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1.
Wien Klin Wochenschr ; 132(1-2): 47-49, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31912288

RESUMO

Leishmaniasis is a severe vector-borne disease with two main clinical forms, visceral leishmaniasis and cutaneous leishmaniasis. Both forms of leishmaniasis are also endemic in Mediterranean countries including the Balkan region from where mainly visceral leishmaniasis is reported. Austrian soldiers returning from Kosovo were screened for anti-Leishmania antibodies to assess the risk of infection during operations. Anti-Leishmania antibodies were detected in more than 20% of the soldiers investigated, which indicates a considerable risk of infection during missions in this area and thus suggests the application of protective measures.


Assuntos
Leishmania , Leishmaniose , Militares , Animais , Áustria , Humanos , Insetos Vetores , Kosovo , Leishmania/imunologia , Leishmaniose/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose/imunologia , Testes Sorológicos
2.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 416, 2019 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445517

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phleboviruses are mainly transmitted by sand flies and infections can result in various symptoms, including meningitis and meningoencephalitis. In endemic regions, seroprevalences in humans and animals are high. Military personnel on missions in endemic areas are at increased risk of infection, however, for soldiers from central European countries, data are scarce. The aims of this study were to determine the exposure to phleboviruses of Austrian soldiers returning from missions abroad and to assess potential risk factors. A retrospective serological study was performed with sera of 753 healthy Austrian soldiers returning from missions in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BIH, n = 61), Kosovo (n = 261), Syria (n = 101) and Lebanon (n = 63) and of soldiers prior to their missions (n = 267). RESULTS: Altogether, 119 sera (15.8%, 119/753) were positive for anti-Phlebovirus IgG antibodies, with highest seroprevalences found in soldiers returning from Kosovo (20.69%, 54/261), followed by Syria (17.82%, 18/101), Lebanon (14.29%, 9/63) and BIH (11.48%, 7/61). Of the soldiers tested prior to their missions 11.61% (31/267) were positive. Of the 119 seropositive individuals, 30 (25.2%, 30/119) also had anti-Phlebovirus IgM antibodies. Phlebovirus seropositivity significantly correlated with symptoms of febrile illness during the respective mission (OR: 1.9, 95% CI: 1.1-3.4, P = 0.03) and with Leishmania seropositivity (OR: 2.7, 95% CI: 1.2-5.8, P = 0.009). Also, the outdoor activity "running" during the mission showed a strong trend towards an association with Phlebovirus seropositivity (OR: 1.9, 95% CI: 0.9-4.4, P = 0.08), and seropositivity generally increased with the duration of a mission (OR: 2.5, 95% CI: 0.9-7.5, P = 0.07). CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that soldiers are exposed to sand flies and at significant risk for Phlebovirus infection during missions in the Mediterranean area and the Middle East. Adequate prevention measures should be applied particularly during vespertine outdoor activities.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Infecções por Bunyaviridae/diagnóstico , Militares , Phlebovirus , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Áustria , Bósnia e Herzegóvina/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bunyaviridae/epidemiologia , Doenças Endêmicas/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Insetos Vetores/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Psychodidae/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Adulto Jovem
3.
Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol ; 2018: 9754695, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29736197

RESUMO

Information on mosquito-borne filarioid helminths in Austria is scarce, but recent discoveries of Dirofilaria repens indicate autochthonous distribution of this parasite in Eastern Austria. In the current xenomonitoring study, more than 48,000 mosquitoes were collected in Eastern Austria between 2013 and 2015, using different sampling techniques and storage conditions, and were analysed in pools with molecular tools for the presence of filarioid helminth DNA. Overall, DNA of D. repens, Setaria tundra, and two unknown filarioid helminths were documented in twenty mosquito pools within the mitochondrial cox1 gene (barcode region). These results indicate that S. tundra, with roe deer as definite hosts, is common in Eastern Austria, with most occurrences in floodplain mosquitoes (e.g., Aedes vexans). Moreover, DNA of D. repens was found in an Anopheles plumbeus mosquito close to the Slovakian border, indicating that D. repens is endemic in low prevalence in Eastern Austria. This study shows that xenomonitoring is an adequate tool to analyse the presence of filarioid helminths, but results are influenced by mosquito sampling techniques, storage conditions, and molecular protocols.

