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1.
Eur Respir J ; 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537701

RESUMO

Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are widely prescribed for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), yet with variable outcomes and adverse reactions which may be genetically determined. The primary aim of the study was to identify the genetic determinants for FEV1 changes related to ICS therapy. In the Lung Health Study 2 (LHS-2), 1116 COPD patients were randomised to the ICS, triamcinolone acetonide (n=559), or placebo (n=557) with spirometry performed every 6 months for 3 years. We performed a pharmacogenomic genome-wide association study (GWAS) for the genotype-by-ICS treatment effect on 3 years of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) changes (estimated as slope) in 802 genotyped LHS-2 participants. Replication was performed in 199 COPD patients randomised to the ICS, fluticasone or placebo. A total of five loci showed genotype-by-ICS interaction at p<5×10-6; of these, SNP rs111720447 on chromosome 7 was replicated (discovery p=4.8×10-6, replication p=5.9×10-5) with the same direction of interaction effect. ENCODE data revealed that in glucocorticoid treated (dexamethasone) A549 alveolar cell line, glucocorticoid receptor binding sites were located near SNP rs111720447. In stratified analyses of LHS-2, genotype at SNP rs111720447 was significantly associated with rate of FEV1 decline in patients taking ICS (C allele beta=56.35 mL·year-1, 95% confidence interval (CI)=29.96, 82.76 mL·yr-1) and also in patients who were assigned to placebo, though the relationship was weaker and in the opposite direction than that in the ICS group (C allele beta=-27.57 mL·year-1, 95% CI=-53.27, -1.87 mL·yr-1). The study uncovered genetic factors associated with FEV1 changes related to ICS in COPD patients, which may provide new insight on the potential biology of steroid responsiveness in COPD.

2.
Respir Res ; 20(1): 176, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Effects of systemic corticosteroids on blood gene expression are largely unknown. This study determined gene expression signature associated with short-term oral prednisone therapy in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and its relationship to 1-year mortality following an acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD). METHODS: Gene expression in whole blood was profiled using the Affymetrix Human Gene 1.1 ST microarray chips from two cohorts: 1) a prednisone cohort with 37 stable COPD patients randomly assigned to prednisone 30 mg/d + standard therapy for 4 days or standard therapy alone and 2) the Rapid Transition Program (RTP) cohort with 218 COPD patients who experienced AECOPD and were treated with systemic corticosteroids. All gene expression data were adjusted for the total number of white blood cells and their differential cell counts. RESULTS: In the prednisone cohort, 51 genes were differentially expressed between prednisone and standard therapy group at a false discovery rate of < 0.05. The top 3 genes with the largest fold-changes were KLRF1, GZMH and ADGRG1; and 21 genes were significantly enriched in immune system pathways including the natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity. In the RTP cohort, 27 patients (12.4%) died within 1 year after hospitalisation of AECOPD; 32 of 51 genes differentially expressed in the prednisone cohort significantly changed from AECOPD to the convalescent state and were enriched in similar cellular immune pathways to that in the prednisone cohort. Of these, 10 genes including CX3CR1, KLRD1, S1PR5 and PRF1 were significantly associated with 1-year mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Short-term daily prednisone therapy produces a distinct blood gene signature that may be used to determine and monitor treatment responses to prednisone in COPD patients during AECOPD. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The prednisone cohort was registered at clinicalTrials.gov ( NCT02534402 ) and the RTP cohort was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT02050022 ).

