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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33601062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The association of genetic variation with tissue-specific gene expression and alternative splicing guides functional characterization of complex trait associated loci and may suggest novel genes implicated in disease. Here, we aimed to 1) generate reference profiles of colon mucosa gene expression and alternative splicing and compare them across colon subsites (ascending, transverse and descending), 2) identify expression and splicing quantitative trait loci (QTLs), 3) find traits for which identified QTLs contribute to single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based heritability, 4) propose candidate effector genes, and 5) provide a web-based visualization resource. METHODS: We collected colonic mucosal biopsies from 485 healthy adults and performed bulk RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). We performed genome-wide SNP genotyping from blood leukocytes. Statistical approaches and bioinformatics software were used for QTL identification and downstream analyses. RESULTS: We provided a complete quantification of gene expression and alternative splicing across colon subsites and described their differences. We identified thousands of expression and splicing QTLs and defined their enrichment at genome-wide regulatory regions. We found that part of the SNP-based heritability of diseases affecting colon tissue, such as colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease, but also of diseases affecting other tissues, such as psychiatric conditions, can be explained by the identified QTLs. We provided candidate effector genes for multiple phenotypes. Finally, we provided the Colon Transcriptome Explorer (CoTrEx). CONCLUSIONS: We provided the largest characterization to date of gene expression and splicing across colon subsites. Our findings provide greater etiological insight into complex traits and diseases influenced by transcriptomic changes in colon tissue.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33374289

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to characterize the relationship between the intake of the major nutrients and prognosis in breast cancer. A cohort based on 1350 women with invasive (stage I-IV) breast cancer (BC) was followed up. Information about their dietary habits before diagnosis was collected using a semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire. Participants without FFQ or with implausible energy intake were excluded. The total amount consumed of each nutrient (Kcal/day) was divided into tertiles, considering as "high intakes" those above third tertile. The main effect studied was overall survival. Cox regression was used to assess the association between death and nutrient intake. During a median follow-up of 6.5 years, 171 deaths were observed. None of the nutrients analysed was associated with mortality in the whole sample. However, in normal-weight women (BMI 18.5-25 kg/m2) a high intake of carbohydrates (≥809 Kcal/day), specifically monosaccharides (≥468 Kcal/day), worsened prognostic compared to lowest (≤352 Kcal/day). Hazard Ratios (HRs) for increasing tertiles of intake were HR:2.22 95% CI (1.04 to 4.72) and HR:2.59 95% CI (1.04 to 6.48), respectively (p trend = 0.04)). Conversely, high intakes of polyunsaturated fats (≥135 Kcal/day) improved global survival (HR: 0.39 95% CI (0.15 to 1.02) p-trend = 0.05) compared to the lowest (≤92.8 kcal/day). In addition, a protective effect was found substituting 100 kcal of carbohydrates with 100 kcal of fats in normal-weight women (HR: 0.76 95% CI (0.59 to 0.98)). Likewise, in premenopausal women a high intake of fats (≥811 Kcal/day) showed a protective effect (HR:0.20 95% CI (0.04 to 0.98) p trend = 0.06). Finally, in Estrogen Receptors (ER) negative tumors, we found a protective effect of high intake of animal proteins (≥238 Kcal/day, HR: 0.24 95% CI (0.06 to 0.98). According to our results, menopausal status, BMI and ER status could play a role in the relationship between diet and BC survival and must be taken into account when studying the influence of different nutrients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Dieta , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia
3.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 19273, 2020 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33159156

RESUMO

Several studies have examined environmental factors and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) using traditional approaches; however, provided results are still conflicting. Our aim was to determine whether lifestyle and nutrient exposures, related to IBD in observational meta-analyses, influence IBD risk using a Mendelian randomization (MR) approach. A two-sample MR approach was applied on summary-level genome-wide association results. Genetic variants strongly associated with measures of tobacco smoking, obesity and fat distribution, physical activity, and blood levels of vitamins and fatty acids were evaluated on genetic data from international IBD consortia including a total of 25,042 IBD cases (12,194 cases of Crohn's disease (CD) and 12,366 cases of ulcerative colitis (UC)) and 34,915 controls. Our results indicated that, among lifestyle exposures, being a smoker was positively associated with CD (OR 1.13, P = 0.02), but it was not associated with UC risk (OR 0.99, P = 0.88). Body-mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage were positively associated with CD (OR 1.11, P = 0.02, per standard deviation (SD) of 4.6 kg/m2; and OR 1.50, P = 3 × 10-10, per SD of 6.6%; respectively); while for UC, BMI was inversely associated (OR 0.85, P = 5 × 10-5; per SD) and body fat percentage showed a OR of 1.11 (P = 0.11; per SD). Additionally, among nutrient exposures, omega-3 fatty acids levels were inversely associated with CD (OR 0.67, P = 2 × 10-6). Our MR results did not support a protective effect for being a smoker on UC risk; however, they are compatible with a risk effect for higher body fat proportion and a protective role for higher levels of omega-3 fatty acids on CD etiology.

