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1.
Pharm Pract (Granada) ; 19(3): 2364, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34621448

RESUMO

Background: The patient's evaluation of treatment and its associated outcomes define the treatment satisfaction. The quality of treatment satisfaction and healthcare service has been affected by depression, anxiety and fear of the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Objective: Therefore, this study aimed to assess factors associated with treatment satisfaction among Lebanese inpatients with schizophrenia, namely depression, anxiety and fear of COVID-19. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between September and November 2020, enrolled 118 patients with chronic schizophrenia consecutively admitted to Psychiatric Hospital of the Cross, Lebanon. The Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Treatment Satisfaction-Patient Satisfaction Scale (FACIT-TS-PS) was used to assess treatment satisfaction, the Lebanese Anxiety Scale -10 (LAS-10) was used to assess anxiety, Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) to assess depression and the Fear of COVID-19 Scale to assess the level of fear of the COVID-19 pandemic. Results: The mean scores of the scales were as follows: treatment satisfaction (65.20; SD 16.11; median=71), LAS-10 (13.65; SD 6.02), MADRS (9.09; SD 6.69) and fear of COVID-19 (18.59; SD 6.78). Higher depression (r= -0.46, p<0.001) was significantly associated with lower treatment satisfaction. Female gender (beta=7.51, p=0.029) was significantly associated with higher treatment satisfaction score. Fear of COVID-19 did not show any significant association with the treatment satisfaction score. Conclusions: Results of this study found that depression and gender were associated with treatment satisfaction among inpatients with schizophrenia. No association has been found between fear of COVID-19 and treatment satisfaction among those patients. More research is warranted to evaluate treatment satisfaction and associated factors among chronic inpatients with schizophrenia, specifically during the COVID-19 pandemic, in order to improve treatment satisfaction and subjective well-being of patients.

2.
Psychol Health Med ; : 1-11, 2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34670447

RESUMO

Smartphone usage in Lebanon is increasing constantly. Lebanese population especially university students were described to be at a higher risk of smartphone addiction compared to the general population. To our knowledge there has been no study in the literature that investigated the mediating effect of self-esteem when assessing personality traits and smartphone addiction in young adults. The aim of our study was to assess factors associated with smartphone addiction and investigate the mediating role of self-esteem in the association between smartphone addiction and personality traits. A cross-sectional study was carried out between August and September 2020, during the lockdown period imposed by the government for the COVID-19 pandemic and that coincides with the summer season vacation for most Lebanese, using a sample of community-dwelling participants aged 18 to 29 years. The snowball technique was followed for participants' recruitment. The results showed that the mean age of the participants was 22.25 ± 2.87 years, with 70.9% females. The results showed that 216 (46.9%) of the participants had smartphone addiction. Higher negative emotionality (Beta = 0.17) was significantly associated with more smartphone addiction, whereas higher self-esteem (Beta = -0.37) and household crowding index (Beta = -1.58) were significantly associated with less smartphone addiction. Self-esteem mediated the association between negative emotionality and smartphone addiction. Lebanese young adults were found to be at a high risk of smartphone addiction. These results might serve as a first step towards implementing preventive measures to reduce smartphone addiction. Improving face to face communication, as well as setting specific time for cell phone usage might help reduce the development of addictive behaviors.

3.
J Eat Disord ; 9(1): 134, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34670627

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Binge eating disorder is a common eating disorder among the adolescent population. The available literature in the Middle East in general, and Lebanon specifically, is relatively scarce and/or outdated. The objectives of this study were to (1) validate the Binge Eating Scale (BES) for use in Lebanese adolescents, and (2) assess correlates of binge eating behavior among this population. METHODS: A cross-sectional study conducted between May and June 2020, enrolling 555 adolescents between the ages of 15-18 years old from all Lebanese governorates. The Binge Eating Scale was used to screen for the presence/absence of binge eating. RESULTS: A confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the one-factorial model fits the data best. The results of a linear regression, taking the binge eating score as the dependent variable, showed that higher body dissatisfaction, more alcohol use disorder, higher depression, vomiting to lose weight and starving to lose weight were significantly associated with more binge eating. Higher self-esteem was significantly associated with less binge eating. CONCLUSION: The Arabic Version of the BES scale seems to be a reliable tool to be used in Lebanese adolescents for the assessment of binge eating. More body dissatisfaction, lower self-esteem, increased depressive symptoms were associated with more binge eating. We hope this tool will be a reliable one to be used in epidemiological studies and research about eating behaviors/disorders. The results showed that higher body dissatisfaction, higher depression, vomiting to lose weight and starving to lose weight were significantly associated with more binge eating. Our study also showed that the Binge Eating Scale is an adapted and validated tool to be used among Lebanese adolescents for the assessment of binge eating. We hope that the study results will help clinicians in the screening and management of Binge Eating behaviors among Lebanese adolescents.