5.
Med J Aust ; 210(9): 424-428, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30977152

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is defined based on a reduced ratio of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 ) to forced vital capacity (FVC) on spirometry. However, within this definition, there is significant heterogeneity of pathophysiological processes that lead to airflow obstruction and variation in phenotypic manifestations across patients. Current pharmacological treatments are based on large randomised clinical trials that apply to an "average" patient. Precision health enables tailoring of treatment for each individual patient by taking into account their unique characteristics. The number needed to treat (NNT) metric is often used to define implementation of precision health for specific interventions, with common endpoints requiring an NNT ≤ 5 to achieve precision therapy. Higher NNTs may be acceptable for rare but important endpoints such as mortality. Long-acting muscarinic antagonists and inhaled corticosteroids, which are commonly used in COPD, have 1-year treatment NNTs between 15 and 20 for exacerbation prevention in unselected patients with COPD. Subgroup identification using biomarkers or clinical traits may enable precision health. For example, NNT for inhaled corticosteroids is 9 in patients with a blood eosinophil count ≥ 300 cells/µL and 8 for long-acting muscarinic antagonists in patients with a body mass index ≤ 20 kg/m2 . Lung volume reduction surgery is associated with an NNT of 6 for survival over 5 years in patients with upper lobe-predominant disease and low exercise capacity (whereas the NNT is 245 when no bioimaging or exercise markers are used). Continuous domiciliary oxygen therapy (for at least 15 hours/day) has an NNT of 5 for survival over 5 years in patients with resting hypoxemia (PaO2  < 60 mmHg on room air). Emerging areas of precision health in COPD with potential for low NNTs in specific circumstances include anti-interleukin-5 therapy for eosinophilic COPD, and immunoglobulin replacement therapy for patients with severe immunoglobulin deficiency.

6.
Nat Genet ; 51(3): 481-493, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804560

RESUMO

Reduced lung function predicts mortality and is key to the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In a genome-wide association study in 400,102 individuals of European ancestry, we define 279 lung function signals, 139 of which are new. In combination, these variants strongly predict COPD in independent populations. Furthermore, the combined effect of these variants showed generalizability across smokers and never smokers, and across ancestral groups. We highlight biological pathways, known and potential drug targets for COPD and, in phenome-wide association studies, autoimmune-related and other pleiotropic effects of lung function-associated variants. This new genetic evidence has potential to improve future preventive and therapeutic strategies for COPD.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/genética
7.
Nat Genet ; 51(3): 494-505, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804561

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the leading cause of respiratory mortality worldwide. Genetic risk loci provide new insights into disease pathogenesis. We performed a genome-wide association study in 35,735 cases and 222,076 controls from the UK Biobank and additional studies from the International COPD Genetics Consortium. We identified 82 loci associated with P < 5 × 10-8; 47 of these were previously described in association with either COPD or population-based measures of lung function. Of the remaining 35 new loci, 13 were associated with lung function in 79,055 individuals from the SpiroMeta consortium. Using gene expression and regulation data, we identified functional enrichment of COPD risk loci in lung tissue, smooth muscle, and several lung cell types. We found 14 COPD loci shared with either asthma or pulmonary fibrosis. COPD genetic risk loci clustered into groups based on associations with quantitative imaging features and comorbidities. Our analyses provide further support for the genetic susceptibility and heterogeneity of COPD.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Asma/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/genética , Loci Gênicos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fibrose Pulmonar/genética , Fumar/genética
8.
Eur Respir J ; 53(4)2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30679189

RESUMO

Although there has been tremendous growth in our understanding of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and its pathophysiology over the past few decades, the pace of therapeutic innovation has been extremely slow. COPD is now widely accepted as a heterogeneous condition with multiple phenotypes and endotypes. Thus, there is a pressing need for COPD care to move from the current "one-size-fits-all" approach to a precision medicine approach that takes into account individual patient variability in genes, environment and lifestyle. Precision medicine is enabled by biomarkers that can: 1) accurately identify subgroups of patients who are most likely to benefit from therapeutics and those who will only experience harm (predictive biomarkers); 2) predict therapeutic responses to drugs at an individual level (response biomarkers); and 3) segregate patients who are at risk of poor outcomes from those who have relatively stable disease (prognostic biomarkers). In this essay, we will discuss the current concept of precision medicine and its relevance for COPD and explore ways to implement precision medicine for millions of patients across the world with COPD.

9.
Wellcome Open Res ; 3: 4, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30175238

RESUMO

Background: Over 90 regions of the genome have been associated with lung function to date, many of which have also been implicated in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Methods: We carried out meta-analyses of exome array data and three lung function measures: forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and the ratio of FEV 1 to FVC (FEV 1/FVC). These analyses by the SpiroMeta and CHARGE consortia included 60,749 individuals of European ancestry from 23 studies, and 7,721 individuals of African Ancestry from 5 studies in the discovery stage, with follow-up in up to 111,556 independent individuals. Results: We identified significant (P<2·8x10 -7) associations with six SNPs: a nonsynonymous variant in RPAP1, which is predicted to be damaging, three intronic SNPs ( SEC24C, CASC17 and UQCC1) and two intergenic SNPs near to LY86 and FGF10. Expression quantitative trait loci analyses found evidence for regulation of gene expression at three signals and implicated several genes, including TYRO3 and PLAU. Conclusions: Further interrogation of these loci could provide greater understanding of the determinants of lung function and pulmonary disease.