4.
Nutrients ; 12(11)2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33114671

RESUMO

Several anticancer properties have been largely attributed to phenolics in in vivo and in vitro studies, but epidemiologic evidence is still scarce. Furthermore, some classes have not been studied in relation to gastric cancer (GC). The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the intake of phenolic acids, stilbenes, and other phenolics and the risk of developing GC and its anatomical and histological subtypes. We used data from a multi-case-control study (MCC-Spain) obtained from different regions of Spain. We included 2700 controls and 329 GC cases. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using mixed effects logistic regression considering quartiles of phenolic intake. Our results showed an inverse association between stilbene and lignan intake and GC risk (ORQ4 vs. Q1 = 0.47; 95% CI: 0.32-0.69 and ORQ4 vs. Q1 = 0.53; 95% CI: 0.36-0.77, respectively). We found no overall association between total phenolic acid and other polyphenol class intake and GC risk. However, hydroxybenzaldehydes (ORQ4 vs. Q1 = 0.41; 95% CI: 0.28-0.61), hydroxycoumarins (ORQ4 vs. Q1 = 0.49; 95% CI: 0.34-0.71), and tyrosols (ORQ4 vs. Q1 = 0.56; 95% CI: 0.39-0.80) were inversely associated with GC risk. No differences were found in the analysis by anatomical or histological subtypes. In conclusion, a diet high in stilbenes, lignans, hydroxybenzaldehydes, hydroxycoumarins, and tyrosols was associated with a lower GC risk. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm our results.

5.
Cancer Res ; 80(20): 4578-4590, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816852

RESUMO

Protective associations of fruits, vegetables, and fiber intake with colorectal cancer risk have been shown in many, but not all epidemiologic studies. One possible reason for study heterogeneity is that dietary factors may have distinct effects by colorectal cancer molecular subtypes. Here, we investigate the association of fruit, vegetables, and fiber intake with four well-established colorectal cancer molecular subtypes separately and in combination. Nine observational studies including 9,592 cases with molecular subtypes for microsatellite instability (MSI), CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), and somatic mutations in BRAF and KRAS genes, and 7,869 controls were analyzed. Both case-only logistic regression analyses and polytomous logistic regression analyses (with one control set and multiple case groups) were used. Higher fruit intake was associated with a trend toward decreased risk of BRAF-mutated tumors [OR 4th vs. 1st quartile = 0.82 (95% confidence interval, 0.65-1.04)] but not BRAF-wildtype tumors [1.09 (0.97-1.22); P difference as shown in case-only analysis = 0.02]. This difference was observed in case-control studies and not in cohort studies. Compared with controls, higher fiber intake showed negative association with colorectal cancer risk for cases with microsatellite stable/MSI-low, CIMP-negative, BRAF-wildtype, and KRAS-wildtype tumors (P trend range from 0.03 to 3.4e-03), which is consistent with the traditional adenoma-colorectal cancer pathway. These negative associations were stronger compared with MSI-high, CIMP-positive, BRAF-mutated, or KRAS-mutated tumors, but the differences were not statistically significant. These inverse associations for fruit and fiber intake may explain, in part, inconsistent findings between fruit or fiber intake and colorectal cancer risk that have previously been reported. SIGNIFICANCE: These analyses by colorectal cancer molecular subtypes potentially explain the inconsistent findings between dietary fruit or fiber intake and overall colorectal cancer risk that have previously been reported.

