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1.
EMBO Rep ; 20(4)2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30872316

RESUMO

Cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs) are important second messenger molecules in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Within host cells, cytosolic CDNs are detected by STING and alert the host by activating innate immunity characterized by type I interferon (IFN) responses. Extracellular bacteria and dying cells can release CDNs, but sensing of extracellular CDNs (eCDNs) by mammalian cells remains elusive. Here, we report that endocytosis facilitates internalization of eCDNs. The DNA sensor cGAS facilitates sensing of endocytosed CDNs, their perinuclear accumulation, and subsequent STING-dependent release of type I IFN Internalized CDNs bind cGAS directly, leading to its dimerization, and the formation of a cGAS/STING complex, which may activate downstream signaling. Thus, eCDNs comprise microbe- and danger-associated molecular patterns that contribute to host-microbe crosstalk during health and disease.

2.
Infect Immun ; 84(10): 2914-21, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27481246

RESUMO

The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) extends the systemic half-life of IgG antibodies by chaperoning bound Fc away from lysosomal degradation inside stromal and hematopoietic cells. FcRn also transports IgG across mucosal barriers into the lumen, and yet little is known about how FcRn modulates immunity in the lung during homeostasis or infection. We infected wild-type (WT) and FcRn-deficient (fcgrt(-/-)) mice with Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Mycobacterium tuberculosis to investigate whether recycling and transport of IgG via FcRn influences innate and adaptive immunity in the lung in response to bacterial infection. We found that FcRn expression maintains homeostatic IgG levels in lung and leads to preferential secretion of low-affinity IgG ligands into the lumen. Fcgrt(-/-) animals exhibited no evidence of developmental impairment of innate immunity in the lung and were able to efficiently recruit neutrophils in a model of acute bacterial pneumonia. Although local humoral immunity in lung increased independently of the presence of FcRn during tuberculosis, there was nonetheless a strong impact of FcRn deficiency on local adaptive immunity. We show that the quantity and quality of IgG in airways, as well as the abundance of dendritic cells in the lung, are maintained by FcRn. FcRn ablation transiently enhanced local T cell immunity and neutrophil recruitment during tuberculosis, leading to a lower bacterial burden in lung. This novel understanding of tissue-specific modulation of mucosal IgG isotypes in the lung by FcRn sheds light on the role of mucosal IgG in immune responses in the lung during homeostasis and bacterial disease.


Assuntos
Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/fisiologia , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Pulmão , Receptores Fc/fisiologia , Tuberculose/imunologia , Imunidade Adaptativa , Animais , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Carga Bacteriana , Células Dendríticas/citologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/metabolismo , Imunidade Inata , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Cadeias alfa de Integrinas/metabolismo , Pulmão/citologia , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Membrana Mucosa/metabolismo , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Infecções por Pseudomonas/imunologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Receptores Fc/metabolismo , Tuberculose/microbiologia
3.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 190(9): 1053-66, 2014 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25275852

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Myeloid cells encompass distinct populations with unique functions during homeostasis and disease. Recently, a novel subset of innate cells, myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), has been described in cancer, which suppresses T-cell responses and fosters disease progression. The role of MDSCs in infection is insufficiently addressed. OBJECTIVES: To examine the presence and function of MDSCs during experimental pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and further understand the immunologic consequences of direct interactions between MDSCs and lung bacterial pathogens. METHODS: Using cell-based approaches and experimental mouse models for pulmonary TB we characterized MDSCs as novel myeloid populations directly interacting with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: MDSCs readily phagocytosed Mtb, and released proinflammatory (IL-6, IL-1α) and immunomodulatory (IL-10) cytokines while retaining their suppressive capacity. MDSCs were identified at the site of infection in the lung in disease-resistant and -susceptible mice during pulmonary TB. Excessive MDSC accumulation in lungs correlated with elevated surface expression of IL-4Rα and heightened TB lethality, whereas targeted depletion of MDSCs ameliorated disease. CONCLUSIONS: Our data reveal that MDSCs provide a niche for pathogen survival and tailor immunity in TB. These findings suggest MDSCs as amenable targets for host-directed therapies and emphasize them as cellular-immune regulators during chronic inflammatory conditions, including chronic infections and microbial complications of neoplastic disorders.


Assuntos
Células Mieloides/fisiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/imunologia , Animais , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
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