Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 162
Filtrar
1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 8076, 2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33850213

RESUMO

Repeated measures studies are frequently performed in patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models to evaluate drug activity or compare effectiveness of cancer treatment regimens. Linear mixed effects regression models were used to perform statistical modeling of tumor growth data. Biologically plausible structures for the covariation between repeated tumor burden measurements are explained. Graphical, tabular, and information criteria tools useful for choosing the mean model functional form and covariation structure are demonstrated in a Case Study of five PDX models comparing cancer treatments. Power calculations were performed via simulation. Linear mixed effects regression models applied to the natural log scale were shown to describe the observed data well. A straight growth function fit well for two PDX models. Three PDX models required quadratic or cubic polynomial (time squared or cubed) terms to describe delayed tumor regression or initial tumor growth followed by regression. Spatial(power), spatial(power) + RE, and RE covariance structures were found to be reasonable. Statistical power is shown as a function of sample size for different levels of variation. Linear mixed effects regression models provide a unified and flexible framework for analysis of PDX repeated measures data, use all available data, and allow estimation of tumor doubling time.

2.
J Thorac Oncol ; 16(4): 537-545, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545385

RESUMO

Biomarkers have various applications including disease detection, diagnosis, prognosis, prediction of response to intervention, and disease monitoring. In this era of precision medicine, having validated biomarkers to inform clinical decision making is more important than ever. In this article, we discuss best the practices and potential issues in biomarker discovery and validation. We encourage team science partnerships to bring cutting-edge discovery from bench to bedside, leading to improved patient care and outcomes.

3.
Cancer Res ; 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33574088

RESUMO

Germline variation and smoking are independently associated with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). We conducted genome-wide smoking interaction analysis of PDAC using genotype data from four previous genome-wide association studies in individuals of European ancestry (7,937 cases and 11,774 controls). Examination of expression quantitative trait loci data from the Genotype-Tissue Expression Project followed by colocalization analysis was conducted to determine if there was support for common SNP(s) underlying the observed associations. Statistical tests were two sided and P-values < 5 x 10-8 were considered statistically significant. Genome-wide significant evidence of qualitative interaction was identified on chr2q21.3 in intron 5 of the transmembrane protein 163 (TMEM163) and upstream of the cyclin T2 (CCNT2). The most significant SNP using the Empirical Bayes method, in this region which included 45 significantly associated SNPs, was rs1818613 (per allele OR in never smokers 0.87, 95% CI 0.82-0.93; former smokers 1.00, 95 CI 0.91-1.07; current smokers 1.25, 95%CI 1.12-1.40, interaction P-value=3.08x10-9). Examination of the Genotype-Tissue Expression Project data demonstrated an expression quantitative trait locus in this region for TMEM163 and CCNT2 in several tissue types. Colocalization analysis supported a shared SNP, rs842357, in high LD with rs1818613 (r2=0. 94) driving both the observed interaction and the expression quantitative trait loci signals. Future studies are needed to confirm and understand the differential biologic mechanisms by smoking status that contribute to our PDAC findings.

