network used a broad range of activities to engage community practitioners. These activities were successful in sustaining a high level of practitioner engagement in clinical research and its relevance to everyday clinical practice.

14.
J Funct Biomater ; 11(3)2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32752248

RESUMO

(1) Background: The objective of this study was to develop a novel dental nanocomposite containing dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM), 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC), and nanoparticles of calcium fluoride (nCaF2) for preventing recurrent caries via antibacterial, protein repellent and fluoride releasing capabilities. (2) Methods: Composites were made by adding 3% MPC, 3% DMAHDM and 15% nCaF2 into bisphenol A glycidyl dimethacrylate (Bis-GMA) and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) (denoted BT). Calcium and fluoride ion releases were evaluated. Biofilms of human saliva were assessed. (3) Results: nCaF2+DMAHDM+MPC composite had the lowest biofilm colony forming units (CFU) and the greatest ion release; however, its mechanical properties were lower than commercial control composite (p < 0.05). nCaF2+DMAHDM composite had similarly potent biofilm reduction, with mechanical properties matching commercial control composite (p > 0.05). Fluoride and calcium ion releases from nCaF2+DMAHDM were much more than commercial composite. Biofilm CFU on composite was reduced by 4 logs (n = 9, p < 0.05). Biofilm metabolic activity and lactic acid were also substantially reduced by nCaF2+DMAHDM, compared to commercial control composite (p < 0.05). (4) Conclusions: The novel nanocomposite nCaF2+DMAHDM achieved strong antibacterial and ion release capabilities, without compromising the mechanical properties. This bioactive nanocomposite is promising to reduce biofilm acid production, inhibit recurrent caries, and increase restoration longevity.

15.
Dent Mater ; 36(10): 1343-1355, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800353

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Recurrent caries is a primary reason for restoration failure caused by biofilm acids. The objectives of this study were to: (1) develop a novel multifunctional composite with antibacterial function and calcium (Ca) and phosphate (P) ion release, and (2) investigate the effects on enamel demineralization and hardness at the margins under biofilms. METHODS: Dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM) and nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) were incorporated into composite. Four groups were tested: (1) Commercial control (Heliomolar), (2) Experimental control (0% DMAHDM + 0% NACP), (3) antibacterial group (3% DMAHDM + 0% NACP), (D) antibacterial and remineralizing group (3% DMAHDM + 30% NACP). Mechanical properties and Ca and P ion release were measured. Colony-forming units (CFU), lactic acid and polysaccharide of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) biofilms were evaluated. Demineralization of bovine enamel with restorations was induced via S. mutans, and enamel hardness was measured. Data were analyzed via one-way and two-way analyses of variance and Tukey's multiple comparison tests. RESULTS: Adding DMAHDM and NACP into composite did not compromise the mechanical properties (P > 0.05). Ca and P ion release of 3% DMAHDM + 30% NACP was increased at cariogenic low pH. Biofilm lactic acid and polysaccharides were greatly decreased via DMAHDM, and CFU was reduced by 4 logs (P < 0.05). Under biofilm acids, enamel hardness at the margins was decreased to about 0.5 GPa for control; it was about 1 GPa for antibacterial group, and 1.3 GPa for antibacterial and remineralizing group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The novel 3% DMAHDM + 30% NACP composite had strong antibacterial effects. It substantially reduced enamel demineralization adjacent to restorations under biofilm acid attacks, yielding enamel hardness that was 2-fold greater than that of control composites. The novel multifunctional composite is promising to inhibit recurrent caries.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Nanopartículas , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes , Fosfatos de Cálcio/farmacologia , Bovinos , Cárie Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Esmalte Dentário , Metacrilatos
16.
Acta Biomater ; 114: 146-157, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771591