6.
Nutrients ; 12(4)2020 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32260135

RESUMO

There is limited evidence of phenolic compounds acting as protective agents on several cancer types, including breast cancer (BC). Nevertheless, some polyphenol classes have not been investigated and there is a lack of studies assessing the effect on menopausal status and hormone receptor status as influenced by these compounds. The objective of this study is to evaluate the association between the intake of all polyphenol classes in relation to the BC risk by menopausal and hormone receptor status. We used data from a population-based multi-case-control study (MCC-Spain) including 1472 BC cases and 1577 controls from 12 different regions of Spain. The odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CI were calculated using logistic regression of mixed effects by quartiles and log2 of polyphenol intakes (adjusted for the residual method) of overall BC, menopausal and receptor status. No associations were found between total intake of polyphenols and BC risk. However, inverse associations were found between stilbenes and all BC risk (ORQ4 vs. Q1: 0.70, 95%CI: 0.56-0.89, Ptrend = 0.001), the consumption of hydroxybenzaldehydes (ORQ4 vs. Q1: 0.75, 95%CI: 0.59-0.93, Ptrend = 0.012) and hydroxycoumarins (ORQ4 vs. Q1: 0.73, 95%CI: 0.57-0.93; Ptrend = 0.005) were also inversely associated. The intake of stilbenes, hydroxybenzaldehydes and hydroxycoumarins can contribute to BC reduction risk on all menopausal and receptor statuses.

7.
Sci Data ; 7(1): 92, 2020 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32179734

RESUMO

The gut microbiome has a fundamental role in human health and disease. However, studying the complex structure and function of the gut microbiome using next generation sequencing is challenging and prone to reproducibility problems. Here, we obtained cross-sectional colon biopsies and faecal samples from nine participants in our COLSCREEN study and sequenced them in high coverage using Illumina pair-end shotgun (for faecal samples) and IonTorrent 16S (for paired feces and colon biopsies) technologies. The metagenomes consisted of between 47 and 92 million reads per sample and the targeted sequencing covered more than 300 k reads per sample across seven hypervariable regions of the 16S gene. Our data is freely available and coupled with code for the presented metagenomic analysis using up-to-date bioinformatics algorithms. These results will add up to the informed insights into designing comprehensive microbiome analysis and also provide data for further testing for unambiguous gut microbiome analysis.


Assuntos
Colo , Fezes , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Metagenômica
8.
Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 14(4): 281-290, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32105150

RESUMO

Introduction: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major public health problem, both in terms of incidence and mortality. Lifestyle, particularly diet, plays an important role in the development of this cancer.Areas covered: The aim of the present review was to provide an overview of systematic reviews/meta-analysis published in the last 10 years regarding the association between dietary patterns and CRC risk. Three databases were explored (Pubmed, Scopus, and Web of Science), and 13 articles were finally included. The most common a priori methods used were Healthy Eating Index, Mediterranean diet, and Dietary Inflammatory Index, while factor or principal component analyses, cluster analysis, and reduced rank regression were the most frequent a posteriori methods used. All the studies analyzed in the present review showed that a diet characterized mainly by a high intake of fruits and vegetables and low intake of red and processed meats decreased the risk of CRC.Expert opinion: Important nutritional health campaigns and CRC screening programs are being done across the globe; nevertheless, we believe that those strategies are still inadequate as CRC incidence is increasing worldwide More effort is required at different institutional levels and public health policy advice to help the population shift toward healthier dietary habits.

9.
Int J Cancer ; 146(1): 76-84, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31107546

RESUMO

Four epidemiologic studies have assessed the association between nut intake and pancreatic cancer risk with contradictory results. The present study aims to investigate the relation between nut intake (including seeds) and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazards ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for nut intake and PDAC risk. Information on intake of nuts was obtained from the EPIC country-specific dietary questionnaires. After a mean follow-up of 14 years, 476,160 participants were eligible for the present study and included 1,283 PDAC cases. No association was observed between consumption of nuts and PDAC risk (highest intake vs nonconsumers: HR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.72-1.10; p-trend = 0.70). Furthermore, no evidence for effect-measure modification was observed when different subgroups were analyzed. Overall, in EPIC, the highest intake of nuts was not statistically significantly associated with PDAC risk.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/etiologia , Dieta , Nozes , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/etiologia , Sementes , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Nutrients ; 11(6)2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234427

