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1.
Science ; 375(6582): 753-760, 2022 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35175810

RESUMO

Proposed hydropower dams at more than 350 sites throughout the Amazon require strategic evaluation of trade-offs between the numerous ecosystem services provided by Earth's largest and most biodiverse river basin. These services are spatially variable, hence collective impacts of newly built dams depend strongly on their configuration. We use multiobjective optimization to identify portfolios of sites that simultaneously minimize impacts on river flow, river connectivity, sediment transport, fish diversity, and greenhouse gas emissions while achieving energy production goals. We find that uncoordinated, dam-by-dam hydropower expansion has resulted in forgone ecosystem service benefits. Minimizing further damage from hydropower development requires considering diverse environmental impacts across the entire basin, as well as cooperation among Amazonian nations. Our findings offer a transferable model for the evaluation of hydropower expansion in transboundary basins.

2.
Ambio ; 50(1): 85-94, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040746

RESUMO

Freshwater ecosystems provide irreplaceable services for both nature and society. The quality and quantity of freshwater affect biogeochemical processes and ecological dynamics that determine biodiversity, ecosystem productivity, and human health and welfare at local, regional and global scales. Freshwater ecosystems and their associated riparian habitats are amongst the most biologically diverse on Earth, and have inestimable economic, health, cultural, scientific and educational values. Yet human impacts to lakes, rivers, streams, wetlands and groundwater are dramatically reducing biodiversity and robbing critical natural resources and services from current and future generations. Freshwater biodiversity is declining rapidly on every continent and in every major river basin on Earth, and this degradation is occurring more rapidly than in terrestrial ecosystems. Currently, about one third of all global freshwater discharges pass through human agricultural, industrial or urban infrastructure. About one fifth of the Earth's arable land is now already equipped for irrigation, including all the most productive lands, and this proportion is projected to surpass one third by midcentury to feed the rapidly expanding populations of humans and commensal species, especially poultry and ruminant livestock. Less than one fifth of the world's preindustrial freshwater wetlands remain, and this proportion is projected to decline to under one tenth by midcentury, with imminent threats from water transfer megaprojects in Brazil and India, and coastal wetland drainage megaprojects in China. The Living Planet Index for freshwater vertebrate populations has declined to just one third that of 1970, and is projected to sink below one fifth by midcentury. A linear model of global economic expansion yields the chilling prediction that human utilization of critical freshwater resources will approach one half of the Earth's total capacity by midcentury. Although the magnitude and growth of the human freshwater footprint are greater than is generally understood by policy makers, the news media, or the general public, slowing and reversing dramatic losses of freshwater species and ecosystems is still possible. We recommend a set of urgent policy actions that promote clean water, conserve watershed services, and restore freshwater ecosystems and their vital services. Effective management of freshwater resources and ecosystems must be ranked amongst humanity's highest priorities.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Biodiversidade , Brasil , China , Água Doce , Humanos , Índia
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(49): 30882-30891, 2020 12 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33288709

RESUMO

Recent assessment reports by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) have highlighted the risks to humanity arising from the unsustainable use of natural resources. Thus far, land, freshwater, and ocean exploitation have been the chief causes of biodiversity loss. Climate change is projected to be a rapidly increasing additional driver for biodiversity loss. Since climate change and biodiversity loss impact human societies everywhere, bold solutions are required that integrate environmental and societal objectives. As yet, most existing international biodiversity targets have overlooked climate change impacts. At the same time, climate change mitigation measures themselves may harm biodiversity directly. The Convention on Biological Diversity's post-2020 framework offers the important opportunity to address the interactions between climate change and biodiversity and revise biodiversity targets accordingly by better aligning these with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Paris Agreement and the Sustainable Development Goals. We identify the considerable number of existing and proposed post-2020 biodiversity targets that risk being severely compromised due to climate change, even if other barriers to their achievement were removed. Our analysis suggests that the next set of biodiversity targets explicitly addresses climate change-related risks since many aspirational goals will not be feasible under even lower-end projections of future warming. Adopting more flexible and dynamic approaches to conservation, rather than static goals, would allow us to respond flexibly to changes in habitats, genetic resources, species composition, and ecosystem functioning and leverage biodiversity's capacity to contribute to climate change mitigation and adaptation.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Mudança Climática , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Retroalimentação
4.
Glob Chang Biol ; 26(10): 5509-5523, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785968