4.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1627, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488694

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Salameh et al. developed the Lebanese Waterpipe Dependence Scale (LWDS-11) that assesses nicotine dependence among adult waterpipe smokers. In view of the high waterpipe use among Lebanese youth and other neighboring countries, it was deemed necessary to check the psychometric properties of the LWDS-11, originally adapted to the Lebanese population, to measure nicotine dependence among adolescents. METHODS: Two cross-sectional investigations were conducted; Study 1 (January and May 2019) enrolled a total of 449 students who were exclusive waterpipe smokers; this sample was used to conduct the exploratory factor analysis. Study 2 enrolled another sample composed of 243 waterpipe smoking adolescents. This sample was independent from the first one and was used to conduct the confirmatory analysis. RESULTS: The results also showed that 312 (69.5%) [95% CI 0.652-0.738] had high waterpipe dependence (scores of ≥10). Results of the factor analysis in sample 1 showed that all LWDS-11 items were extracted following the factor analysis. Items converged over a solution of one factor; total variance explained = 70.45%, αCronbach = 0.96). The results of the confirmatory factor analysis were as follows: the Maximum Likelihood Chi-Square = 129.58 and Degrees of Freedom = 45, which gave a χ2/df = 2.88. For non-centrality fit indices, the Steiger-Lind Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) was 0.08 [0.071-0.106]. Moreover, the Comparative Fit Index (CFI) value was 0.77. CONCLUSION: The preliminary results suggest that the LWDS-11 has good psychometric properties to measure waterpipe dependence among adolescents. We hope this tool would serve the benefit of research and epidemiology.


Assuntos
Cachimbos de Água , Tabagismo , Fumar Cachimbo de Água , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tabagismo/diagnóstico , Tabagismo/epidemiologia , Fumar Cachimbo de Água/epidemiologia
5.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 136, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adults all over the world face serious issues from problematic smartphone use (PSU). It influences them negatively on a cognitive, behavioral, and emotional level, as well as on their tendencies and well-being. In Lebanon, the prevalence of PSU was shown to be 20.2% within the adult population, specifically with young adults (18-34 years old). This study investigates the validity and reliability of the Smartphone Addiction Scale (SAS) Arabic version. In addition, this study evaluates the association between PSU and affective temperaments and the mediating role of self-esteem in this association. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was carried out between August and September 2020, using a sample of community-dwelling participants aged 18 to 29 years. The Smartphone Addiction Scale-Short Version was used to evaluate smartphone addiction among adolescents and adults. The five different temperaments of the patients were assessed by using the Affective temperament Scale (TEMPS-A). The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale was used to evaluate self-esteem. RESULTS: 461 participants were included in this study. All items of the SAS were extracted and yielded a one-factor solution with Eigenvalues > 1 (variance explained = 49.96%; αCronbach = 0.886). The confirmatory analysis results consolidated those obtained from the factor analysis. Higher depressive temperament (B = 0.46) was significantly associated with more smartphone addiction, whereas higher self-esteem (B = - 0.28) was significantly associated with less smartphone addiction. Self-esteem was found to mediate the association between depressive and hyperthymic temperaments with smartphone addiction. CONCLUSION: This study added a better understanding of the high smartphone addiction rate among adults in Lebanon. It confirms the association between affective temperaments and PSU through the mediating effect of self-esteem on Lebanese adults.