RESUMO

Inflammation and antioxidant capacity have been associated with colorectal and breast cancer. We computed the dietary inflammatory index (DII®), and the total dietary non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity (NEAC) and associated them with colorectal and breast cancer risk in the population-based multi case-control study in Spain (MCC-Spain). We included 1852 colorectal cancer and 1567 breast cancer cases, and 3447 and 1486 population controls, respectively. DII score and NEAC were derived using data from a semi-quantitative validated food frequency questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for energy-adjusted DII (E-DII), and a score combining E-DII and NEAC. E-DII was associated with colorectal cancer risk (OR = 1.93, highest quartile versus lowest, 95%CI:1.60-2.32; p-trend: <0.001); this increase was observed for both colon and rectal cancer. Less pronounced increased risks were observed for breast cancer (OR = 1.22, highest quartile versus lowest, 95%CI:0.99-1.52, p-trend: >0.10). The combined score of high E-DII scores and low antioxidant values were associated with colorectal cancer risk (OR = 1.48, highest quartile versus lowest, 95%CI: 1.26-1.74; p-trend: <0.001), but not breast cancer. This study provides evidence that a pro-inflammatory diet is associated with increased colorectal cancer risk while findings for breast cancer were less consistent.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Inflamação/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/diagnóstico , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Oxirredução , Prognóstico , Fatores de Proteção , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia
11.
Nutrients ; 11(5)2019 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035601

RESUMO

Several epidemiological studies have investigated the association between the dietary flavonoid intake and gastric cancer (GC) risk; however, the results remain inconclusive. Investigating the relationship between the different classes of flavonoids and the histological types and origin of GC can be of interest to the research community. We used data from a population-based multi-case control study (MCC-Spain) obtained from 12 different regions of Spain. 2700 controls and 329 GC cases were included in this study. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using the mixed effects logistic regression considering quartiles of flavonoid intakes and log2. Flavonoid intake was associated with a lower GC risk (ORlog2 = 0.76; 95% CI = 0.65-0.89; ORq4vsq1 = 0.60; 95%CI = 0.40-0.89; ptrend = 0.007). Inverse and statistically significant associations were observed with anthocyanidins, chalcones, dihydroflavonols and flavan-3-ols. The isoflavanoid intake was positively associated with higher cancer risk, but without reaching a statistical significance. In general, no differences were observed in the GC risk according to the location and histological type. The flavonoid intake seems to be a protective factor against GC within the MCC-study. This effect may vary depending on the flavonoid class but not by the histological type and location of the tumor. Broader studies with larger sample size and greater geographical variability are necessary.


Assuntos
Dieta , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Análise de Alimentos , Neoplasias Gástricas/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Flavonoides/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia
12.
Eur J Nutr ; 58(6): 2229-2242, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29995245

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Studies attempting to link dietary non-enzymatic antioxidant activity (NEAC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk have reported mixed results. We examined this association in the Spanish Multicase-Control Study considering the likely influence of coffee and other dietary factors. METHODS: 1718 CRC cases and 3312 matched-controls provided information about diet through a validated 140-item food frequency questionnaire. Dietary NEAC was estimated for three methods [total radical-trapping antioxidant parameters (TRAP), ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) and TEAC-ABTS] using published values of NEAC content in food, with and without coffee's NEAC. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated through unconditional logistic regression models adjusted for lifestyle and dietary factors. RESULTS: Overall dietary intake of NEAC was significantly lower in cases compared to controls and associated with a significantly reduced CRC risk, in both men (ORQ5vsQ1 = 0.67, 95% CI 0.47-0.96 for FRAP) and women (ORQ5vsQ1 = 0.53, 95% CI 0.32-085 for FRAP), in multivariate models with and without the antioxidant contribution from coffee. The effect was similar for all the NEAC methods evaluated and for both colon and rectum. The association between dietary NEAC and CRC risk became non-significant when adjusting for fiber intake. However, intakes of NEAC and fiber were correlated. CONCLUSION: This study indicates that intake of an antioxidant-rich plant-based diet, both with and without NEAC from coffee, is associated with decreased CRC risk.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Dieta/métodos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Espanha
13.
Am J Hum Biol ; 30(6): e23181, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30251288