RESUMO

Upstream range shifts of freshwater fishes have been documented in recent years due to ongoing climate change. River fragmentation by dams, presenting physical barriers, can limit the climatically induced spatial redistribution of fishes. Andean freshwater ecosystems in the Neotropical region are expected to be highly affected by these future disturbances. However, proper evaluations are still missing. Combining species distribution models and functional traits of Andean Amazon fishes, coupled with dam locations and climatic projections (2070s), we (a) evaluated the potential impacts of future climate on species ranges, (b) investigated the combined impact of river fragmentation and climate change and (c) tested the relationships between these impacts and species functional traits. Results show that climate change will induce range contraction for most of the Andean Amazon fish species, particularly those inhabiting highlands. Dams are not predicted to greatly limit future range shifts for most species (i.e., the Barrier effect). However, some of these barriers should prevent upstream shifts for a considerable number of species, reducing future potential diversity in some basins. River fragmentation is predicted to act jointly with climate change in promoting a considerable decrease in the probability of species to persist in the long-term because of splitting species ranges in smaller fragments (i.e., the Isolation effect). Benthic and fast-flowing water adapted species with hydrodynamic bodies are significantly associated with severe range contractions from climate change.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Rios , Animais , Ecossistema , Peixes , Água Doce
5.
Sci Data ; 7(1): 96, 2020 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32193422

RESUMO

The Amazon Basin is an unquestionable biodiversity hotspot, containing the highest freshwater biodiversity on earth and facing off a recent increase in anthropogenic threats. The current knowledge on the spatial distribution of the freshwater fish species is greatly deficient in this basin, preventing a comprehensive understanding of this hyper-diverse ecosystem as a whole. Filling this gap was the priority of a transnational collaborative project, i.e. the AmazonFish project - https://www.amazon-fish.com/. Relying on the outputs of this project, we provide the most complete fish species distribution records covering the whole Amazon drainage. The database, including 2,406 validated freshwater native fish species, 232,936 georeferenced records, results from an extensive survey of species distribution including 590 different sources (e.g. published articles, grey literature, online biodiversity databases and scientific collections from museums and universities worldwide) and field expeditions conducted during the project. This database, delivered at both georeferenced localities (21,500 localities) and sub-drainages grains (144 units), represents a highly valuable source of information for further studies on freshwater fish biodiversity, biogeography and conservation.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Factuais , Peixes , Animais , Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Água Doce , Rios , América do Sul
6.
Conserv Biol ; 34(4): 956-965, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31990088

RESUMO

Conserving freshwater habitats and their biodiversity in the Amazon Basin is a growing challenge in the face of rapid anthropogenic changes. We used the most comprehensive fish-occurrence database available (2355 valid species; 21,248 sampling points) and 3 ecological criteria (irreplaceability, representativeness, and vulnerability) to identify biodiversity hotspots based on 6 conservation templates (3 proactive, 1 reactive, 1 representative, and 1 balanced) to provide a set of alternative planning solutions for freshwater fish protection in the Amazon Basin. We identified empirically for each template the 17% of sub-basins that should be conserved and performed a prioritization analysis by identifying current and future (2050) threats (i.e., degree of deforestation and habitat fragmentation by dams). Two of our 3 proactive templates had around 65% of their surface covered by protected areas; high levels of irreplaceability (60% of endemics) and representativeness (71% of the Amazonian fish fauna); and low current and future vulnerability. These 2 templates, then, seemed more robust for conservation prioritization. The future of the selected sub-basins in these 2 proactive templates is not immediately threatened by human activities, and these sub-basins host the largest part of Amazonian biodiversity. They could easily be conserved if no additional threats occur between now and 2050.