4.
Gynecol Oncol ; 160(2): 520-529, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33342620

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cell strategies ideally target a surface antigen that is exclusively and uniformly expressed by tumors; however, no such antigen is known for high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSC). A potential solution involves combinatorial antigen targeting with AND or OR logic-gating. Therefore, we investigated co-expression of CA125, Mesothelin (MSLN) and Folate Receptor alpha (FOLRA) on individual tumor cells in HGSC. METHODS: RNA expression of CA125, MSLN, and FOLR1 was assessed using TCGA (HGSC) and GTEx (healthy tissues) databases. Antigen expression profiles and CD3+, CD8+ and CD20+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) patterns were assessed in primary and recurrent HGSC by multiplex immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: At the transcriptional level, each antigen was overexpressed in >90% of cases; however, MSLN and FOLR1 showed substantial expression in healthy tissues. At the protein level, CA125 was expressed by the highest proportion of cases and tumor cells per case, followed by MSLN and FOLRA. The most promising pairwise combination was CA125 and/or MSLN (OR gate), with 51.9% of cases containing ≥90% of tumor cells expressing one or both antigens. In contrast, only 5.8% of cases contained ≥90% of tumor cells co-expressing CA125 and MSLN (AND gate). Antigen expression patterns showed modest correlations with TIL. Recurrent tumors retained expression of all three antigens and showed increased TIL densities. CONCLUSIONS: An OR-gated CAR-T cell strategy against CA125 and MSLN would target the majority of tumor cells in most cases. Antigen expression and T-cell infiltration patterns are favorable for this strategy in primary and recurrent disease.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Critically shortened telomeres contribute to chromosomal instability and neoplastic transformation and are associated with early death of patients with certain cancer types. Shorter leukocyte telomere length (LTL) has been associated with higher risk for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) development and might be associated also with survival of patients with PDAC. We investigated the association between treatment-naïve LTL and overall survival of patients with incident PDAC. METHODS: The study included 642 consecutively enrolled PDAC patients in the Mayo Clinic Biospecimen Resource for Pancreas Research. Blood samples were obtained at the time of diagnosis, before the start of cancer treatment, from which LTL was assayed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. LTL was modeled as a continuous variable (per-interquartile range decrease in LTL) and as a categorized variable (short, medium, long). Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for overall mortality using Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: Shorter treatment-naïve LTL was associated with higher mortality among PDAC patients (HRcontinuous = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.01-1.28, p-value=0.03; HRshortest vs. longest LTL = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.05-1.59, Ptrend=0.01). There was evidence of a difference in the association between LTL and overall mortality by tumor stage at diagnosis; resectable tumors (HRcontinuous = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.73-1.12), locally advanced tumors (HRcontinuous = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.07-1.56), and metastatic tumors (HRcontinuous = 1.17, 95% CI: 0.96-1.42), Pinteraction=0.04. CONCLUSIONS: Shorter treatment-naïve LTL is associated with poorer overall survival of incident PDAC patients. IMPACT: Peripheral blood LTL might be a prognostic marker for PDAC.

6.
Front Immunol ; 11: 567348, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33154747

RESUMO

We conducted a large genome-wide association study (GWAS) of the immune responses to primary smallpox vaccination in a combined cohort of 1,653 subjects. We did not observe any polymorphisms associated with standard vaccine response outcomes (e.g., neutralizing antibody, T cell ELISPOT response, or T cell cytokine production); however, we did identify a cluster of SNPs on chromosome 5 (5q31.2) that were significantly associated (p-value: 1.3 x 10-12 - 1.5x10-36) with IFNα response to in vitro poxvirus stimulation. Examination of these SNPs led to the functional testing of rs1131769, a non-synonymous SNP in TMEM173 causing an Arg-to-His change at position 232 in the STING protein-a major regulator of innate immune responses to viral infections. Our findings demonstrate differences in the ability of the two STING variants to phosphorylate the downstream intermediates TBK1 and IRF3 in response to multiple STING ligands. Further downstream in the STING pathway, we observed significantly reduced expression of type I IFNs (including IFNα) and IFN-response genes in cells carrying the H232 variant. Subsequent molecular modeling of both alleles predicted altered ligand binding characteristics between the two variants, providing a potential mechanism underlying differences in inter-individual responses to poxvirus infection. Our data indicate that possession of the H232 variant may impair STING-mediated innate immunity to poxviruses. These results clarify prior studies evaluating functional effects of genetic variants in TMEM173 and provide novel data regarding genetic control of poxvirus immunity.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067248