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determinate the role of lifestyle factors, recent diet, menstrual factors, and reproductive history in age at natural menopause in adult Spanish women. METHODS: In total, 12 562 pre-menopausal women were available for analysis from the EPIC-Spain sub-cohort. Women were recruited between 1992 and 1996 in five regions of Spain (Asturias, Granada, Murcia, Navarra, and San Sebastian) and, for these analyses, were followed for 3 years. Questionnaires on diet, lifestyle, anthropometric measurements, and reproductive and exogenous hormones history were collected at baseline. Menopause status was updated at a median of 3 years of follow-up. RESULTS: After a median of 3 years of follow-up 1166 women became postmenopausal. An earlier age at menopause was observed in current smokers (HR: 1.29; 95%CI 1.08-1.55) and in non-users of oral contraceptives (HR: 1.32; 95%CI 1.01-1.57). A later age at menopause was observed in women with irregular menses (HR: 0.71; 95%CI 0.56-0.91) and in women with a higher number of pregnancies (HR: 0.74; 95%CI 0.56-0.94). CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm that women who smoked had an earlier age at natural menopause, while use of oral contraceptives, higher number of pregnancies, and irregularity of menses were associated with a prolonged reproductive lifespan. No associations were observed for dietary habits assessed after the age of 40 years.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Estilo de Vida , Menopausa/fisiologia , História Reprodutiva , Sucesso Acadêmico , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espanha/epidemiologia , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia
14.
J Med Genet ; 55(11): 765-778, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30166351

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heritability estimates have revealed an important contribution of SNP variants for most common traits; however, SNP analysis by single-trait genome-wide association studies (GWAS) has failed to uncover their impact. In this study, we applied a multitrait GWAS approach to discover additional factor of the missing heritability of human anthropometric variation. METHODS: We analysed 205 traits, including diseases identified at baseline in the GCAT cohort (Genomes For Life- Cohort study of the Genomes of Catalonia) (n=4988), a Mediterranean adult population-based cohort study from the south of Europe. We estimated SNP heritability contribution and single-trait GWAS for all traits from 15 million SNP variants. Then, we applied a multitrait-related approach to study genome-wide association to anthropometric measures in a two-stage meta-analysis with the UK Biobank cohort (n=336 107). RESULTS: Heritability estimates (eg, skin colour, alcohol consumption, smoking habit, body mass index, educational level or height) revealed an important contribution of SNP variants, ranging from 18% to 77%. Single-trait analysis identified 1785 SNPs with genome-wide significance threshold. From these, several previously reported single-trait hits were confirmed in our sample with LINC01432 (p=1.9×10-9) variants associated with male baldness, LDLR variants with hyperlipidaemia (ICD-9:272) (p=9.4×10-10) and variants in IRF4 (p=2.8×10-57), SLC45A2 (p=2.2×10-130), HERC2 (p=2.8×10-176), OCA2 (p=2.4×10-121) and MC1R (p=7.7×10-22) associated with hair, eye and skin colour, freckling, tanning capacity and sun burning sensitivity and the Fitzpatrick phototype score, all highly correlated cross-phenotypes. Multitrait meta-analysis of anthropometric variation validated 27 loci in a two-stage meta-analysis with a large British ancestry cohort, six of which are newly reported here (p value threshold <5×10-9) at ZRANB2-AS2, PIK3R1, EPHA7, MAD1L1, CACUL1 and MAP3K9. CONCLUSION: Considering multiple-related genetic phenotypes improve associated genome signal detection. These results indicate the potential value of data-driven multivariate phenotyping for genetic studies in large population-based cohorts to contribute to knowledge of complex traits.


Assuntos
Variação Biológica Individual , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Antropometria , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Padrões de Herança , Masculino , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Medição de Risco
15.
BMJ Open ; 8(3): e018324, 2018 03 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29593016

