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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508671

RESUMO

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the leading cause of chronic liver disease globally and is estimated to affect approximately 25% of the world's population. Data about the prevalence and incidence of NAFLD in Africa are scarce, but the prevalence is estimated to be 13·5% for the general population. This is likely to be an underestimate considering the increasing burden of non-communicable diseases, particularly the rising prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes, driven by the overlapping challenges of food insecurity, nutritional transition, and associated increased consumption of calorie-dense foods. Establishing the true prevalence of NAFLD, raising public awareness around the risk factors behind the increase in NAFLD, and proactively addressing all components of metabolic syndrome will be important to combat this silent epidemic, which will have long-term health-care costs and economic consequences for the region.

4.
Drugs Real World Outcomes ; 8(2): 153-162, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33367992

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a general consensus that widespread use of praziquantel in populations where schistosomiasis is endemic prevents development of hepatic schistosomiasis and its complications. However, a few studies have reported discordant findings linking praziquantel to the occurrence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) in some patients with hepatic schistosomiasis and varices. OBJECTIVE: We explored if there was any causal association between recent praziquantel use (rPZQ) and upper gastrointestinal bleeding in hepatic schistosomiasis in rural Africa. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A quasi-experimental, retrospective case-controlled study was performed. It involved adult patients with past or acute UGIB, varices, periportal fibrosis, and/or cirrhosis. Cases had acute variceal bleeding while controls did not. The outcome was the frequency of lifetime episodes of UGIB and exposure was rPZQ (received praziquantel in the last 11 months from the date of enrollment). The data analysis included 2 × 2 tables, logistic regression, and propensity-score matching. Odds ratios (ORs), average treatment effects (ATEs), and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used for inference. RESULTS: Over 6 weeks, we enrolled 19 cases with 92 lifetime episodes of UGIB, and 66 controls with 192 lifetime episodes of UGIB. Cases were more likely to experience UGIB than controls following rPZQ (92% vs. 62%; OR 7.6; 95% CI 3.4-17). Factors predictive of more lifetime episodes of UGIB at multivariable analysis included rPZQ (adjusted OR 13; 95% CI 2.9-53), relative leukocytosis (adjusted OR 26; 95% CI 7.6-89), large varices (adjusted OR 5.0; 95% CI 1.7-15), a family member with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis (adjusted OR 19; 95% CI 7.4-51), advanced periportal fibrosis (adjusted OR 8.0; 95% CI 2.6-22), ascites (adjusted OR 14; 95% CI 4.3-47), and jaundice (adjusted OR 32; 95% CI 7.8-128). While the ATE following rPZQ among the treated was 0.40 (95% CI 0.33-0.48). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest the presence of a plausible causal association between recent praziquantel use and increased frequency of UGIB in our study population.

5.
Virol J ; 17(1): 170, 2020 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33160386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is plenitude of information on HIV infection among pregnant mothers attending antenatal care (ANC) in sub-Saharan Africa. However, the epidemiology of HBV-HIV co-infections in the same cohort is not clear despite the common route of transmission of both viruses. The aim of our study was to synthesize data on the prevalence of HBV-HIV co-infection among pregnant women attending ANC in Sub-Saharan Africa to assist in the design of public health interventions to mitigate the challenge. METHODS: The study was done in tandem with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) standards and the Cochran's Q test, I2 statistics for heterogeneity and the prevalence were calculated using commercially available software called MedCalcs ( https://www.medcalc.org ). A random effect model was used to pool the prevalence since all the heterogeneities were high (≥ 78%) and Phet < 0.05 indicated significant heterogeneities. The risk factors and risk differences for HBV-HIV co-infection were analyzed. Any likely sources of heterogeneity were analyzed through sensitivity analysis, meta-regression and sub-group analysis. All analyses were done at 95% level of significance and a P < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: The overall pooled prevalence of HBV-HIV co-infection among pregnant mothers in sub-Saharan Africa was low 3.302% (95%CI = 2.285 to 4.4498%) with heterogeneities (I2) of 97.59% (P > 0.0001). Within regional sub group meta-analyses, West Africa had significantly higher prevalence of 5.155% (95% = 2.671 to 8.392%) with heterogeneity (I2) of 92.25% (P < 0.0001) than any other region (P < 0.001). Articles published from 2004-2010 had significantly higher prevalence of 6.356% (95% = 3.611 to 9.811%) with heterogeneity (I2) 91.15% (P < 0.0001) compared to those published from 2011 to 2019 (P < 0.001). The HIV positive cohort had significantly higher prevalence of HBV-HIV co-infection of 8.312% (95% CI = 5.806 to 11.22%) with heterogeneity (I2)94.90% (P < 0.0001) than the mothers sampled from the general population with a prevalence of 2.152% (95% CI = 1.358 to 3.125%) (P < 0.001). The overall and sub group analyses had high heterogeneities (I2 > 89%, P < 0.0001) but was reduced for South Africa (I2) = 78.4% (P = 0.0314). Age, marital status and employment were independent factors significantly associated with risk of HBV-HIV co-infection (P < 0.001) but not extent of gravidity and education level (P > 0.05). After meta-regression for year of publication and sample size for HBsAg positivity, the results were not significantly associated with HBV pooled prevalence for sample size (P = 0.146) and year of publication (P = 0.560). Following sensitivity analysis, the HBsAg pooled prevalence slightly increased to 3.429% (95% CI = 2.459 to 4.554%) with heterogeneity I2 = 96.59% (95% CI = 95.93 to 97.14%), P < 0.0001 CONCLUSION: There is an urgent need for routine HBV screening among HIV positive pregnant mothers attending antenatal care in sub-Saharan Africa to establish the extent of HBV-HIV co-infection in this cohort. Future studies need to investigate the putative risk factors for HBV-HIV co-infection and prioritize plausible control strategies.