Assuntos
Smartphone , Temperamento , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Autoimagem , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
6.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1583, 2021 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425819

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Waterpipe and cigarette smoking dependence are becoming increasingly prevalent forms of addiction globally. This study examined whether cumulative cigarette smoking and cumulative waterpipe smoking are associated with higher dependence on both cigarettes and waterpipe. METHODS: This cross-sectional study conducted between February and April 2020, enrolled 363 participants drawn from all Lebanese districts. The mean age was 29.51 years, 64.8% were females, and 124 (34.2%) exclusive cigarette smokers, 189 (52.1%) exclusive waterpipe smokers, and 50 (13.8%) dual smokers (waterpipe and cigarette). We used the Hooked on Nicotine Checklist (HONC) as an indicator of decreased autonomy towards nicotine, in addition to the Lebanon Waterpipe Dependence Scale-11 (LWDS11) and the Lebanese Cigarette Dependence scale (LCD). A stepwise linear regression was performed taking the HONC scores due to cigarette and waterpipe smoking, LCD and LWDS-11 scores as dependent variables. RESULTS: The results showed that in the total sample, higher cumulative cigarette smoking (B = 0.005 with a confidence interval of 0.004, 0.006) was significantly associated with higher HONC cigarette scores, whereas higher cumulative waterpipe smoking (B = -0.006 with a confidence interval of - 0.009, - 0.002) was significantly associated with lower HONC cigarette scores. Moreover, higher cumulative waterpipe smoking (B = 0.012 with a confidence interval of 0.009,0.015) was significantly associated with higher HONC waterpipe scores. The results showed that, in both sexes, higher cumulative cigarette smoking was associated with higher HONC cigarette scores and lower HONC waterpipe scores. Furthermore, higher cumulative waterpipe smoking was significantly associated with higher HONC waterpipe scores in both sexes. CONCLUSION: Our study supports the fact that heavy nicotine consumption, related to both the increased frequency and smoking duration, can increase the risk of dependence. It raises the need for strategic plans to minimize and discourage the use of nicotine products in Lebanese community settings.


Assuntos
Cachimbos de Água , Produtos do Tabaco , Tabagismo , Fumar Cachimbo de Água , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tabagismo/epidemiologia , Fumar Cachimbo de Água/efeitos adversos , Fumar Cachimbo de Água/epidemiologia
7.
J Eat Disord ; 9(1): 102, 2021 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391484

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some of the commonly used tools to assess orthorexia nervosa (OrNe) do not allow a meaningful interpretation of the scores or yield mixed results about the dimensions needed to represent orthorexia. Since no advancement in the theoretical knowledge can be made without a thorough examination of the measurement aspects, this study aimed to evaluate the correlation between orthorexia nervosa (OrNe) and lifestyle habits, notably alcohol drinking, cigarette and waterpipe smoking, and physical exercise, and to validate and assess the psychometric properties of the Arabic versions of the Eating Habits Questionnaire (EHQ) and Düsseldorf Orthorexia Scale (DOS). METHODS: A total of 456 adult participants completed a self-administered questionnaire. Exploratory structural equation models were used to test the internal structure of the instruments. Shorter and more explicit versions were proposed for instruments. Pearson and partial correlations were computed between orthorexia scores and healthy behaviors scores. RESULTS: Regarding the internal structure of both EHQ and DOS, evidence favored the bi-dimensional construct of orthorexia. Both tools presented two theoretically clearly interpretable factors (OrNe and Healthy Orthorexia-HeOr-). The two questionnaires presented a high convergent validity, as dimensions with the same interpretation were correlated around 0.80. While OrNe was positively correlated with the use of unhealthy substances (higher alcohol use disorder, cigarette, and waterpipe dependence), HeOr was negatively associated with these behaviors. CONCLUSION: Our results emphasize the idea that further attention should be paid to the multidimensional structure of orthorexia, as OrNe and HeOr present an opposite pattern of associations with healthy behaviors. An OrNe etiopathogenesis common to eating disorders can explain these differences.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402077

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Evaluate seasonal affective disorder (SAD) and the possible factors associated with it among Lebanese adults, during winter and summer seasons of 2018 and 2019. DESIGN AND METHODS: Cross-sectional study was conducted in two time intervals. The winter period took place from December 2018 to January 2019, whereas the summer period was from May to June 2019, evaluating the same participants. FINDINGS: Higher winter depression (adjusted odds ratio [ORa] = 1.16), higher winter insomnia (ORa = 1.04) were significantly associated with higher odds of having winter SAD. Higher summer depression (ORa = 1.20) was significantly associated with higher odds of having summer SAD. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: A proper recognition of risk factors associated with SAD allows the clinician to effectively differentiate between SAD and nonseasonal depressive symptoms.