RESUMO

Recurrent dental caries is one of the main reasons for resin composite restoration failures. This study aimed to: (1) develop a bioactive, low-shrinkage-stress, antibacterial and remineralizing composite and evaluate the sustainability of its antibacterial effect against Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) biofilms; and (2) evaluate the remineralization and cariostatic potential of the composite containing nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) and dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM), using dentin hardness measurement and a biofilm-induced recurrent caries model. The antibacterial and remineralizing low-shrinkage-stress composite consisted of urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA) and triethylene glycol divinylbenzyl ether (TEG-DVBE), 3% DMAHDM and 20% NACP. S. mutans biofilm was used to evaluate antibiofilm activity, before and after 3 months of composite aging in acidic solution. Human dentin was used to develop a recurrent caries biofilm-model. Adding DMAHDM and NACP into low shrinkage-stress composite did not compromise the flexural strength. The low-shrinkage-stress composite with DMAHDM achieved substantial reductions in biofilm colony-forming units (CFU), lactic acid production, and biofilm biomass (p < 0.05). The low-shrinkage-stress DMAHDM+NACP composite exhibited no significant difference in antibacterial performance before and after 3 months of aging, demonstrating long-term antibacterial activity. Under S. mutans biofilm acidic attack, dentin hardness (GPa) was 0.24 ± 0.04 for commercial control, and 0.23 ± 0.03 for experimental control, but significantly higher at 0.34 ± 0.03 for DMAHDM+NACP group (p < 0.05). At an instrumental compliance of 0.33 µm/N, the polymerization shrinkage stress of the new composite was 36% lower than that of a traditional composite (p < 0.05). The triple strategy of antibacterial, remineralization and lower shrinkage-stress has great potential to inhibit recurrent caries and increase restoration longevity. Statement of Significance Polymerization shrinkage stress, masticatory load over time as well as biochemical degradation can lead to marginal failure and secondary caries. The present study developed a new low-shrinkage-stress, antibacterial and remineralizing dental nanocomposite. Polymerization shrinkage stress was greatly reduced, biofilm acid production was inhibited, and tooth dentin mineral and hardness were preserved. The antibacterial composite possessed a long-lasting antibiofilm effect against cariogenic bacteria S. mutans. The new bioactive nanocomposite has the potential to suppress recurrent caries at the restoration margins, protects tooth structures, and increases restoration longevity.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Nanocompostos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes , Fosfatos de Cálcio , Cárie Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Dentina , Dureza , Humanos , Metacrilatos/farmacologia , Streptococcus mutans
17.
Gerodontology ; 37(3): 233-243, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32491236

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine the McGill Denture Satisfaction Questionnaire (MDSQ) in terms of dimensionality, item reduction and construct validity in a binational sample of complete denture wearers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted secondary analyses of baseline data from two studies on implant-retained overdentures: a quasi-experimental study in the United States (n = 145) and a randomised trial in Brazil (n = 120). All participants wore upper/lower dentures and responded at baseline to the MDSQ items concerning their original mandibular dentures. A putative model of the MDSQ items resulted in two question subsets: (a) overall satisfaction, retention/stability, aesthetics, cleaning, speech and comfort, plus general chewing ability; (b) mastication of specific foods. Analyses focused on the internal consistency of each subset and possible item reduction, using Cronbach's alpha (Cα), inter-item correlation and exploratory factor analysis (EFA). RESULTS: The 1st subset showed high inter-item correlation for most question combinations and no redundancy (r ≤ .8). An item on cleaning had low correlation, but its removal does not increase internal consistency (Cα ≥ .83). Results were similar for both studies, with EFA showing a single significant factor (namely "overall satisfaction, lower denture") able to explain nearly 54% of the variance. The 2nd subset also shows strong internal consistency (Cα ≥ .95) and inter-item correlation, with a single factor representing 65% of the variation. CONCLUSIONS: This study discloses the reliability and construct validity of the MDSQ for patient-centred evaluation of complete dental prostheses in the edentulous mandible. Findings also support the use of both "overall satisfaction" and "masticatory ability" as summary scores, for improved outcome assessment.


Assuntos
Prótese Dentária Fixada por Implante , Prótese Total , Satisfação Pessoal , Brasil , Retenção de Dentadura , Prótese Total Inferior , Revestimento de Dentadura , Estética Dentária , Análise Fatorial , Humanos , Mastigação , Satisfação do Paciente , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
J Dent ; 99: 103406, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32526346