10.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 2976, 2018 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30061609

RESUMO

Nearly 100 loci have been identified for pulmonary function, almost exclusively in studies of European ancestry populations. We extend previous research by meta-analyzing genome-wide association studies of 1000 Genomes imputed variants in relation to pulmonary function in a multiethnic population of 90,715 individuals of European (N = 60,552), African (N = 8429), Asian (N = 9959), and Hispanic/Latino (N = 11,775) ethnicities. We identify over 50 additional loci at genome-wide significance in ancestry-specific or multiethnic meta-analyses. Using recent fine-mapping methods incorporating functional annotation, gene expression, and differences in linkage disequilibrium between ethnicities, we further shed light on potential causal variants and genes at known and newly identified loci. Several of the novel genes encode proteins with predicted or established drug targets, including KCNK2 and CDK12. Our study highlights the utility of multiethnic and integrative genomics approaches to extend existing knowledge of the genetics of lung function and clinical relevance of implicated loci.

11.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 11881, 2018 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30089872

RESUMO

Genome-wide mRNA profiling in lung tissue from human and animal models can provide novel insights into the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). While 6 months of smoke exposure are widely used, shorter durations were also reported. The overlap of short term and long-term smoke exposure in mice is currently not well understood, and their representation of the human condition is uncertain. Lung tissue gene expression profiles of six murine smoking experiments (n = 48) were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and analyzed to identify the murine smoking signature. The "human smoking" gene signature containing 386 genes was previously published in the lung eQTL study (n = 1,111). A signature of mild COPD containing 7 genes was also identified in the same study. The lung tissue gene signature of "severe COPD" (n = 70) contained 4,071 genes and was previously published. We detected 3,723 differentially expressed genes in the 6 month-exposure mice datasets (FDR <0.1). Of those, 184 genes (representing 48% of human smoking) and 1,003 (representing 27% of human COPD) were shared with the human smoking-related genes and the COPD severity-related genes, respectively. There was 4-fold over-representation of human and murine smoking-related genes (P = 6.7 × 10-26) and a 1.4 fold in the severe COPD -related genes (P = 2.3 × 10-12). There was no significant enrichment of the mice and human smoking-related genes in mild COPD signature. These data suggest that murine smoke models are strongly representative of molecular processes of human smoking but less of COPD.

12.
Respir Res ; 19(1): 59, 2018 04 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29631575

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smoking is the principal modifiable environmental risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) which affects 300 million people and is the 3rd leading cause of death worldwide. Most of the genetic studies of smoking have relied on self-reported smoking status which is vulnerable to reporting and recall bias. Using data from the Lung Health Study (LHS), we sought to identify genetic variants associated with quantitative smoking and cessation in individuals with mild to moderate COPD. METHODS: The LHS is a longitudinal multicenter study of mild-to-moderate COPD subjects who were all smokers at recruitment. We performed genome-wide association studies (GWASs) for salivary cotinine (n = 4024), exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO) (n = 2854), cigarettes per day (CPD) (n = 2706) and smoking cessation at year 5 follow-up (n = 717 quitters and 2175 smokers). The GWAS analyses were adjusted for age, gender, and genetic principal components. RESULTS: For cotinine levels, SNPs near UGT2B10 gene achieved genome-wide significance (i.e. P < 5 × 10- 8) with top SNP rs10023464, P = 1.27 × 10- 11. For eCO levels, one significant SNP was identified which mapped to the CHRNA3 gene (rs12914385, P = 2.38 × 10- 8). A borderline region mapping to KCNMA1 gene was associated with smoking cessation (rs207675, P = 5.95 × 10- 8). Of the identified loci, only the CHRNA3/5 locus showed significant associations with lung function but only in heavy smokers. No regions met genome-wide significance for CPD. CONCLUSION: The study demonstrates that using objective measures of smoking such as eCO and/or salivary cotinine can more precisely capture the genetic contribution to multiple aspects of smoking behaviour. The KCNMA1 gene association with smoking cessation may represent a potential therapeutic target and warrants further studies. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The Lung Health Study ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00000568 . Date of registration: October 28, 1999.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/genética , Adulto , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Subunidades alfa do Canal de Potássio Ativado por Cálcio de Condutância Alta/genética , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Fumar/terapia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos
13.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(10): 1819-1829, 2018 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29547942