RESUMO

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is often diagnosed too late for effective therapy. The classic strategy for early detection biomarker advancement consists of initial retrospective phases of discovery and validation with tissue samples taken from individuals diagnosed with disease, compared with controls. Using this approach, we previously reported the discovery of a blood biomarker panel consisting of thrombospondin-2 (THBS2) and CA19-9 that together could discriminate resectable stage I and IIa PDAC as well as stages III and IV PDAC, with c-statistic values in the range of 0.96 to 0.97 in two phase II studies. We now report that in two studies of blood samples prospectively collected from 1 to 15 years prior to a PDAC diagnosis (Mayo Clinic and PLCO cohorts), THBS2 and/or CA19-9 failed to discriminate cases from healthy controls at the AUC = 0.8 needed. We conclude that PDAC progression may be heterogeneous and for some individuals can be more rapid than generally appreciated. It is important that PDAC early-detection studies incorporate high-risk, prospective prediagnostic cohorts into discovery and validation studies. PREVENTION RELEVANCE: A blood biomarker panel of THBS2 and CA19-9 detects early stages of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma at diagnosis, but not when tested across a population up to 1 year earlier. Our findings suggest serial sampling over time, using prospectively collected samples for biomarker discovery, and more frequent screening of high-risk individuals.

8.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(9)2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867043

RESUMO

Blood is a readily accessible biofluid containing a plethora of important proteins, nucleic acids, and metabolites that can be used as clinical diagnostic tools in diseases, including cancer. Like the on-going efforts for cancer biomarker discovery using the liquid biopsy detection of circulating cell-free and cell-based tumor nucleic acids, the circulatory proteome has been underexplored for clinical cancer biomarker applications. A comprehensive proteome analysis of human serum/plasma with high-quality data and compelling interpretation can potentially provide opportunities for understanding disease mechanisms, although several challenges will have to be met. Serum/plasma proteome biomarkers are present in very low abundance, and there is high complexity involved due to the heterogeneity of cancers, for which there is a compelling need to develop sensitive and specific proteomic technologies and analytical platforms. To date, liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based quantitative proteomics has been a dominant analytical workflow to discover new potential cancer biomarkers in serum/plasma. This review will summarize the opportunities of serum proteomics for clinical applications; the challenges in the discovery of novel biomarkers in serum/plasma; and current proteomic strategies in cancer research for the application of serum/plasma proteomics for clinical prognostic, predictive, and diagnostic applications, as well as for monitoring minimal residual disease after treatments. We will highlight some of the recent advances in MS-based proteomics technologies with appropriate sample collection, processing uniformity, study design, and data analysis, focusing on how these integrated workflows can identify novel potential cancer biomarkers for clinical applications.

9.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(9): 1784-1791, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546605

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity and diabetes are major modifiable risk factors for pancreatic cancer. Interactions between genetic variants and diabetes/obesity have not previously been comprehensively investigated in pancreatic cancer at the genome-wide level. METHODS: We conducted a gene-environment interaction (GxE) analysis including 8,255 cases and 11,900 controls from four pancreatic cancer genome-wide association study (GWAS) datasets (Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium I-III and Pancreatic Cancer Case Control Consortium). Obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg/m2) and diabetes (duration ≥3 years) were the environmental variables of interest. Approximately 870,000 SNPs (minor allele frequency ≥0.005, genotyped in at least one dataset) were analyzed. Case-control (CC), case-only (CO), and joint-effect test methods were used for SNP-level GxE analysis. As a complementary approach, gene-based GxE analysis was also performed. Age, sex, study site, and principal components accounting for population substructure were included as covariates. Meta-analysis was applied to combine individual GWAS summary statistics. RESULTS: No genome-wide significant interactions (departures from a log-additive odds model) with diabetes or obesity were detected at the SNP level by the CC or CO approaches. The joint-effect test detected numerous genome-wide significant GxE signals in the GWAS main effects top hit regions, but the significance diminished after adjusting for the GWAS top hits. In the gene-based analysis, a significant interaction of diabetes with variants in the FAM63A (family with sequence similarity 63 member A) gene (significance threshold P < 1.25 × 10-6) was observed in the meta-analysis (P GxE = 1.2 ×10-6, P Joint = 4.2 ×10-7). CONCLUSIONS: This analysis did not find significant GxE interactions at the SNP level but found one significant interaction with diabetes at the gene level. A larger sample size might unveil additional genetic factors via GxE scans. IMPACT: This study may contribute to discovering the mechanism of diabetes-associated pancreatic cancer.