Puntos Calientes de Diversidad de Peces de Agua Dulce para las Prioridades de Conservación en la Cuenca del Amazonas Resumen Cada día, la conservación de los hábitats de agua dulce y su biodiversidad en la cuenca del Amazonas es un reto creciente de cara a los rápidos cambios antropogénicos. Usamos la base de datos de presencia de peces más completa que existe (2,355 especies válidas; 21,248 puntos de muestreo) y tres criterios ecológicos (carácter irremplazable, representatividad y vulnerabilidad) para identificar los puntos calientes de biodiversidad con base en seis patrones de conservación (tres proactivos, uno reactivo, uno representativo y uno balanceado) y así proporcionar un conjunto de soluciones alternativas para la planeación de la protección de peces de agua dulce en la cuenca del Amazonas. Identificamos para cada patrón de manera empírica el 17% de las subcuencas que deberían conservarse y realizamos un análisis de priorización identificando amenazas actuales y a futuro (2050) (es decir, grado de deforestación y fragmentación del hábitat causado por presas). Dos de nuestros tres patrones proactivos tuvieron alrededor del 65% de su superficie cubierta por áreas protegidas; niveles altos de carácter irremplazable (60% de especies endémicas) y de representatividad (71% de la fauna ictiológica del Amazonas); y una vulnerabilidad baja actual y a futuro. Entonces, estos dos patrones parecen estar más completos para la priorización de la conservación. El futuro de las subcuencas en estos dos patrones proactivos no está amenazado por las actividades humanas a corto plazo. Además, estas subcuencas albergan la mayor parte de la biodiversidad amazónica. Se podrían conservar fácilmente si ninguna amenaza adicional sucede entre ahora y el 2050.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Peixes , Animais , Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Água Doce , Humanos
7.
Sci Adv ; 5(9): eaav8681, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535018

RESUMO

Using the most comprehensive fish occurrence database, we evaluated the importance of ecological and historical drivers in diversity patterns of subdrainage basins across the Amazon system. Linear models reveal the influence of climatic conditions, habitat size and sub-basin isolation on species diversity. Unexpectedly, the species richness model also highlighted a negative upriver-downriver gradient, contrary to predictions of increasing richness at more downriver locations along fluvial gradients. This reverse gradient may be linked to the history of the Amazon drainage network, which, after isolation as western and eastern basins throughout the Miocene, only began flowing eastward 1-9 million years (Ma) ago. Our results suggest that the main center of fish diversity was located westward, with fish dispersal progressing eastward after the basins were united and the Amazon River assumed its modern course toward the Atlantic. This dispersal process seems not yet achieved, suggesting a recent formation of the current Amazon system.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Mudança Climática , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Meio Ambiente , Peixes/classificação , Peixes/fisiologia , Animais , Rios , América do Sul , Especificidade da Espécie
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(27): 13434-13439, 2019 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209040

RESUMO

Identifying the drivers and processes that determine globally the geographic range size of species is crucial to understanding the geographic distribution of biodiversity and further predicting the response of species to current global changes. However, these drivers and processes are still poorly understood, and no ecological explanation has emerged yet as preponderant in explaining the extent of species' geographical range. Here, we identify the main drivers of the geographic range size variation in freshwater fishes at global and biogeographic scales and determine how these drivers affect range size both directly and indirectly. We tested the main hypotheses already proposed to explain range size variation, using geographic ranges of 8,147 strictly freshwater fish species (i.e., 63% of all known species). We found that, contrary to terrestrial organisms, for which climate and topography seem preponderant in determining species' range size, the geographic range sizes of freshwater fishes are mostly explained by the species' position within the river network, and by the historical connection among river basins during Quaternary low-sea-level periods. Large-ranged fish species inhabit preferentially lowland areas of river basins, where hydrological connectivity is the highest, and also are found in river basins that were historically connected. The disproportionately high explanatory power of these two drivers suggests that connectivity is the key component of riverine fish geographic range sizes, independent of any other potential driver, and indicates that the accelerated rates in river fragmentation might strongly affect fish species distribution and freshwater biodiversity.


Assuntos
Peixes , Animais , Biodiversidade , Demografia , Ecossistema , Água Doce , Geografia , Hidrologia , Rios
9.
Ecol Lett ; 21(11): 1649-1659, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30187690

RESUMO

Global spread of non-native species profoundly changed the world biodiversity patterns, but how it translates into functional changes remains unanswered at the world scale. We here show that while in two centuries the number of fish species per river increased on average by 15% in 1569 basins worldwide, the diversity of their functional attributes (i.e. functional richness) increased on average by 150%. The inflation of functional richness was paired with changes in the functional structure of assemblages, with shifts of species position toward the border of the functional space of assemblages (i.e. increased functional divergence). Non-native species moreover caused shifts in functional identity toward higher body sized and less elongated species for most of assemblages throughout the world. Although varying between rivers and biogeographic realms, such changes in the different facets of functional diversity might still increase in the future through increasing species invasion and may further modify ecosystem functioning.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Peixes , Espécies Introduzidas , Animais , Ecossistema , Água Doce , Rios
10.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 25(24): 23583-23594, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28337627