9.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0254948, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34437545

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous research demonstrated a relationship between ON and disordered eating symptoms (eating concern, restraint, cognitive preoccupations about body shape and weight) and disordered eating attitudes (DEA). Since screening for orthorexia nervosa is now part of clinical practice, the measurement instruments to be used must be clinically significant, reliable, valid and sensitive to our target population. The main objective of the present study was to confirm the factor structure of the Arabic version of the ORTO-R using a first sample of Lebanese adults and confirm those results on another sample. The secondary objective was to assess sex differences in terms of ON and DEA, as well as to examine whether symptoms of ON were related to DEA in Lebanese adults. METHODS: A total of 783 Lebanese adults was selected to participate in this cross-sectional study (January-May 2018) using a proportionate random sample from all Lebanese governorates. RESULTS: The mean age of the total sample was 27.78 ± 11.60 years (Min. 18 -Max. 84) (33.5% females) and their mean BMI was 24.36 ± 5.31 kg/m2. All items of the ORTO-R were extracted during the factor analysis and yielded a two-factor solution with Eigenvalues > 1 (variance explained = 50.07%; KMO = 0.570; Bartlett's sphericity test p<0.001; αCronbach = 0.755). This factor structure was confirmed by a confirmatory factor analysis; the Maximum Likelihood Chi-Square = 26.894 and Degrees of Freedom = 8, which gave a χ2/df = 3.36. The Tucker Lewis Index (TLI) value was 0.914, whereas the standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) value was 0.032. The root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) value was 0.077 [95% CI 0.046-0.111] (pclose = 0.07) and comparative fit index (CFI) value was 0.967 respectively, indicating a good fit of the model. There was also no measurement invariance between genders. Female gender was significantly associated with lower ORTO-R scores (more orthorexia nervosa) compared to males (B = -0.65; p = 0.026, 95% CI -1.22- -0.08; ɳ2 = 0.006). However, no significant difference was found between genders in terms of EAT-26 scores (B = 0.23; p = 0.813, 95% CI -1.66-2.12; ɳ2 = 0.0001). Higher ORTO-R scores (lower/ less pathological ON tendencies and behaviors) were significantly related to higher EAT-26 total scores (higher levels of DEA) as well as higher dieting, bulimia and oral control scores in both females (from a weak to a moderate positive correlation) and males (a weak positive correlation). CONCLUSION: This cross-sectional population-based study confirmed the factor structure of the Arabic version of the ORTO-R, demonstrated an association between ON and DEA and revealed more ON among females compared to males.

10.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(1): 324, 2021 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34301219

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sleep habits are an important component of a child's health and it is affected by parent-child relationship. Also, child's diet and nutrition appear to be an important factor affecting sleep health. Few studies have addressed the effect of parental emotional disturbance that can leave on children's sleep. Therefore, the objective of our study was to assess the prevalence of sleep disorders in pre- and school-aged children and evaluate its relation with parental mental health and child's nutrition and activity. METHODS: A cross-sectional study, conducted between October 2020 and January 2021, which enrolled 402 Lebanese parents from all over Lebanon. The questionnaire was distributed online using the snowball technique. The Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (PSQ) was used to assess pediatric sleep behaviors and the Family Nutrition and physical activity questionnaire was used to assess parental behaviors that might predispose children for obesity. RESULTS: A total of 76 (19%) children had sleep disorders (PSQ scores of 8 or more). The multivariable analysis showed that higher paternal depression (Beta = 0.079, p = 0.010), maternal depression (Beta = 0.089, p = 0.001) and higher anxiety in the father (Beta = 0.064, p = 0.021) were significantly associated with higher PSQ scores (worse sleep) in the child. Higher Family Nutrition and Physical Activity Screening Tool scores in the child (Beta = -0.161, p < 0.001) was significantly associated with lower PSQ scores (better sleep). CONCLUSION: Paternal anxiety and depression, as well as maternal depression, were factors associated with children's sleeping disorders. Future studies are needed to assess parental influence on child's development.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/etiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Pais , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/etiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Psychol Health Med ; : 1-10, 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256660