10.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 95(7): 1354-1368, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448590

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the transcriptomic differences between patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and controls. PATIENTS AND METHODS: RNA was extracted from cardiac tissue flash frozen at therapeutic surgical septal myectomy for 106 patients with HCM and 39 healthy donor hearts. Expression profiling of 37,846 genes was performed using the Illumina Human HT-12v3 Expression BeadChip. All patients with HCM were genotyped for pathogenic variants causing HCM. Technical validation was performed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blot. This study was started on January 1, 1999, and final analysis was completed on April 20, 2020. RESULTS: Overall, 22% of the transcriptome (8443 of 37,846 genes) was expressed differentially between HCM and control tissues. Analysis by genotype revealed that gene expression changes were similar among genotypic subgroups of HCM, with only 4% (1502 of 37,846) to 6% (2336 of 37,846) of the transcriptome exhibiting differential expression between genotypic subgroups. The qRT-PCR confirmed differential expression in 92% (11 of 12 genes) of tested transcripts. Notably, in the context of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the transcript for angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a negative regulator of the angiotensin system, was the single most up-regulated gene in HCM (fold-change, 3.53; q-value =1.30×10-23), which was confirmed by qRT-PCR in triplicate (fold change, 3.78; P=5.22×10-4), and Western blot confirmed greater than 5-fold overexpression of ACE2 protein (fold change, 5.34; P=1.66×10-6). CONCLUSION: More than 20% of the transcriptome is expressed differentially between HCM and control tissues. Importantly, ACE2 was the most up-regulated gene in HCM, indicating perhaps the heart's compensatory effort to mount an antihypertrophic, antifibrotic response. However, given that the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) uses ACE2 for viral entry, this 5-fold increase in ACE2 protein may confer increased risk for COVID-19 manifestations and outcomes in patients with increased ACE2 transcript expression and protein levels in the heart.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/genética , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Genótipo , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Pandemias , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Adulto Jovem
11.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(7): 1492-1500, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32312758

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) has been associated with risk of multiple cancers, but its association with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is unclear. We therefore investigated the association between peripheral blood LTL and PDAC risk, and examined effect modification by candidate SNPs previously reported to be associated with variation in LTL. METHODS: A case-control study of 1,460 PDAC cases and 1,459 frequency-matched controls was performed using biospecimens and data from the Mayo Clinic Biospecimen Resource for Pancreas Research. Quantitative PCR was used to measure LTL and categorized into tertiles based on sex-specific control distribution. Eleven telomere-related SNPs also were genotyped. Logistic regression was used to calculate ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: Shorter peripheral blood LTL was associated with a higher risk of PDAC (ORT1vsT3 = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.03-1.54, P trend = 0.02; ORcontinuous = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.02-1.28), but the association was restricted to cases with treatment-naïve blood samples (ORT1vsT3 = 1.51, 95% CI = 1.16-1.96, P trend = 0.002; ORcontinuous = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.08-1.45) and not cases whose blood samples were collected after initiation of cancer therapy (ORT1vsT3 = 1.10, 95% CI = 0.87-1.39, P trend = 0.42; ORcontinuous = 1.08, 95% CI = 0.94-1.23). Three SNPs (TERC-rs10936599, ACYP2-rs11125529, and TERC-rs1317082) were each associated with interindividual variation in LTL among controls, but there was no evidence of effect modification by these SNPs. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment-naïve short LTL is associated with a higher risk of PDAC, and the association does not differ by germline variation in the candidate telomere-related SNPs examined. IMPACT: Peripheral blood LTL might serve as a molecular marker for risk modeling to identify persons at high risk of PDAC.