RESUMO

As part of the landscape, streams are influenced by land use. Here, we contributed to the understanding of the biological impacts of land use on streams, investigating how landscape effects vary with spatial scales (local vs. regional). We adopted a food web approach integrating both biological structure and functioning, to focus on the overall effect of land use on stream biocœnosis. We selected 17 sites of a small tributary of the Seine River (France) for their contrasted land use, and conducted a natural experiment by sampling three organic matter sources, three macroinvertebrate taxa, and most of the fish community. Using stable isotope analysis, we calculated three food web metrics evaluating two major dimensions of the trophic diversity displayed by the fish community: (i) the diversity of exploited resources and (ii) the trophic level richness. The idea was to examine whether (1) land-use effects varied according to spatial scales, (2) land use affected food webs through an effect on community structure and (3) land use affected food webs through an effect on available resources. Beside an increase in trophic diversity from upstream to downstream, our empirical data showed that food webs were influenced by land use in the riparian corridors (local scale). The effect was complex, and depended on site's position along the upstream-downstream gradient. By contrast, land use in the catchment (regional scale) did not influence stream biocœnosis. At the local scale, community structure was weakly influenced by land use, and thus played a minor role in explaining food web modifications. Our results suggested that the amount of available resources at the base of the food web was partly responsible for food web modifications. In addition, changes in biological functioning (i.e. feeding interactions) can also explain another part of the land-use effect. These results highlight the role played by the riparian corridors as a buffer zone, and advocate that riparian corridor should be at the centre of water management attention.


Assuntos
Peixes , Cadeia Alimentar , Invertebrados , Agricultura , Animais , Biodiversidade , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Ecossistema , França , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Rios , Urbanização
11.
Sci Data ; 4: 170141, 2017 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28972575

RESUMO

A growing interest is devoted to global-scale approaches in ecology and evolution that examine patterns and determinants of species diversity and the threats resulting from global change. These analyses obviously require global datasets of species distribution. Freshwater systems house a disproportionately high fraction of the global fish diversity considering the small proportion of the earth's surface that they occupy, and are one of the most threatened habitats on Earth. Here we provide complete species lists for 3119 drainage basins covering more than 80% of the Earth surface using 14953 fish species inhabiting permanently or occasionally freshwater systems. The database results from an extensive survey of native and non-native freshwater fish species distribution based on 1436 published papers, books, grey literature and web-based sources. Alone or in combination with further datasets on species biological and ecological characteristics and their evolutionary history, this database represents a highly valuable source of information for further studies on freshwater macroecology, macroevolution, biogeography and conservation.


Assuntos
Peixes , Animais , Biodiversidade , Bases de Dados Factuais , Ecossistema , Água Doce
12.
Ecol Evol ; 7(9): 3201-3211, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28480019

RESUMO

More freshwater ecosystems are drying in response to global change thereby posing serious threat to freshwater biota and functions. The production of desiccation-resistant forms is an important adaptation that helps maintain biodiversity in temporary freshwaters by buffering communities from drying, but its potential to mitigate the negative effects of drying in freshwater ecosystems could vary greatly across regions and ecosystem types. We explored this context dependency by quantifying the potential contribution of desiccation-resistance forms to invertebrate community recovery across levels of regional drying prevalence (defined as the occurrence of drying events in freshwaters in a given region) and ecosystem types (lentic, lotic) in temporary neotropical freshwaters. We first predicted that regional drying prevalence influences the selection of species with desiccation-resistant forms from the regional species pools and thus increases the ability of communities to recover from drying. Second, we predicted lentic freshwaters harbor higher proportions of species with desiccation-resistant forms compared to lotic, in response to contrasted hydrologic connectivity. To test these predictions, we used natural experiments to quantify the contribution of desiccation-resistant forms to benthic invertebrate community recovery in nine intermittent streams and six geographically isolated temporary wetlands from three Bolivian regions differing in drying prevalence. The contribution of desiccation-resistant forms to community recovery was highest where regional drying prevalence was high, suggesting the species pool was adapted to regional disturbance regimes. The contribution of desiccation-resistant forms to community recovery was lower in streams than in wetlands, emphasizing the importance of hydrologic connectivity and associated recolonization processes from in-stream refuges to recovery in lotic systems. In all regions, the majority of functional traits were present in desiccation-resistant taxa indicating this adaptation may help maintain ecosystem functions by buffering communities from the loss of functional traits. Accounting for regional context and hydrologic connectivity in community recovery processes following drying can help refine predictions of freshwater biodiversity response to global change.

