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J Dent Anesth Pain Med ; 22(2): 107-116, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35449781


Background: Pain during fixed orthodontic treatment can have a detrimental effect on patient treatment compliance. To overcome this, there is a definite need to establish the best pain-relieving methods suitable for orthodontic patients in terms of efficacy and use. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of chewing gum and pre-emptive tenoxicam on pain after initial archwire placement and to evaluate the pain perceptions of orthodontic patients in the two groups while performing various functions at specific time intervals. Methods: Forty-two patients were selected and randomly divided into two groups: group A (chewing gum) and group B (pre-emptive tenoxicam). Pain perception was documented by patients immediately; at 4 h; at bedtime on the day of archwire placement; the next morning; at 24 h; and at bedtime on the 2nd, 3rd, and 7th day after the initial archwire placement. Pain scores were noted during fitting of the posterior teeth, biting, and chewing using a visual analog scale. The data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: Group A showed a significant increase in pain until the next morning while fitting the posterior teeth, biting, and chewing [36.2, 52.0, 33.4, respectively]], followed by a gradual decrease by the 7th day. Group B showed a significant increase in pain at bedtime on biting, with a peak value of 47.5. Pain on chewing, fitting posterior teeth, peaked the morning of the next day (100.0, 45.0). The Freidman test showed a statistically significant difference with a p-value of < 0.01. Higher pain scores were observed while chewing and biting compared with that while fitting the posterior teeth in both groups. The overall comparison of pain control between the two groups was not statistically significant [P > 0.05] between the two groups. Conclusions: Chewing gum was not inferior to pre-emptive tenoxicam. Thus, chewing gum is a non-pharmacological alternative to analgesics for orthodontic pain control that eliminates the chance of adverse reactions and can be used in the absence of adult observation.

Med Pharm Rep ; 94(2): 158-169, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34013186


OBJECTIVE: The treatment protocol in the modern health care paradigm has shifted considerably towards enhancing the quality of life in the last decade. This is particularly important in cosmetic and elective treatments, and hence the interest in oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) also has increased. OHRQoL always been measured by endogenous, functional, social, or psychological determinants. Self-esteem (SE) is one of the internal factors that affect the perception of malocclusion and hence OHRQoL before and after treatment. The purpose of this review is to assess whether there exists any correlation between the Oral Health-Related Quality of Life, Self-esteem (SE) in patients following orthodontic treatment. METHODS: A literature search was confined to the English language using Medical Subject Heading terms (MeSH) in PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Ovid® covering the period from January 1, 1951 to May 15, 2020. Search in Google Scholar, grey literature, and hand search on cross-references was performed to find additional data. The studies found to be suitable were selected based on the predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. The quality of assessment and risk of bias for the included studies were evaluated independently by two invigilators utilizing "The Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing the risk of bias" and "Modified version of the Newcastle Ottawa scale" for Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) and non-randomized trials respectively. RESULTS: A total of 7688 studies were retrieved from all the sources. After screening all the titles and excluding the duplicates, 28 studies were finally included for text review, and all of them were fit for quality appraisal. The design of the final studies included comprised of 3 RCTs, 14 cohort studies, 9 cross-sectional studies, and 2 case-control studies. CONCLUSION: There is moderate evidence to show that fixed orthodontic treatment improves OHRQoL and SE in children. OHRQoL also increased in adolescents and adults. However, there is a weak correlation between SE and OHRQoL. More evidence-based studies are needed to analyze the relationship.