12.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(13): 3397-3407, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060098

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Clear cell ovarian carcinoma (CCOC) is an aggressive disease that often demonstrates resistance to standard chemotherapies. Approximately 25% of patients with CCOC show a strong APOBEC mutation signature. Here, we determine which APOBEC3 enzymes are expressed in CCOC, establish clinical correlates, and identify a new biomarker for detection and intervention. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS: APOBEC3 expression was analyzed by IHC and qRT-PCR in a pilot set of CCOC specimens (n = 9 tumors). The IHC analysis of APOBEC3B was extended to a larger cohort to identify clinical correlates (n = 48). Dose-response experiments with platinum-based drugs in CCOC cell lines and carboplatin treatment of patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) were done to address mechanistic linkages. RESULTS: One DNA deaminase, APOBEC3B, is overexpressed in a formidable subset of CCOC tumors and is low or absent in normal ovarian and fallopian tube epithelial tissues. High APOBEC3B expression associates with improved progression-free survival (P = 0.026) and moderately with overall survival (P = 0.057). Cell-based studies link APOBEC3B activity and subsequent uracil processing to sensitivity to cisplatin and carboplatin. PDX studies extend this mechanistic relationship to CCOC tissues. CONCLUSIONS: These studies demonstrate that APOBEC3B is overexpressed in a subset of CCOC and, contrary to initial expectations, associated with improved (not worse) clinical outcomes. A likely molecular explanation is that APOBEC3B-induced DNA damage sensitizes cells to additional genotoxic stress by cisplatin. Thus, APOBEC3B is a molecular determinant and a candidate predictive biomarker of the therapeutic response to platinum-based chemotherapy. These findings may have broader translational relevance, as APOBEC3B is overexpressed in many different cancer types.

13.
Cancer ; 126(4): 894-907, 2020 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714594

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poly(adenosine diphosphate ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors exhibit promising activity against ovarian cancers, but their efficacy can be limited by acquired drug resistance. This study explores the role of autophagy in regulating the sensitivity of ovarian cancer cells to PARP inhibitors. METHODS: Induction of autophagy was detected by punctate LC3 fluorescence staining, LC3I to LC3II conversion on Western blot analysis, and electron microscopy. Enhanced growth inhibition and apoptosis were observed when PARP inhibitors were used with hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine (CQ), or LYS05 to block the hydrolysis of proteins and lipids in autophagosomes or with small interfering RNA against ATG5 or ATG7 to prevent the formation of autophagosomes. The preclinical efficacy of the combination of CQ and olaparib was evaluated with a patient-derived xenograft (PDX) and the OVCAR8 human ovarian cancer cell line. RESULTS: Four PARP inhibitors (olaparib, niraparib, rucaparib, and talazoparib) induced autophagy in a panel of ovarian cancer cells. Inhibition of autophagy with CQ enhanced the sensitivity of ovarian cancer cells to PARP inhibitors. In vivo, olaparib and CQ produced additive growth inhibition in OVCAR8 xenografts and a PDX. Olaparib inhibited PARP activity, and this led to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and an accumulation of γ-H2AX. Inhibition of autophagy also increased ROS and γ-H2AX and enhanced the effect of olaparib on both entities. Treatment with olaparib increased phosphorylation of ATM and PTEN while decreasing the phosphorylation of AKT and mTOR and inducing autophagy. CONCLUSIONS: PARP inhibitor-induced autophagy provides an adaptive mechanism of resistance to PARP inhibitors in cancer cells with wild-type BRCA, and a combination of PARP inhibitors with CQ or other autophagy inhibitors could improve outcomes for patients with ovarian cancer.