RESUMO

Causal genes of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remain elusive. The current study aims at integrating genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and lung expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) data to map COPD candidate causal genes and gain biological insights into the recently discovered COPD susceptibility loci. Two complementary genomic datasets on COPD were studied. First, the lung eQTL dataset which included whole-genome gene expression and genotyping data from 1038 individuals. Second, the largest COPD GWAS to date from the International COPD Genetics Consortium (ICGC) with 13 710 cases and 38 062 controls. Methods that integrated GWAS with eQTL signals including transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS), colocalization and Mendelian randomization-based (SMR) approaches were used to map causality genes, i.e. genes with the strongest evidence of being the functional effector at specific loci. These methods were applied at the genome-wide level and at COPD risk loci derived from the GWAS literature. Replication was performed using lung data from GTEx. We collated 129 non-overlapping risk loci for COPD from the GWAS literature. At the genome-wide scale, 12 new COPD candidate genes/loci were revealed and six replicated in GTEx including CAMK2A, DMPK, MYO15A, TNFRSF10A, BTN3A2 and TRBV30. In addition, we mapped candidate causal genes for 60 out of the 129 GWAS-nominated loci and 23 of them were replicated in GTEx. Mapping candidate causal genes in lung tissue represents an important contribution to the genetics of COPD, enriches our biological interpretation of GWAS findings, and brings us closer to clinical translation of genetic associations.

14.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(5): 709-722, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29422661

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major health burden in adults and cigarette smoking is considered the most important environmental risk factor of COPD. Chromosome 15q25.1 locus is associated with both COPD and smoking. Our study aims at understanding the mechanism underlying the association of chromosome 15q25.1 with COPD through epigenetic and transcriptional variation in a population-based setting. To assess if COPD-associated variants in 15q25.1 are methylation quantitative trait loci, epigenome-wide association analysis of four genetic variants, previously associated with COPD (P < 5 × 10-8) in the 15q25.1 locus (rs12914385:C>T-CHRNA3, rs8034191:T>C-HYKK, rs13180:C>T-IREB2 and rs8042238:C>T-IREB2), was performed in the Rotterdam study (n = 1489). All four variants were significantly associated (P < 1.4 × 10-6) with blood DNA methylation of IREB2, CHRNA3 and PSMA4, of which two, including IREB2 and PSMA4, were also differentially methylated in COPD cases and controls (P < 0.04). Further additive and multiplicative effects of smoking were evaluated and no significant effect was observed. To evaluate if these four genetic variants are expression quantitative trait loci, transcriptome-wide association analysis was performed in 1087 lung samples. All four variants were also significantly associated with differential expression of the IREB2 3'UTR in lung tissues (P < 5.4 × 10-95). We conclude that regulatory mechanisms affecting the expression of IREB2 gene, such as DNA methylation, may explain the association between genetic variants in chromosome 15q25.1 and COPD, largely independent of smoking.

15.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(2): 396-405, 2018 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29092026

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is among the major health burdens in adults. While cigarette smoking is the leading risk factor, a growing number of genetic variations have been discovered to influence disease susceptibility. Epigenetic modifications may mediate the response of the genome to smoking and regulate gene expression. Chromosome 19q13.2 region is associated with both smoking and COPD, yet its functional role is unclear. Our study aimed to determine whether rs7937 (RAB4B, EGLN2), a top genetic variant in 19q13.2 region identified in genome-wide association studies of COPD, is associated with differential DNA methylation in blood (N = 1490) and gene expression in blood (N = 721) and lungs (N = 1087). We combined genetic and epigenetic data from the Rotterdam Study (RS) to perform the epigenome-wide association analysis of rs7937. Further, we used genetic and transcriptomic data from blood (RS) and from lung tissue (Lung expression quantitative trait loci mapping study), to perform the transcriptome-wide association study of rs7937. Rs7937 was significantly (FDR < 0.05) and consistently associated with differential DNA methylation in blood at 4 CpG sites in cis, independent of smoking. One methylation site (cg11298343-EGLN2) was also associated with COPD (P = 0.001). Additionally, rs7937 was associated with gene expression levels in blood in cis (EGLN2), 42% mediated through cg11298343, and in lung tissue, in cis and trans (NUMBL, EGLN2, DNMT3A, LOC101929709 and PAK2). Our results suggest that changes of DNA methylation and gene expression may be intermediate steps between genetic variants and COPD, but further causal studies in lung tissue should confirm this hypothesis.