13.
Rev. biol. trop ; 64(1): 157-176, ene.-mar. 2016. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-843268

RESUMO

ResumenLos gradientes altitudinales representan un sistema apropiado para evaluar si existe una relación general entre los patrones de riqueza, variables ambientales, y los procesos ecológicos que determinan cuantas especies co-ocurren en un área dada.En cuanto a los peces de agua dulce en arroyos de montaña la relación prevalente es un decrecimiento monotónico en riqueza de especies con la altura. El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar cuatro hipótesis que pueden explicar la relación negativa entre la riqueza local de especies de peces y la altura, 1) hipótesis de la disminución de la energía disponible 2) hipótesis del aumento del rigor climático 3) hipótesis de la diversidad de hábitats e 4) hipótesis de la severidad de las condiciones físicas del hábitat que se presentan río arriba, relacionada a las dificultades para colonizar las partes altas de los ríos. Se recolectaron peces y macro-invertebrados en 83 sitios entre 200 a 4 000 m en dos cuencas en la Amazonía boliviana. La primera hipótesis fue evaluada mediante regresiones entre la densidad de macro-invertebrados, los peces invertívoros y la altura. Para evaluar la segunda y tercera hipótesis se realizó un análisis de regresión múltiple (GLM), entre la riqueza y varios factores locales y regionales. Se analizó también la disimilitud de los ensamblajes de peces sobre el gradiente altitudinal utilizando los índices βsim y βnes. Se encontró que la riqueza de peces disminuye de manera lineal con el aumento de la altura. La densidad de macroinvertebrados aumenta con la altura, contrariamente a la riqueza de peces invertívoros, sugiriendo que la energía no constituye un factor limitante para la colonización de las especies de peces en zonas altas. El GLM explicó un 86 % de la variación total de la riqueza, con un aporte significativo de la temperatura del agua, las pendientes máximas en el río principal y el ancho de río. El βsim presentó valores altos en niveles de altura bajos, mostrando mayor recambio de especies entre los sitios cercanos a la fuente de colonización. Inversamente, el βnes mostró valores mayores en las partes altas, correspondientes a cambios por pérdida de especies. Estos resultados sugieren que el rigor climático junto con la severidad física del hábitat crean barreras a la colonización y explican los cambios de riqueza en el gradiente altitudinal.


AbstractAltitudinal gradients represent an appropriate system to assess whether there is a relationship between richness patterns, environmental variables, and the ecological processes that determine the species type and number inhabiting a given area. In mountain streams freshwater fishes, the most prevalent relationship is a monotonic decrease in species richness with elevation. The objective of this study was to evaluate four hypotheses that can explain the negative relationship between local fish species richness and altitude, 1) the hypothesis of decreasing energy availability, 2) the hypothesis of increasing climate severity, 3) the hypothesis of habitat diversity, and 4) the hypothesis of isolation by physical severity of the environment. Fish and macro-invertebrates were collected following standard methods from 83 sites (between 200-4 000 meters) of two river basins in the Bolivian Amazon. The first hypothesis was tested by analyzing relationships between the density of macro-invertebrates, the richness of invertivorous fish species and altitude; while the second and third hypotheses were assessed by a multiple regression analysis (GLM) between fish species richness and several local and regional factors. Besides, assemblage dissimilarity between sites along the altitudinal gradient was analyzed using βsim and βness indices. Fish richness decreases linearly with increasing altitude. The density of macro-invertebrates tends to increase at higher altitudes, contrary to invertivorous fish species richness, suggesting that energy availability is not a limiting factor for fish species colonization. The GLM explained 86 % of the variation in fish species richness, with a significant contribution of water temperature, maximum slope in the river mainstem, and stream width. There is a higher species turnover (βsim) between sites at low elevation. Inversely, βness shows higher values in the upper parts, corresponding to change in assemblages mainly due to species loss. Taken together, these results suggest that climatic and physical severities create strong barriers to colonization, further explaining the decrease in fish richness along the altitudinal gradient.