Assuntos
Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/farmacologia , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/metabolismo , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Indazóis/farmacologia , Camundongos Nus , Camundongos SCID , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Ftalazinas/farmacologia , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto/métodos
14.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0224564, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751381

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Inhibition of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), an upstream activator of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) pathway, is known to augment sensitivity to platinum-based chemotherapy. This study further tests the efficacy of PAPP-A inhibition with a monoclonal antibody inhibitor (mAb-PA) in ovarian cancer (OC) platinum-resistant patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models. METHODS: PAPP-A expression was quantitated in platinum-resistant PDX models by ELISA. A subset with High (n = 5) and Low (n = 2) expression were revived in female SCID/beige mice for studies with either saline, carboplatin/paclitaxel (CP) + mAb-PA, or CP + IgG2a. The primary endpoint was tumor area by ultrasound on day 28 relative to baseline. Conversion to platinum-sensitive was defined by average tumor regression below baseline. Statistical analyses included linear mixed effects modeling and Kaplan Meier curves. Response to therapy was correlated with changes in the ratio of phosphorylated/total AKT and ERK 1/2 using Wes analysis. RESULTS: The addition of mAb-PA to CP induced tumor regression below baseline in one High PAPP-A PDX model; another three models exhibited notable growth inhibition relative to CP + IgG2a. None of the Low PAPP-A PDX models regressed below baseline. The PDX model with the greatest magnitude of tumor regression from baseline after combination therapy was maintained on single agent mAb-PA or IgG2a, but no benefit was observed. Decreased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 correlated with conversion to platinum-sensitive. CONCLUSIONS: The addition of mAb-PA to CP overcame platinum-resistance in one of five High PAPP-A PDX models; three other models demonstrated improved platinum-response. This supports further clinical development of this novel therapeutic.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Paclitaxel/farmacologia , Proteína Plasmática A Associada à Gravidez/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Murinos/farmacologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Murinos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carboplatina/farmacologia , Carboplatina/uso terapêutico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos de Citorredução , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/cirurgia , Ovário/patologia , Ovário/cirurgia , Paclitaxel/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
15.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4632, 2019 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604914

RESUMO

Reduced BRCA1 expression causes homologous recombination (HR) repair defects in high-grade serous ovarian cancers (HGSOCs). Here, we demonstrate that BRCA1 is transcriptionally activated by a previously unknown function of ZC3H18. We show that ZC3H18 is a DNA-binding protein that interacts with an E2F site in the BRCA1 promoter where it facilitates recruitment of E2F4 to an adjacent E2F site to promote BRCA1 transcription. Consistent with ZC3H18 role in activating BRCA1 expression, ZC3H18 depletion induces BRCA1 promoter methylation, reduces BRCA1 expression, disrupts HR, and sensitizes cells to DNA crosslinkers and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors. Moreover, in patient-derived xenografts and primary HGSOC tumors, ZC3H18 and E2F4 mRNA levels are positively correlated with BRCA1 mRNA levels, further supporting ZC3H18 role in regulating BRCA1. Given that ZC3H18 lies within 16q24.2, a region with frequent copy number loss in HGSOC, these findings suggest that ZC3H18 copy number losses could contribute to HR defects in HGSOC.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Recombinação Homóloga , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/fisiologia , Proteína BRCA1/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Dano ao DNA , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética
16.
Cancer Res ; 79(23): 5920-5929, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619387