16.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 197(1): 56-65, 2018 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28886252

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Studies of excised lungs show that significant airway attrition in the "quiet" zone occurs early in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). OBJECTIVES: To determine if the total number of airways quantified in vivo using computed tomography (CT) reflects early airway-related disease changes and is associated with lung function decline independent of emphysema in COPD. METHODS: Participants in the multicenter, population-based, longitudinal CanCOLD (Canadian Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease) study underwent inspiratory/expiratory CT at visit 1; spirometry was performed at four visits over 6 years. Emphysema was quantified as the CT inspiratory low-attenuation areas below -950 Hounsfield units. CT total airway count (TAC) was measured as well as airway inner diameter and wall area using anatomically equivalent airways. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Participants included never-smokers (n = 286), smokers with normal spirometry at risk for COPD (n = 298), Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) I COPD (n = 361), and GOLD II COPD (n = 239). TAC was significantly reduced by 19% in both GOLD I and GOLD II compared with never-smokers (P < 0.0001) and by 17% in both GOLD I and GOLD II compared with at-risk participants (P < 0.0001) after adjusting for low-attenuation areas below -950 Hounsfield units. Further analysis revealed parent airways with missing daughter branches had reduced inner diameters (P < 0.0001) and thinner walls (P < 0.0001) compared with those without missing daughter branches. Among all CT measures, TAC had the greatest influence on FEV1 (P < 0.0001), FEV1/FVC (P < 0.0001), and bronchodilator responsiveness (P < 0.0001). TAC was independently associated with lung function decline (FEV1, P = 0.02; FEV1/FVC, P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: TAC may reflect the airway-related disease changes that accumulate in the "quiet" zone in early/mild COPD, indicating that TAC acquired with commercially available software across various CT platforms may be a biomarker to predict accelerated COPD progression.

17.
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol ; 58(6): 727-735, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29256623

RESUMO

Cigarette smoking is the main risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and to date, existing pharmacologic interventions have been ineffective at controlling inflammatory processes associated with the disease. To address this issue, we used the Connectivity Map (cMap) database to identify drug candidates with the potential to attenuate cigarette smoke-induced inflammation. We queried cMap using three independent in-house cohorts of healthy nonsmokers and smokers. Potential drug candidates were validated against four publicly available human datasets, as well as six independent datasets from cigarette smoke-exposed mice. Overall, these analyses yielded two potential drug candidates: kaempferol and bethanechol. Subsequently, the efficacy of each drug was validated in vivo in a model of cigarette smoke-induced inflammation. BALB/c mice were exposed to room air or cigarette smoke and treated with each of the two candidate drugs either prophylactically or therapeutically. We found that kaempferol, but not bethanechol, was able to reduce cigarette smoke-induced neutrophilia, both when administered prophylactically and when administered therapeutically. Mechanistically, kaempferol decreased expression of IL-1α and CXCL5 concentrations in the lung. Our data suggest that cMap analyses may serve as a useful tool to identify novel drug candidates against cigarette smoke-induced inflammation.