Assuntos
Animais , Biodiversidade , Rios , Altitude , Peixes/classificação , Dinâmica Populacional , Densidade Demográfica
14.
Rev Biol Trop ; 64(1): 157-76, 2016 03.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28862413

RESUMO

Altitudinal gradients represent an appropriate system to assess whether there is a relationship between richness patterns, environmental variables, and the ecological processes that determine the species type and number inhabiting a given area. In mountain streams freshwater fishes, the most prevalent relationship is a monotonic decrease in species richness with elevation. The objective of this study was to evaluate four hypotheses that can explain the negative relationship between local fish species richness and altitude, 1) the hypothesis of decreasing energy availability, 2) the hypothesis of increasing climate severity, 3) the hypothesis of habitat diversity, and 4) the hypothesis of isolation by physical severity of the environment. Fish and macro-invertebrates were collected following standard methods from 83 sites (between 200-4 000 meters) of two river basins in the Bolivian Amazon. The first hypothesis was tested by analyzing relationships between the density of macro-invertebrates, the richness of invertivorous fish species and altitude; while the second and third hypotheses were assessed by a multiple regression analysis (GLM) between fish species richness and several local and regional factors. Besides, assemblage dissimilarity between sites along the altitudinal gradient was analyzed using ßsim and ßness indices. Fish richness decreases linearly with increasing altitude. The density of macro-invertebrates tends to increase at higher altitudes, contrary to invertivorous fish species richness, suggesting that energy availability is not a limiting factor for fish species colonization. The GLM explained 86 % of the variation in fish species richness, with a significant contribution of water temperature, maximum slope in the river mainstem, and stream width. There is a higher species turnover (ßsim) between sites at low elevation. Inversely, ßness shows higher values in the upper parts, corresponding to change in assemblages mainly due to species loss. Taken together, these results suggest that climatic and physical severities create strong barriers to colonization, further explaining the decrease in fish richness along the altitudinal gradient.


Assuntos
Altitude , Biodiversidade , Peixes/classificação , Rios , Animais , Densidade Demográfica , Dinâmica Populacional
15.
Ecol Lett ; 17(9): 1130-40, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25039890

RESUMO

The relative importance of contemporary and historical processes is central for understanding biodiversity patterns. While several studies show that past conditions can partly explain the current biodiversity patterns, the role of history remains elusive. We reconstructed palaeo-drainage basins under lower sea level conditions (Last Glacial Maximum) to test whether the historical connectivity between basins left an imprint on the global patterns of freshwater fish biodiversity. After controlling for contemporary and past environmental conditions, we found that palaeo-connected basins displayed greater species richness but lower levels of endemism and beta diversity than did palaeo-disconnected basins. Palaeo-connected basins exhibited shallower distance decay of compositional similarity, suggesting that palaeo-river connections favoured the exchange of fish species. Finally, we found that a longer period of palaeo-connection resulted in lower levels of beta diversity. These findings reveal the first unambiguous results of the role played by history in explaining the global contemporary patterns of biodiversity.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Peixes/fisiologia , Água Doce , Modelos Biológicos , Animais , Meio Ambiente
16.
J Anim Ecol ; 82(2): 365-76, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23173605

RESUMO

Whereas global patterns and predictors of species diversity are well known for numerous terrestrial taxa, our understanding of freshwater diversity patterns and their predictors is much more limited. Here, we examine spatial concordance in global diversity patterns for five freshwater taxa (i.e. aquatic mammals, aquatic birds, fishes, crayfish and aquatic amphibians) and investigate the environmental factors driving these patterns at the river drainage basin grain. We find that species richness and endemism patterns are significantly correlated among taxa. We also show that cross-taxon congruence patterns are often induced by common responses of taxa to their contemporary and historical environments (i.e. convergent patterns). Apart from some taxa distinctiveness (i.e. fishes), the 'climate/productivity' hypothesis is found to explain the greatest variance in species richness and endemism patterns, followed by factors related to the 'history/dispersion' and 'area/environmental heterogeneity' hypotheses. As aquatic amphibians display the highest levels of congruency with other taxa, this taxon appears to be a good 'surrogate' candidate for developing global freshwater conservation planning at the river drainage basin grain.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Modelos Biológicos , Rios , Animais , Demografia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Especificidade da Espécie
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 108(44): 18003-8, 2011 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22025692