RESUMO

The study objectives were to investigate correlates of healthy orthorexia (HeOr), its relation with impulsivity, and the moderating role of adaptive personality traits among a Lebanese adult sample. The sample was recruited from seven community pharmacies, from the five districts in Lebanon, chosen from a list provided by the Lebanese Order of Pharmacists in a convenient way. The questionnaire included the Teruel Orthorexia Scale (TOS) to measure HeOr, Big Five Inventory (BFI) to assess adaptive personality traits, and the I-8 scale for impulsivity. Higher extraversion (B = -4.31) was significantly associated with lower healthy orthorexia. The interaction perseverance by extraversion was associated with higher healthy orthorexia; in those with higher perseverance, higher extraversion was associated with more healthy orthorexia. Our study presents findings that could be of significant clinical relevance in the future, especially with the interest increase in Orthorexia Nervosa prevalence, which subsequently prompts more research and intrigue about HeOr. Furthermore, it places healthy eating and consistent commitment to a healthy diet within a clearly defined scientific frame, on which further investigation can be based.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105164

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine the association between menstrual cycle phases and other factors (depression, anxiety, and stress) with social, physical, and task attraction. METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled 662 female university students (December 2019-January 2020). RESULTS: Higher stress was associated with higher social and task attraction. Higher stress and depression were associated with higher physical attraction, whereas higher anxiety was associated with lower physical attraction. None of the cycle's phases was associated with attraction. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: This study results showed a lot of contradictory information to what is present in the literature, in addition to new associations that are not tackled enough in the literature. Therefore, there is a crucial need for new firm studies that explore the relationship between women's hormonal levels and attraction levels.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091844

RESUMO

The Lebanese economic crisis, financial crisis, and USD shortage were conducive to an increased drug addiction especially for students who feel that their future in Lebanon is not safe, as well as the psychological fragility of the Lebanese people, and the more permissive sociocultural context. Our study aimed to assess the addiction levels and profiles of university students in Lebanon, and thus to evaluate the rapid rising in dependence regarding smoking, alcohol, and illegal drug use during this crisis. This cross-sectional study was carried out between February and September 2020. A total of 467 participants (315 females, 152 males; Mage = 23.48 ± 6.03) were recruited through convenience sampling through several universities in Lebanon's governorates. Participants received the online link to the survey. Students were divided into three clusters as follows: cluster 1, which corresponds to students with moderate addictions; cluster 2, which corresponds to students with high addictions; and cluster 3, which corresponds to students with low addictions. When comparing cluster 1 to cluster 3, the results of the multinomial regression showed that older age (aOR=1.08) and having a high monthly income compared to no income (aOR=2.78) were significantly associated with higher odds of being in cluster 1 compared to cluster 3. When comparing cluster 2 to cluster 3, the results of the multinomial regression showed that female gender (aOR=0.19) was significantly associated with lower odds of being in cluster 2 compared to cluster 3, whereas having a dead (aOR=16.38) or divorced parent (aOR=6.54) and having a low (aOR=3.93) or intermediate income compared to zero income (aOR=4.71) were significantly associated with higher odds of being in cluster 2 compared to cluster 3. The results of our study revealed a considerable prevalence of addiction to alcohol, illicit drugs, and specially to smoking, among Lebanese university students. These findings emphasize the need to implement firm policies and rules in an attempt to minimize the tendency of the young population to engage in such addictions.

14.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(1): 257, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074237