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Polymerization shrinkage stress may lead to marginal damage, microleakage and failure of composite restorations. The objectives of this study were to : (1) develop a novel nanocomposite with low-shrinkage-stress, antibacterial and remineralization properties to reduce marginal enamel demineralization under biofilms; (2) evaluate the mechanical properties of the composite and calcium (Ca) and phosphate (P) ion release; and (3) investigate the cytotoxicity of the new low-shrinkage-stress monomer in vitro. METHODS: The low-shrinkage-stress resin consisted of urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA) and triethylene glycol divinylbenzyl ether (TEG-DVBE), and 3 % dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM) and 20 % calcium phosphate nanoparticles (NACP) were added. Mechanical properties, polymerization shrinkage stress, and degree of conversion were evaluated. The growth of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) on enamel slabs with different composites was assessed. Ca and P ion releases and monomer cytotoxicity were measured. RESULTS: Composite with DMAHDM and NACP had flexural strength of 84.9 ±â€¯10.3 MPa (n = 6), matching that of a commercial control composite. Adding 3 % DMAHDM did not negatively affect the composite ion release. Under S. mutans biofilm, the marginal enamel hardness was 1.2 ±â€¯0.1 GPa for the remineralizing and antibacterial group, more than 2-fold the 0.5 ±â€¯0.07 GPa for control (p < 0.05). The polymerization shrinkage stress of the new composite was 40 % lower than that of traditional composite control (p < 0.05). The new monomers had fibroblast viability similar to that of traditional monomer control (p > 0.1). CONCLUSION: A novel low-shrinkage-stress nanocomposite was developed with remineralizing and antibacterial properties. This new composite is promising to inhibit recurrent caries at the restoration margins by reducing polymerization stress and protecting enamel hardness.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Nanocompostos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Fosfatos de Cálcio/farmacologia , Resinas Compostas/farmacologia , Esmalte Dentário , Metacrilatos/farmacologia , Streptococcus mutans
19.
J Dent ; 97: 103344, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315666

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Senior patients have a high incidence of tooth root caries. The objectives of this study were to: (1) develop a bioactive composite with calcium (Ca) and phosphate (P) ion-release and antibacterial capabilities via nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) and dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM); (2) inhibit root biofilms of Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Candida albicans in a biofilm-based recurrent root caries model to protect root dentin hardness under biofilms for the first time. METHODS: Five groups were tested: (1) Heliomolar nanocomposite (Commercial control); (2) Experimental composite control (0% NACP, 0% DMAHDM); (3) Remineralizing composite (30% NACP); (4) Antibacterial composite (3% DMAHDM); (5) Remineralizing and antibacterial composite (NACP + DMAHDM). Colony-forming units (CFU), lactic acid and polysaccharide of biofilms were evaluated. Demineralization of bovine root dentin with restorations was induced via multi-species biofilms, and root dentin hardness was measured. RESULTS: Adding NACP and DMAHDM into composite did not compromise the mechanical properties (p >  0.05). Biofilm lactic acid, polysaccharides and CFU were greatly reduced via DMAHDM (p < 0.05). Ca and P ion releases were substantially increased at cariogenic low pH. With multi-species biofilm acid attack, root dentin hardness (GPa) decreased to 0.12 ± 0.03 for Commercial control, and 0.11 ± 0.03 for Experimental control. Root dentin hardness was 0.20 ± 0.04 for NACP group, 0.21 ± 0.04 for DMAHDM group, and 0.30 ± 0.03 for NACP + DMAHDM group which was more than 2-fold that of control groups (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The novel NACP + DMAHDM nanocomposite had strong antibacterial effects and Ca and P ion release. When tested in a multi-species recurrent root caries model, NACP + DMAHDM nanocomposite substantially reduced root dentin demineralization and protected dentin hardness around the restorations under biofilms. Therefore, this novel bioactive composite is promising to inhibit root caries and protect tooth structures.


Assuntos
Nanocompostos , Cárie Radicular , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes , Fosfatos de Cálcio/farmacologia , Bovinos , Dentina , Dureza , Humanos , Metacrilatos/farmacologia , Cárie Radicular/prevenção & controle
20.
Materials (Basel) ; 13(5)2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32121595

RESUMO

According to the American Dental Association Survey of Dental Services Rendered (published in 2007), 15 million root canal treatment procedures are performed annually. Endodontic therapy relies mainly on biomechanical preparation, chemical irrigation and intracanal medicaments which play an important role in eliminating bacteria in the root canal. Furthermore, adequate obturation is essential to confine any residual bacteria within the root canal and deprive them of nutrients. However, numerous studies have shown that complete elimination of bacteria is not achieved due to the complex anatomy of the root canal system. There are several conventional antibiotic materials available in the market for endodontic use. However, the majority of these antibiotics and antiseptics provide short-term antibacterial effects, and they impose a risk of developing antibacterial resistance. The root canal is a dynamic environment, and antibacterial and antibiofilm materials with long-term effects and nonspecific mechanisms of action are highly desirable in such environments. In addition, the application of acidic solutions to the root canal wall can alter the dentin structure, resulting in a weaker and more brittle dentin. Root canal sealers with bioactive properties come in direct contact with the dentin wall and can play a positive role in bacterial elimination and strengthening of the root structure. The new generation of nanostructured, bioactive, antibacterial and remineralizing additives into polymeric resin-based root canal sealers are discussed in this review. The effects of these novel bioactive additives on the physical and sealing properties, as well as their biocompatibility, are all important factors that are presented in this article.

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