RESUMO

The world is currently undergoing an unprecedented decline in biodiversity, which is mainly attributable to human activities. For instance, nonnative species introduction, combined with the extirpation of native species, affects biodiversity patterns, notably by increasing the similarity among species assemblages. This biodiversity change, called taxonomic homogenization, has rarely been assessed at the world scale. Here, we fill this gap by assessing the current homogenization status of one of the most diverse vertebrate groups (i.e., freshwater fishes) at global and regional scales. We demonstrate that current homogenization of the freshwater fish faunas is still low at the world scale (0.5%) but reaches substantial levels (up to 10%) in some highly invaded river basins from the Nearctic and Palearctic realms. In these realms experiencing high changes, nonnative species introductions rather than native species extirpations drive taxonomic homogenization. Our results suggest that the "Homogocene era" is not yet the case for freshwater fish fauna at the worldwide scale. However, the distressingly high level of homogenization noted for some biogeographical realms stresses the need for further understanding of the ecological consequences of homogenization processes.


Assuntos
Peixes , Água Doce , Animais , Biodiversidade
18.
Ecol Lett ; 14(4): 325-34, 2011 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21303436

RESUMO

Here, we employ an additive partitioning framework to disentangle the contribution of spatial turnover and nestedness to beta diversity patterns in the global freshwater fish fauna. We find that spatial turnover and nestedness differ geographically in their contribution to freshwater fish beta diversity, a pattern that results from contrasting influences of Quaternary climate changes. Differences in fish faunas characterized by nestedness are greater in drainage basins that experienced larger amplitudes of Quaternary climate oscillations. Conversely, higher levels of spatial turnover are found in historically unglaciated drainage basins with high topographic relief, these having experienced greater Quaternary climate stability. Such an historical climate signature is not clearly detected when considering the overall level of beta diversity. Quantifying the relative roles of historical and ecological factors in explaining present-day patterns of beta diversity hence requires considering the different processes generating these patterns and not solely the overall level of beta diversity.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Mudança Climática , Peixes/classificação , Animais , Clima , Meio Ambiente , Peixes/fisiologia , Água Doce , Geografia , Dinâmica Populacional
19.
Science ; 330(6010): 1496-501, 2010 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20978282

RESUMO

Quantitative scenarios are coming of age as a tool for evaluating the impact of future socioeconomic development pathways on biodiversity and ecosystem services. We analyze global terrestrial, freshwater, and marine biodiversity scenarios using a range of measures including extinctions, changes in species abundance, habitat loss, and distribution shifts, as well as comparing model projections to observations. Scenarios consistently indicate that biodiversity will continue to decline over the 21st century. However, the range of projected changes is much broader than most studies suggest, partly because there are major opportunities to intervene through better policies, but also because of large uncertainties in projections.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Extinção Biológica , Previsões , Modelos Biológicos , Plantas , Políticas , Dinâmica Populacional
20.
Ecol Lett ; 13(4): 421-31, 2010 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20100241

RESUMO

In this study, we test whether established non-native species induce functional changes in natural assemblages. We combined data on the body size of freshwater fish species and a worldwide data set of native and non-native fish species for 1058 river basins. We show that non-native fish species are significantly larger than their native counterparts and are a non-random subset of the worldwide set of fish species. We further show that the median body size of fish assemblages increases in the course of introductions. These changes are the opposite of those expected under several null models. Introductions shift body size patterns related to several abiotic factors (e.g. glacier coverage and temperature) in a way that modifies latitudinal patterns (i.e. Bergmann's rule), especially in the southern hemisphere. Together, these results show that over just the last two centuries human beings have induced changes in the global biogeography of freshwater fish body size, which could affect ecosystem properties.


Assuntos
Tamanho Corporal , Ecossistema , Peixes , Geografia , Animais , Comportamento de Escolha , Humanos , Camada de Gelo , Modelos Biológicos , Rios , Temperatura
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