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Restrained eating disorder is prevalent worldwide across both ethnic and different cultural groups, and most importantly within the adolescent population. Additionally, comorbidities of restrained eating present a large burden on both physical and mental health of individuals. Moreover, literature is relatively scarce in Arab countries regarding eating disorders, let alone restrained eating, and among adolescent populations; hence, the aim of this study was to (1) validate the Dutch Restrained Eating Scale in a sample of Lebanese adolescents and (2) assess factors correlated with restrained eating (RE), while taking body dissatisfaction as a moderator between body mass index (BMI) and RE. METHODS: This cross-sectional study, conducted between May and June 2020 during the lockdown period imposed by the Lebanese government, included 614 adolescents aged between 15 and 18 years from all Lebanese governorates (mean age of 16.66 ± 1.01 years). The scales used were: Dutch Restrained Eating Scale, body dissatisfaction subscale of the Eating Disorder Inventory-Second version, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Beirut Distress Scale (for psychological distress), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale and Patient Health Questionnaire (for depression). RESULTS: The factor analysis yielded a one-factor solution with Eigen values > 1 (variance explained = 59.65 %; αCronbach = 0.924). Female gender (B = 0.19), higher BMI (B = 0.49), higher physical activity index (B = 0.17), following a diet to lose weight (B = 0.26), starving oneself to lose weight (B = 0.13), more body dissatisfaction (B = 1.09), and higher stress (B = 0.18) were significantly associated with more RE, whereas taking medications to lose weight (B=-0.10) was significantly associated with less RE. The interaction body mass index (BMI) by body dissatisfaction was significantly associated with RE; in the group with low BMI, higher body dissatisfaction was significantly associated with more RE. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that the Dutch Restrained Eating scale is an adapted and validated tool to be used among Lebanese adolescents and revealed factors associated with restrained eating in this population. Since restrained eating has been associated with many clinically-diagnosed eating disorders, the results of this study might serve as a first step towards the development of prevention strategies targeted towards promoting a healthy lifestyle in Lebanese adolescents.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Autoimagem
15.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(1): 288, 2021 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34158020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Lebanese population has undergone several conflicts and were the most afflicted by shelling and chaos during the civil war from 1975 to 1990, or even by displacement, bereavement, emigration, family separations, not to mention the economic crises that have hit the country since 2019 under which young adults are still succumbing. Our study aims to validate the Lebanese Anxiety Scale and assess correlates of anxiety among Lebanese adolescents. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried between January and May 2019, using a proportionate random sampling of schools from all five Lebanese governorates, among which 1810 adolescents aged 14 to 17 years. RESULTS: All LAS items remained in the model and formed one factor solution that explained 61.38% of the total variance (KMO = 0.873; pBartlett test < 0.001), with an excellent Cronbach's alpha of 0.93. Higher neglect (B = 0.38), insomnia (B = 0.21) and child psychological abuse (B = 0.08) were significantly associated with more anxiety. Those results were considered adjusted overall sociodemographic variables since the latter had no statistically significant association with anxiety. CONCLUSION: The study confirmed the association between anxiety and some variables such as psychological child abuse, neglect, and insomnia and emphasized the correlation between anxiety and these factors. Further, the LAS appears to be a short, valid and efficient tool for assessing anxiety among Lebanese adolescents. Further studies need to be carried to evaluate whether the LAS-10 gives a similar diagnosis to psychiatrists.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Maus-Tratos Infantis , Adolescente , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Adulto Jovem
16.
Eat Weight Disord ; 2021 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33939127

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed at examining the reliability and validity of the Teruel Orthorexia Scale (TOS) among a sample of Lebanese adolescents (15 to 18 years old). METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study that was conducted between May and June 2020 and had enrolled 555 Lebanese adolescents. To assess the internal structure of the TOS scale, we administered the confirmatory factor analysis based on polychoric correlation matrix using Weighted Least Squares with Means and Variance Adjusted estimation (WLSMV) method in Mplus v 7.2 as suggested in the original validation paper. To assess the degree to which the Lebanese adaptation converges with the original scale, we have conducted the Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analysis (MGCFA; estimated as CFA) between the data reported in the current paper and from the original validation paper. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 16.66 ± 1.01 years, with 76.1% females. The bi-dimensional model fitted the data well (χ2(118) = 429.09; p < 0.001; CFI = 0.954; RMSEA = 0.069[0.062, 0.076]). The latent factors were highly correlated (ρ = 0.74; p < 0.001), and the strength of the standardized factor loadings was adequate on both factors (i.e., all > 0.60). The fit indices of the scalar model were at the boundary of the threshold and thus, with some pinch of caution, it might be interpreted as invariant (i.e., having equal item intercepts across groups). We have identified latent mean differences in orthorexia nervosa (0.30; p < 0.001), where Spanish individuals scored higher, but we did not find any differences in the healthy eating (0.03; p = 0.636). Higher DOS scores were significantly correlated with higher scores on the TOS subscale OrNe (r = 0.715; p < 0.001) as well as with higher scores on the TOS subscale HeOR (r = 0.754; p < 0.001). Higher ORTO-R scores were significantly associated with less TOS OrNe (r = - 0.437; p < 0.001) and TOS HeOr (r = - 0.305; p < 0.001) scores, respectively. CONCLUSION: The Arabic version of the TOS can be considered a reliable valuable instrument to assess the ON tendencies and behaviors in Lebanese adolescents, emphasizing the fine contrast between ON's two dimensions: healthy vs. pathological. LEVEL V: Opinions of authorities, based on descriptive studies, narrative reviews, clinical experience, or reports of expert committees.