4.
PLoS One ; 13(4): e0196052, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29672618

RESUMO

Trypanosomatid flagellates have not been studied in Austria in any detail. In this study, specific nested PCR, targeted on the ribosomal small subunit, was used to determine the occurrence and diversity of trypanosomatids in wild-caught mosquitoes sampled across Eastern Austria in the years 2014-2015. We collected a total of 29,975 mosquitoes of 19 species divided in 1680 pools. Of these, 298 (17.7%), representing 12 different mosquito species, were positive for trypanosomatid DNA. In total, seven trypanosomatid spp. were identified (three Trypanosoma, three Crithidia and one Herpetomonas species), with the highest parasite species diversity found in the mosquito host Coquillettidia richiardii. The most frequent parasite species belonged to the mammalian Trypanosoma theileri/cervi species complex (found in 105 pools; 6.3%). The avian species T. culicavium (found in 69 pools; 4.1%) was only detected in mosquitoes of the genus Culex, which corresponds to their preference for avian hosts. Monoxenous trypanosomatids of the genus Crithidia and Herpetomonas were found in 20 (1.3%) mosquito pools. One third (n = 98) of the trypanosomatid positive mosquito pools carried more than one parasite species. This is the first large scale study of trypanosomatid parasites in Austrian mosquitoes and our results are valuable in providing an overview of the diversity of these parasites in Austria.


Assuntos
Culicidae/parasitologia , Trypanosoma/classificação , Animais , Áustria , Biodiversidade , DNA de Protozoário , DNA Ribossômico , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Trypanosoma/genética , Tripanossomíase/parasitologia , Tripanossomíase/transmissão
5.
Malar J ; 16(1): 389, 2017 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28962620

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Insect vectors, namely mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae), are compulsory for malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp.) to complete their life cycle. Despite this, little is known about vector competence of different mosquito species for the transmission of avian malaria parasites. METHODS: In this study, nested PCR was used to determine Plasmodium spp. occurrence in pools of whole individuals, as well as the diversity of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences in wild-caught mosquitoes sampled across Eastern Austria in 2013-2015. RESULTS: A total of 45,749 mosquitoes in 2628 pools were collected, of which 169 pools (6.43%) comprising 9 mosquito species were positive for avian Plasmodium, with the majority of positives in mosquitoes of Culex pipiens s.l./Culex torrentium. Six different avian Plasmodium lineages were found, the most common were Plasmodium vaughani SYAT05, Plasmodium sp. Linn1 and Plasmodium relictum SGS1. In 2014, mosquitoes of the Culex pipiens complex were genetically identified and Culex pipiens f. pipiens presented with the highest number of avian Plasmodium positives (n = 37; 16.74%). Despite this, the minimum infection rate (MIR) was highest in Culex torrentium (5.36%) and Culex pipiens f. pipiens/f. molestus hybrids (5.26%). During 2014 and 2015, seasonal and annual changes in Plasmodium lineage distribution were also observed. In both years P. vaughani SYAT05 dominated at the beginning of the sampling period to be replaced later in the year by P. relictum SGS1 (2014) and Plasmodium sp. Linn1 (2015). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first large-scale study of avian Plasmodium parasites in Austrian mosquitoes. These results are of special interest, because molecular identification of the taxa of the Cx. pipiens complex and Cx. torrentium enabled the determination of Plasmodium prevalence in the different mosquito taxa and hybrids of this complex. Since pools of whole insects were used, it is not possible to assert any vector competence in any of the examined mosquitoes, but the results are nonetheless valuable in providing an overview of avian Plasmodium species and lineages present in Austria.


Assuntos
Culex/parasitologia , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Malária Aviária/epidemiologia , Plasmodium/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Áustria/epidemiologia , Malária Aviária/parasitologia , Plasmodium/classificação , Plasmodium/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
6.
Parasitol Res ; 116(6): 1781-1783, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28484855

RESUMO

During a three-year mosquito monitoring from 2014 to 2016, the strictly ornithophilic, originally Mediterranean species Orthopodomyia pulcripalpis (Rondani, 1872) was collected as single specimen for the first time in Austria in the district of Penzing in Vienna. Morphological species determination was confirmed by analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene. We thus not only confirm the existence of another mosquito species in Austria, but also add a new genus to the Austrian Culicidae taxa list.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Culicidae/classificação , Animais , Áustria , Culicidae/enzimologia , Culicidae/genética , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/genética
7.
Parasit Vectors ; 10(1): 205, 2017 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28441957