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is increasing worldwide. NCDs are the leading cause of both morbidity and mortality, and it is estimated that by 2030, they will be responsible for 80% of deaths across the world. The Genomes for Life (GCAT) project is a long-term prospective cohort study that was designed to integrate and assess the role of epidemiological, genomic and epigenomic factors in the development of major chronic diseases in Catalonia, a north-east region of Spain. PARTICIPANTS: At the end of 2017, the GCAT Study will have recruited 20 000 participants aged 40-65 years. Participants who agreed to take part in the study completed a self-administered computer-driven questionnaire, and underwent blood pressure, cardiac frequency and anthropometry measurements. For each participant, blood plasma, blood serum and white blood cells are collected at baseline. The GCAT Study has access to the electronic health records of the Catalan Public Healthcare System. Participants will be followed biannually at least 20 years after recruitment. FINDINGS TO DATE: Among all GCAT participants, 59.2% are women and 83.3% of the cohort identified themselves as Caucasian/white. More than half of the participants have higher education levels, 72.2% are current workers and 42.1% are classified as overweight (body mass index ≥25 and <30 kg/m2). We have genotyped 5459 participants, of which 5000 have metabolome data. Further, the whole genome of 808 participants will be sequenced by the end of 2017. FUTURE PLANS: The first follow-up study started in December 2017 and will end by March 2018. Residences of all subjects will be geocoded during the following year. Several genomic analyses are ongoing, and metabolomic and genomic integrations will be performed to identify underlying genetic variants, as well as environmental factors that influence metabolites.


Assuntos
Genômica/métodos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Doença Crônica , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Espanha
16.
Int J Cancer ; 142(6): 1189-1201, 2018 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29114875

RESUMO

Evidence from in vivo, in vitro and ecological studies are suggestive of a protective effect of vitamin D against pancreatic cancer (PC). However, this has not been confirmed by analytical epidemiological studies. We aimed to examine the association between pre-diagnostic circulating vitamin D concentrations and PC incidence in European populations. We conducted a pooled nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) and the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study's second survey (HUNT2) cohorts. In total, 738 primary incident PC cases (EPIC n = 626; HUNT2 n = 112; median follow-up = 6.9 years) were matched to 738 controls. Vitamin D [25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3 combined] concentrations were determined using isotope-dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Conditional logistic regression models with adjustments for body mass index and smoking habits were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Compared with a reference category of >50 to 75 nmol/L vitamin D, the IRRs (95% CIs) were 0.71 (0.42-1.20); 0.94 (0.72-1.22); 1.12 (0.82-1.53) and 1.26 (0.79-2.01) for clinically pre-defined categories of ≤25; >25 to 50; >75 to 100; and >100 nmol/L vitamin D, respectively (p for trend = 0.09). Corresponding analyses by quintiles of season-standardized vitamin D concentrations also did not reveal associations with PC risk (p for trend = 0.23). Although these findings among participants from the largest combination of European cohort studies to date show increasing effect estimates of PC risk with increasing pre-diagnostic concentrations of vitamin D, they are not statistically significant.


Assuntos
25-Hidroxivitamina D 2/sangue , Calcifediol/sangue , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiologia , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/sangue , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Estações do Ano
17.
Eur J Nutr ; 56(3): 1157-1168, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26850269

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Acrylamide was classified as 'probably carcinogenic' to humans in 1994 by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. In 2002, public health concern increased when acrylamide was identified in starchy, plant-based foods, processed at high temperatures. The purpose of this study was to identify which food groups and lifestyle variables were determinants of hemoglobin adduct concentrations of acrylamide (HbAA) and glycidamide (HbGA) in 801 non-smoking postmenopausal women from eight countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. METHODS: Biomarkers of internal exposure were measured in red blood cells (collected at baseline) by high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS) . In this cross-sectional analysis, four dependent variables were evaluated: HbAA, HbGA, sum of total adducts (HbAA + HbGA), and their ratio (HbGA/HbAA). Simple and multiple regression analyses were used to identify determinants of the four outcome variables. All dependent variables (except HbGA/HbAA) and all independent variables were log-transformed (log2) to improve normality. Median (25th-75th percentile) HbAA and HbGA adduct levels were 41.3 (32.8-53.1) pmol/g Hb and 34.2 (25.4-46.9) pmol/g Hb, respectively. RESULTS: The main food group determinants of HbAA, HbGA, and HbAA + HbGA were biscuits, crackers, and dry cakes. Alcohol intake and body mass index were identified as the principal determinants of HbGA/HbAA. The total percent variation in HbAA, HbGA, HbAA + HbGA, and HbGA/HbAA explained in this study was 30, 26, 29, and 13 %, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary and lifestyle factors explain a moderate proportion of acrylamide adduct variation in non-smoking postmenopausal women from the EPIC cohort.