17.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 87, 2021 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34022960

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rapid increasing rate of mobile and internet users in Lebanon, predisposes us to a high dependency on smartphones, leading to more phubbing. Phubbing has been found associated with many psychological factors. Thus, the main objectives of this study was (1) to evaluate the association between phubbing and temperaments, and (2) assess the mediating effect of self-esteem and emotional intelligence in the association between phubbing and temperaments among a sample of Lebanese adults. METHODS: A cross-sectional study, carried out between August and September 2020, enrolled 461 participants aged between 18 and 29 years old. Participants were recruited from all districts/governorates of Lebanon (Beirut, Mount Lebanon, North Lebanon, South Lebanon, and Bekaa) using the snowball technique. The Generic Scale of Phubbing, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Schutte Self Report Emotional Intelligence Test and TEMPS-M were used to assess phubbing, self-esteem, emotional intelligence and temperaments respectively. RESULTS: Our results showed that higher depressive temperament (B = 1.21) was significantly associated with more phubbing, whereas higher self-esteem (B = - 0.32) was significantly associated with less phubbing. Regarding the mediating effect, self-esteem partially mediated the association between depressive temperament and phubbing (21.02%), whereas emotional intelligence had no mediating effect on the association between temperaments and phubbing. CONCLUSION: A strong correlation between phubbing and temperaments has been found in our study with a partial mediating effect of self-esteem in this association. Our findings might be a first step for raising awareness to develop the etiquette of using smartphones by providing media education to families, and good media usage habits.


Assuntos
Autoimagem , Temperamento , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Inteligência Emocional , Humanos , Líbano , Adulto Jovem
18.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 998, 2021 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34044790

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 was first detected in Lebanon on February 21, 2020; it reached its peak in January 2021, with a total number of 418,448 confirmed cases and 5380 deaths (until March 15, 2021). Gaining insight into factors regarding willingness or refusal for vaccination might guide our goals in raising the awareness and target efforts to increase acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine and maximize the uptake. Therefore, this study aims to assess the intent to receive the COVID-19 vaccine among Lebanese adults and the factors associated with vaccine refusal. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study during November-December 2020 among Lebanese adults from all Lebanese regions using a survey tool with closed-ended questions that included sociodemographic data and questions about vaccine hesitancy, knowledge, attitude, practice, and fear of COVID-19. We used the snowball technique to collect the data because of the COVID-19 imposed lockdown. RESULTS: Of the 579 participants, 21.4% were willing to receive the vaccine, 40.9% refused, and the remainder were unsure of their response. More vaccine hesitancy (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.06; 95% CI 1.03-1.09) was significantly associated with more odds of disagreeing/ strongly disagreeing on receiving the COVID-19 vaccine compared to being neutral. More vaccine hesitancy (aOR = 0.95; 95% CI 0.91-0.99), female gender compared to males (aOR = 0.53; 95% CI 0.32-0.87), and being married compared to single (aOR = 0.53; 95% CI 0.29-0.98) were significantly associated with lower odds of agreeing/strongly agreeing on receiving the COVID-19 vaccine compared to being neutral. CONCLUSION: Overall, our findings revealed a high percentage of people (40%) who strongly disagreed with receiving the vaccine, mainly females, married participants, and those who have a general vaccine hesitancy. Moreover, no significant association was found with knowledge, attitude, or prevention practice regarding COVID-19. Targeted efforts are necessary to increase acceptance of a COVID-19 vaccine among the Lebanese population to control the COVID-19 pandemic. Further studies with a larger sample size are warranted to validate our results and provide better insights into the underlying reasons for refusing vaccination.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Adulto , Atitude , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Líbano , Masculino , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação
19.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 223, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933025