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vector-pathogen dynamics are controlled by fluctuations of potential vector communities, such as the Culicidae. Assessment of mosquito community diversity and, in particular, identification of environmental parameters shaping these communities is therefore of key importance for the design of adequate surveillance approaches. In this study, we assess effects of climatic parameters and habitat structure on mosquito communities in eastern Austria to deliver these highly relevant baseline data. METHODS: Female mosquitoes were sampled twice a month from April to October 2014 and 2015 at 35 permanent and 23 non-permanent trapping sites using carbon dioxide-baited traps. Differences in spatial and seasonal abundance patterns of Culicidae taxa were identified using likelihood ratio tests; possible effects of environmental parameters on seasonal and spatial mosquito distribution were analysed using multivariate statistical methods. We assessed community responses to environmental parameters based on 14-day-average values that affect ontogenesis. RESULTS: Altogether 29,734 female mosquitoes were collected, and 21 of 42 native as well as two of four non-native mosquito species were reconfirmed in eastern Austria. Statistical analyses revealed significant differences in mosquito abundance between sampling years and provinces. Incidence and abundance patterns were found to be linked to 14-day mean sunshine duration, humidity, water-level maxima and the amount of precipitation. However, land cover classes were found to be the most important factor, effectively assigning both indigenous and non-native mosquito species to various communities, which responded differentially to environmental variables. CONCLUSIONS: These findings thus underline the significance of non-climatic variables for future mosquito prediction models and the necessity to consider these in mosquito surveillance programmes.


Assuntos
Culicidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ecossistema , Meio Ambiente , Insetos Vetores , Animais , Áustria , Clima , Culicidae/classificação , Densidade Demográfica , Estações do Ano , Análise Espaço-Temporal
8.
Parasit Vectors ; 9: 458, 2016 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27542911

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The occurrence of phlebotomine sand flies in Central Europe was questioned until they were recorded for the first time in Germany in 1999, and ten years later also in Austria. The aim of this study was to investigate sand flies collected in Austria for their carrier status of Leishmania spp. FINDINGS: From 2012 to 2013 field studies were conducted in eastern Austria. Altogether, 22 individuals of sand flies were found, all morphologically identified as Phlebotomus (Transphlebotomus) mascittii Grassi, 1908. Twelve non-engorged female specimens with no visible remnants of a blood meal in their bodies were individually investigated for Leishmania spp. by ITS-1 real-time PCR. One out of these was positive for Leishmania, identified as Leishmania infantum by DNA sequencing. This finding suggests that L. infantum is not excreted by P. mascittii and possibly can establish an infection within P. mascittii. Interestingly, an asymptomatic dog living on the farm where this sand fly had been caught was also Leishmania-positive. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides new data on the suspected vector capacity of P. mascittii, being the northernmost sand fly species in Europe and in most central European regions the only sand fly species found. Proven vector capacity of P. mascittii for Leishmania spp. would be of significant medico-veterinary importance, not only with respect to expanding sand fly populations in Central Europe related to global warming, but also in the light of globalization and increasing movements of humans.


Assuntos
Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Leishmania infantum/fisiologia , Phlebotomus/classificação , Phlebotomus/parasitologia , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Áustria , Feminino , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Masculino
9.
Parasitol Res ; 112(12): 4231-7, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24126902

RESUMO

The possible existence of autochthonous sandfly populations in Central Europe north of the Alps has long been excluded. However, in the past years, sandflies have been documented in Germany, Belgium, and recently, also in Austria, close to the Slovenian border. Moreover, autochthonous human Leishmania and Phlebovirus infections have been reported in Central Europe, particularly in Germany. From 2010 to 2012, sandfly trapping (740 trap nights) was performed at 53 different capture sites in Austria using battery-operated CDC miniature light traps. Sites were chosen on the basis of their climate profile in the federal states Styria, Burgenland, and Lower Austria. Sandfly specimens found were transferred to 70% ethanol for conservation. Identification was based on morphological characters of the male genitalia and the female spermathecae, respectively. Altogether, 24 specimens, 22 females and 2 males, all identified as Phlebotomus (Transphlebotomus) mascittii Grassi, 1908, were found at six different sampling sites in all three federal states investigated. The highest number of catches was made on a farm in Lower Austria. Altogether, the period of sandfly activity in Austria was shown to be much longer than presumed, the earliest capture was made on July 3rd and the latest on August 28th. Sandflies have been autochthonous in Austria in small foci probably for long, but in the course of global warming, further spreading may be expected. Although P. mascittii is only an assumed vector of Leishmania spp.-data on its experimental transmission capacity are still lacking-the wide distribution of sandflies in Austria, a country thought to be free of sandflies, further supports a potential emergence of sandflies in Central Europe. This is of medical relevance, not only with respect to the transmission of Leishmania spp. for which a reservoir is given in dogs, but also with respect to the phleboviruses.


Assuntos
Insetos Vetores , Phlebotomus , Animais , Áustria , Clima , Entomologia , Feminino , Masculino
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