18.
Int J Dev Biol ; 62(11-12): 857-864, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30604855

RESUMO

The HOX genes are transcription factors that are expressed in coordinated spatiotemporal patterns to ensure normal development. Ectopic expression may instead lead to the development and progression of tumors. Genetic polymorphisms in the regions of four HOX gene clusters were tested for association with lung cancer in 420 cases and 3,151 controls. The effect of these variants on lung gene expression (expression quantitative trait loci, eQTL) was tested in a discovery set of 409 non-tumor lung samples and validated in two lung eQTL replication sets (n = 287 and 342). The expression levels of HOXB2 were evaluated at the mRNA and protein levels by quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry in paired tumor and non-tumor lung tissue samples. The most significant SNP associated with lung cancer in the HOXB cluster was rs10853100 located upstream of the HOXB cluster. HOXB2 was the top eQTL-regulated gene with several polymorphisms associated with its mRNA expression levels in lung tissue. This includes the lung cancer SNP rs10853100 that was significantly associated with HOXB2 expression (P=3.39E-7). In the lung eQTL discovery and replication sets, the lung cancer risk allele (T) for rs10853100 was associated with lower HOXB2 expression levels. In paired normal-tumor samples, HOXB2 mRNA and protein levels were significantly reduced in tumors when compared to non-tumor lung tissues. Genetic variants in the HOXB cluster may confer susceptibility to lung cancer by modulating the expression of HOXB2 in the lung.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Pulmão/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Idoso , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Genes Homeobox , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
19.
BMC Pulm Med ; 17(1): 189, 2017 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29228930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gene expression changes in the structural cells of the airways are thought to play a role in the development of asthma and airway hyperresponsiveness. This includes changes to smooth muscle contractile machinery and epithelial barrier integrity genes. We used a targeted gene expression arrays to identify changes in the expression and co-expression of genes important in asthma pathology. METHODS: RNA was isolated from the airways of donor lungs from 12 patients with asthma (8 fatal) and 12 non-asthmatics controls and analyzed using a multiplexed, hypothesis-directed platform to detect differences in gene expression. Genes were grouped according to their role in airway dysfunction: airway smooth muscle contraction, cytoskeleton structure and regulation, epithelial barrier function, innate and adaptive immunity, fibrosis and remodeling, and epigenetics. RESULTS: Differential gene expression and gene co-expression analyses were used to identify disease associated changes in the airways of asthmatics. There was significantly decreased abundance of integrin beta 6 and Ras-Related C3 Botulinum Toxin Substrate 1 (RAC1) in the airways of asthmatics, genes which are known to play an important role in barrier function. Significantly elevated levels of Collagen Type 1 Alpha 1 (COL1A1) and COL3A1 which have been shown to modulate cell proliferation and inflammation, were found in asthmatic airways. Additionally, we identified patterns of differentially co-expressed genes related to pathways involved in virus recognition and regulation of interferon production. 7 of 8 pairs of differentially co-expressed genes were found to contain CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) motifs in their upstream promoters. CONCLUSIONS: Changes in the abundance of genes involved in cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions could play an important role in regulating inflammation and remodeling in asthma. Additionally, our results suggest that alterations to the binding site of the transcriptional regulator CTCF could drive changes in gene expression in asthmatic airways. Several asthma susceptibility loci are known to contain CTCF motifs and so understanding the role of this transcription factor may expand our understanding of asthma pathophysiology and therapeutic options.


Assuntos
Asma , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória , Remodelação das Vias Aéreas/genética , Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/genética , Asma/patologia , Asma/fisiopatologia , Canadá , Matriz Extracelular/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/genética
20.
Eur Respir J ; 50(5)2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29191953

RESUMO

Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is produced primarily in the lung and is involved in regulating pulmonary surfactants, lipid homeostasis and innate immunity. Circulating SP-D levels in blood are associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), although causality remains elusive.In 4061 subjects with COPD, we identified genetic variants associated with serum SP-D levels. We then determined whether these variants affected lung tissue gene expression in 1037 individuals. A Mendelian randomisation framework was then applied, whereby serum SP-D-associated variants were tested for association with COPD risk in 11 157 cases and 36 699 controls and with 11 years decline of lung function in the 4061 individuals.Three regions on chromosomes 6 (human leukocyte antigen region), 10 (SFTPD gene) and 16 (ATP2C2 gene) were associated with serum SP-D levels at genome-wide significance. In Mendelian randomisation analyses, variants associated with increased serum SP-D levels decreased the risk of COPD (estimate -0.19, p=6.46×10-03) and slowed the lung function decline (estimate=0.0038, p=7.68×10-3).Leveraging genetic variation effect on protein, lung gene expression and disease phenotypes provided novel insights into SP-D biology and established a causal link between increased SP-D levels and protection against COPD risk and progression. SP-D represents a very promising biomarker and therapeutic target for COPD.


Assuntos
Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/sangue , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Proteína D Associada a Surfactante Pulmonar/sangue , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
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