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Assessment of cognitive disorders in schizophrenia is becoming a part of clinical and research practice by using batteries that differ widely in their content. The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) was developed to cover the main cognitive deficits of schizophrenia. The objective of this study was to assess concurrent validity of the Arabic version of the BACS with a standard neurocognitive battery of tests in Lebanese patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. METHODS: A sample of 120 stable inpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia and 60 healthy controls received the Arabic version of the BACS in a first session, and a standard battery in a second session. RESULTS: Mean duration of completion for the BACS was 31.2 ± 5.4 min in patients with schizophrenia. All tests demonstrated significant differences between controls and patients (p < .01). Principal components analysis demonstrated that a one-factor solution best fits our dataset (64.8% of the variance). High Cronbach alpha was found (.85). The BACS composite scores were significantly correlated with the standard battery composite scores in patients (r = .73, p < .001) and healthy controls (r = .78, p < .001). Also, correlation analysis between the BACS sub-scores and the standard battery sub-scores showed significant results (p < .05). CONCLUSION: Results showed that the Arabic version of the BACS demonstrated high ability to discriminate patients with schizophrenia from healthy controls and it is a useful tool for assessing cognition in patients with schizophrenia and could be used in clinical practice in Lebanon.


Assuntos
Esquizofrenia , Cognição , Comparação Transcultural , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Líbano , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico
20.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249890, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33878132

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Nomophobia, an abbreviation of "No mobile phone phobia", is characterized by the illogical fear of being detached from the mobile phone or unable to use it. Research have provided evidence of an association between increased cellular phone use and multiple health issues, such as anxiety, depression, insomnia, and others. To our knowledge, there are no Lebanese studies about nomophobia, despite the high incorporation rate of mobile phones in Lebanon and the likelihood of suffering from anxiety, depression, and other conditions due to nomophobic attitudes. The study objectives were to validate and confirm psychometric properties of the Nomophobia Questionnaire (NMP-Q) and examine the associations between particular psychological conditions (anxiety, depression, stress, insomnia and impulsivity) and nomophobia among a representative sample of Lebanese people. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was carried out between January and July 2019. It enrolled 2260 residents of the community randomly selected from Lebanon's Mohafazat. Two villages per sub-district and households from each village were chosen using a random sampling technique. A questionnaire was distributed randomly to the households. SPSS version 25 was used to perform the statistical analysis. A multinomial regression was computed taking the nomophobia categories as the dependent variable (and taking the absence of nomophobia as the reference category) and all variables that showed a significant association in the bivariate analysis as independent variables. RESULTS: A total of 2260 (80.71%) out of 2800 questionnaires distributed was collected back. The mean age of the participants was 27.98 ± 9.66 years (58.8% females). Moreover, the mean nomophobia score was 71.56 ± 26.92 (median = 71; minimum = 14; maximum = 140). The results showed that 46 (2.0%) had no nomophobia, 769 (34.1%) mild nomophobia [95% CI 0.322-0.361], 1089 (48.3%) moderate nomophobia [95% CI 0.463-0.504] and 349 (15.5%) severe nomophobia [95% CI 0.140-0.170]. Items of the nomophobia scale converged over a solution of three factors that had an Eigenvalue over 1 (Factor 1 = emotions associated to losing connectedness, Factor 2 = not being able to communicate, Factor 3 = not being able to access information; total variance explained = 66.65%, and Cronbach's alpha = 0.948). The results of a multinomial regression, taking the nomophobia score as the dependent variable, showed that higher age was significantly associated with lower odds of having mild (aOR = 0.97), moderate (aOR = 0.93) and severe (aOR = 0.97) nomophobia respectively. Higher anxiety (aOR = 1.09) and higher insomnia (aOR = 1.04) were significantly associated with higher odds of having severe nomophobia. CONCLUSION: The results suggest a positive correlation between nomophobia and psychological conditions. There is a need for longitudinal and prospective studies that furnish information with regards of the impact of time on the variables measured, in order to better understand the nature, causes, and attributes of nomophobia.


Assuntos
Transtornos Fóbicos/psicologia , Angústia Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Ansiedade/patologia , Uso do Telefone Celular , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Líbano , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Transtornos Fóbicos/patologia , Psicometria , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/patologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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