RESUMO

BRCA1 plays a key role in homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair. Accordingly, changes that downregulate BRCA1, including BRCA1 mutations and reduced BRCA1 transcription, due to promoter hypermethylation or loss of the BRCA1 transcriptional regulator CDK12, disrupt HR in multiple cancers. In addition, BRCA1 has also been implicated in the regulation of metabolism. Here, we show that reducing BRCA1 expression, either by CDK12 or BRCA1 depletion, led to metabolic reprogramming of ovarian cancer cells, causing decreased mitochondrial respiration and reduced ATP levels. BRCA1 depletion drove this reprogramming by upregulating nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT). Notably, the metabolic alterations caused by BRCA1 depletion and NNMT upregulation sensitized ovarian cancer cells to agents that inhibit mitochondrial metabolism (VLX600 and tigecycline) and to agents that inhibit glucose import (WZB117). These observations suggest that inhibition of energy metabolism may be a potential strategy to selectively target BRCA1-deficient high-grade serous ovarian cancer, which is characterized by frequent BRCA1 loss and NNMT overexpression. SIGNIFICANCE: Loss of BRCA1 reprograms metabolism, creating a therapeutically targetable vulnerability in ovarian cancer.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/tratamento farmacológico , Nicotinamida N-Metiltransferase/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Proteína BRCA1/deficiência , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/genética , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Quinases Ciclina-Dependentes/genética , Metilação de DNA , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Hidrazonas/farmacologia , Hidrazonas/uso terapêutico , Hidroxibenzoatos/farmacologia , Hidroxibenzoatos/uso terapêutico , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mutação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Ovário/patologia , Fosforilação Oxidativa/efeitos dos fármacos , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Tigeciclina/farmacologia , Tigeciclina/uso terapêutico , Triazóis/farmacologia , Triazóis/uso terapêutico , Regulação para Cima , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
17.
Gynecol Oncol ; 154(3): 495-504, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204077

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study is designed to identify genes and pathways that could promote metastasis to the bowel in high-grade serous ovarian cancer (OC) and evaluate their associations with clinical outcomes. METHODS: We performed RNA sequencing of OC primary tumors (PTs) and their corresponding bowel metastases (n = 21 discovery set; n = 18 replication set). Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were those expressed at least 2-fold higher in bowel metastases (BMets) than PTs in at least 30% of patients (P < .05) with no increased expression in paired benign bowel tissue and were validated with quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Using an independent OC cohort (n = 333), associations between DEGs in PTs and surgical and clinical outcomes were performed. Immunohistochemistry and mouse xenograft studies were performed to confirm the role of LRRC15 in promoting metastasis. RESULTS: Among 27 DEGs in the discovery set, 21 were confirmed in the replication set: SFRP2, Col11A1, LRRC15, ADAM12, ADAMTS12, MFAP5, LUM, PLPP4, FAP, POSTN, GRP, MMP11, MMP13, C1QTNF3, EPYC, DIO2, KCNA1, NETO1, NTM, MYH13, and PVALB. Higher expression of more than half of the genes in the PT was associated with an increased requirement for bowel resection at primary surgery and an inability to achieve complete cytoreduction. Increased expression of LRRC15 in BMets was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and knockdown of LRRC15 significantly inhibited tumor progression in mice. CONCLUSIONS: We identified 21 genes that are overexpressed in bowel metastases among patients with OC. Our findings will help select potential molecular targets for the prevention and treatment of malignant bowel obstruction in OC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/genética , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/patologia , Neoplasias Intestinais/genética , Neoplasias Intestinais/secundário , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Xenoenxertos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , RNA Neoplásico/genética , Transcriptoma , Regulação para Cima
18.
Clin Genitourin Cancer ; 17(4): 248-253.e7, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31103340

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We investigated the serum proteome of hormone-sensitive prostate cancer patients to determine candidate biomarkers associated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) efficacy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Serum proteomes generated using isobaric mass tags for relative and absolute quantitation were analyzed using reverse-phase liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The advanced hormone-sensitive prostate cancer cohorts studied were: (1) untreated "paired" pre-ADT and 4-month post-ADT hormone-sensitive patients (n = 15); (2) "early ADT failure" patients (n = 10) in whom ADT treatment failed within a short period of time; and (3) "late ADT failure" patients (n = 10) in whom ADT treatment failed after a prolonged response time. Differential abundance was assessed, and ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) was used to identify interaction networks in selected candidates from these comparisons. RESULTS: Between "post-ADT" and combined "early" and "late" ADT failure groups 149 differentially detected candidates were observed, and between "early" and "late" ADT failure groups 98 candidates were observed; 47 candidates were common in both comparisons. IPA network enrichment analysis of the 47 candidates identified 3 interaction networks (P < .01) including 17-ß-estradiol, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain enhancer of activated B cells complex, and P38 mitogen-activated protein kinases as pathways with potential markers of response to ADT. CONCLUSION: A global proteomic analysis identified pathways with markers of ADT response, which will need validation in independent data sets.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Proteômica/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cromatografia Líquida , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(7): 1238-1245, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31015203