Assuntos
Acrilamida/sangue , Dieta , Compostos de Epóxi/sangue , Estilo de Vida , Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Avaliação Nutricional , Inquéritos e Questionários , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
18.
Int J Cancer ; 139(7): 1480-92, 2016 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27184434

RESUMO

Despite the potential cancer preventive effects of flavonoids and lignans, their ability to reduce pancreatic cancer risk has not been demonstrated in epidemiological studies. Our aim was to examine the association between dietary intakes of flavonoids and lignans and pancreatic cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. A total of 865 exocrine pancreatic cancer cases occurred after 11.3 years of follow-up of 477,309 cohort members. Dietary flavonoid and lignan intake was estimated through validated dietary questionnaires and the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) and Phenol Explorer databases. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using age, sex and center-stratified Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for energy intake, body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol and diabetes status. Our results showed that neither overall dietary intake of flavonoids nor of lignans were associated with pancreatic cancer risk (multivariable-adjusted HR for a doubling of intake = 1.03, 95% CI: 0.95-1.11 and 1.02; 95% CI: 0.89-1.17, respectively). Statistically significant associations were also not observed by flavonoid subclasses. An inverse association between intake of flavanones and pancreatic cancer risk was apparent, without reaching statistical significance, in microscopically confirmed cases (HR for a doubling of intake = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.91-1.00). In conclusion, we did not observe an association between intake of flavonoids, flavonoid subclasses or lignans and pancreatic cancer risk in the EPIC cohort.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/administração & dosagem , Lignanas/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Registros de Dieta , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos
19.
Public Health Nutr ; 19(4): 674-81, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26880327

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To prospectively assess the associations between lean fish, fatty fish and total fish intakes and risk of stroke in the Spanish cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Spain). DESIGN: Fish intake was estimated from a validated dietary questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess the association between the intakes of lean fish, fatty fish and total fish and stroke risk. Models were run separately for men and women. SETTING: Five Spanish regions (Asturias, San Sebastian, Navarra, Granada and Murcia). SUBJECTS: Individuals (n 41 020; 15 490 men and 25 530 women) aged 20-69 years, recruited from 1992 to 1996 and followed-up until December 2008 (December 2006 in the case of Asturias). Only participants with definite incident stroke were considered as cases. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 13·8 years, 674 strokes were identified and subsequently validated by record linkage with hospital discharge databases, primary-care records and regional mortality registries, comprising 531 ischaemic, seventy-nine haemorrhagic, forty-two subarachnoid and twenty-two unspecific strokes. After multiple adjustments, no significant associations were observed between lean fish, fatty fish and total fish consumption and the risk of stroke in men or women. In men, results revealed a non-significant trend towards an inverse association between lean fish (hazard ratio=0·84; 95 % CI 0·55, 1·29, P trend=0·06) and total fish consumption (hazard ratio=0·77; 95 % CI 0·51, 1·16, P trend=0·06) and risk of total stroke. CONCLUSIONS: In the EPIC-Spain cohort, no association was found between lean fish, fatty fish and total fish consumption and risk of stroke.


Assuntos
Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Peixes , Alimentos Marinhos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Adulto , Animais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Espanha , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 31(1): 51-60, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25968175

RESUMO

Endometrial cancer (EC) is the fourth most frequent cancer in women in Europe, and as its incidence is increasing, prevention strategies gain further pertinence. Risk prediction models can be a useful tool for identifying women likely to benefit from targeted prevention measures. On the basis of data from 201,811 women (mostly aged 30-65 years) including 855 incident EC cases from eight countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, a model to predict EC was developed. A step-wise model selection process was used to select confirmed predictive epidemiologic risk factors. Piece-wise constant hazard rates in 5-year age-intervals were estimated in a cause-specific competing risks model, five-fold-cross-validation was applied for internal validation. Risk factors included in the risk prediction model were body-mass index (BMI), menopausal status, age at menarche and at menopause, oral contraceptive use, overall and by different BMI categories and overall duration of use, parity, age at first full-term pregnancy, duration of menopausal hormone therapy and smoking status (specific for pre, peri- and post-menopausal women). These variables improved the discriminating capacity to predict risk over 5 years from 71% for a model based on age alone to 77% (overall C statistic), and the model was well-calibrated (ratio of expected to observed cases = 0.99). Our model could be used for the identification of women at increased risk of EC in Western Europe. To achieve an EC-risk model with general validity, a large-scale cohort-consortium approach would be needed to assess and adjust for population variation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Endométrio/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Menopausa , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Biológicos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
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