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer is the fourth-leading cause of cancer death in both men and women in the United States. The currently identified common susceptibility loci account for a small fraction of estimated heritability. We sought to estimate overall heritability of pancreatic cancer and partition the heritability by variant frequencies and functional annotations. METHODS: Analysis using the genome-based restricted maximum likelihood method (GREML) was conducted on Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium (PanC4) genome-wide association study (GWAS) data from 3,568 pancreatic cancer cases and 3,363 controls of European Ancestry. RESULTS: Applying linkage disequilibrium- and minor allele frequency-stratified GREML (GREML-LDMS) method to imputed GWAS data, we estimated the overall heritability of pancreatic cancer to be 21.2% (SE = 4.8%). Across the functional groups (intronic, intergenic, coding, and regulatory variants), intronic variants account for most of the estimated heritability (12.4%). Previously identified GWAS loci explained 4.1% of the total phenotypic variation of pancreatic cancer. Mutations in hereditary pancreatic cancer susceptibility genes are present in 4% to 10% of patients with pancreatic cancer, yet our GREML-LDMS results suggested these regions explain only 0.4% of total phenotypic variance for pancreatic cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Although higher than previous studies, our estimated 21.2% overall heritability may still be downwardly biased due to the inherent limitation that the contribution of rare variants in genes with a substantive overall impact on disease are not captured when applying these commonly used methods to imputed GWAS data. IMPACT: Our work demonstrated the importance of rare and common variants in pancreatic cancer risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia
20.
Gynecol Oncol ; 153(1): 127-134, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30686551

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors have shown substantial activity in homologous recombination- (HR-) deficient ovarian cancer and are undergoing testing in other HR-deficient tumors. For reasons that are incompletely understood, not all patients with HR-deficient cancers respond to these agents. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that changes in alternative DNA repair pathways affect PARP inhibitor (PARPi) sensitivity in ovarian cancer models. This has not previously been assessed in the clinical setting. METHODS: Clonogenic and plasmid-based HR repair assays were performed to compare BRCA1-mutant COV362 ovarian cancer cells with or without 53BP1 gene deletion. Archival biopsies from ovarian cancer patients in the phase I, open-label clinical trial of PARPi ABT-767 were stained for PARP1, RAD51, 53BP1 and multiple components of the nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) DNA repair pathway. Modified histochemistry- (H-) scores were determined for each repair protein in each sample. HRD score was determined from tumor DNA. RESULTS: 53BP1 deletion increased HR in BRCA1-mutant COV362 cells and decreased PARPi sensitivity in vitro. In 36 women with relapsed ovarian cancer, responses to the PARPi ABT-767 were observed exclusively in cancers with HR deficiency. In this subset, 7 of 18 patients (39%) had objective responses. The actual HRD score did not further correlate with change from baseline tumor volume (r = 0.050; p = 0.87). However, in the HR-deficient subset, decreased 53BP1 H-score was associated with decreased antitumor efficacy of ABT-767 (r = -0.69, p = 0.004). CONCLUSION: Differences in complementary repair pathways, particularly 53BP1, correlate with PARPi response of HR-deficient ovarian cancers.


Assuntos
Benzamidas/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/administração & dosagem , Sulfonamidas/administração & dosagem , Proteína 1 de Ligação à Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Reparo do DNA , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Feminino , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Recombinação Homóloga , Humanos , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/antagonistas & inibidores , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/biossíntese , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/genética , Proteína 1 de Ligação à Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/biossíntese , Proteína 1 de Ligação à Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/deficiência
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...