6.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 7(11): ofaa483, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33241065

RESUMO

Background: Liver fibrosis is common among HIV-infected patients. Risk factors vary by location. Understanding this variation may inform prevention strategies. We compared the prevalence and correlates of liver fibrosis among HIV-infected patients attending care clinics in Uganda. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 2030 HIV-infected patients attending care clinics in urban and rural Uganda. Liver fibrosis was defined as liver stiffness measurement (LSM) >7.1 KPa. Proportions and correlates of liver fibrosis were assessed and compared using logistic regression stratified by gender and site. Results: Prevalence of liver fibrosis was higher among participants in the rural clinic (15% vs 11%; P = .017). History of tobacco use (urban P = .022; rural P = .035) and serologic evidence of hepatitis C infection (HCV; urban P = .028; rural P = .03) was associated with liver fibrosis in all men. Elevated liver transaminases (urban P = .002; rural P = .028) and increasing age (urban P = .008; rural P = .052) were risk factors among all women. Tobacco use among women was only a risk factor in those attending the rural clinic (P = .003), and detectable HIV viral load (P = .002) for men in the urban clinic. Conclusions: Liver fibrosis is prevalent among HIV-infected persons in Uganda. HIV viral suppression and avoiding tobacco may be strategies to prevent liver fibrosis and cancer risk.

7.
Wellcome Open Res ; 5: 39, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32875121

RESUMO

Background: The burden of cardiometabolic diseases, including cardiovascular diseases and diabetes, is increasing in sub-Saharan Africa and this has been linked to urbanisation. Helminths, through their immunomodulatory properties, may protect against these disorders. We hypothesised that the rural environment protects against cardiometabolic diseases and that helminths may influence rural-urban disparity of cardiometabolic disease risk. Methods: We compared metabolic parameters of individuals aged ≥10 years living in rural, high-helminth-transmission and urban, lower-helminth-transmission settings in Uganda. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in rural Lake Victoria island communities and in urban sub-wards in Entebbe municipality. Helminth infection and outcomes, including insulin resistance (computed using the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]), fasting blood glucose, fasting blood lipids, blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), waist and hip circumference, were assessed. Results: We analysed 1,898 rural and 930 urban participants. Adjusting for BMI, exercise, smoking, alcohol intake, age and sex, urban residents had lower mean fasting glucose (adjusted mean difference [95%CI] -0.13 [-0.24, -0.01] p=0.04) and HOMA-IR (-0.13 [-0.25, -0.01] p=0.04) but higher blood pressure (systolic, 4.64 [3.23, 6.06] p<0.001; diastolic, 1.89 [0.81, 2.97] p=0.001). Current helminth infection did not explain the observed differences. Conclusions: In low-income countries, rural living may protect against hypertension but impair glucose metabolism.

8.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 20(1): 169, 2020 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493310

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is some evidence that patients with liver diseases commonly use complementary and alternative therapies to address general and liver-disease specific health concerns. The purpose of this study was to assess and describe prevalence, patterns and related factors of herbal medicine use among adults diagnosed with viral and non-viral hepatitis in Kampala, Uganda. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 310 adult patients attending the gastrointestinal clinic in Mulago hospital referral hospital in Kampala. Data on prevalence, types and reasons for herbal medicine use was collected using standardized questionnaires and focus group discussions. Modified Poisson regression analyses were used to examine factors related to use. RESULTS: Usage of various herbal remedies within 12 months prior to April 2018 was reported by 46.1% (143/310) of patients with 27.3% (39/143) of these reporting having used conventional and herbal therapies concurrently. Herbal remedies were used to treat various health conditions including hepatitis. Patients with hepatitis C virus infection (PRR = 1.16, p = 0.02) compared to those with hepatitis B virus infection, and those who believed that it was safe to use herbal and conventional therapies concurrently (PRR = 1.23, p = 0.008) had higher prevalence odds of herbal medicine use. Conversely, patients who had been newly diagnosed with hepatitis (PRR = 0.69, p = 0.03) compared to those who had been diagnosed more than one-year prior, had lower prevalence odds of herbal medicine use. Various types of local herbs were reported as most commonly used however most patients did not know the ingredients of commercially prepared herbal therapies. CONCLUSION: A high prevalence of herbal medicine use was found among newly-diagnosed patients and patients with hepatitis C more likely to use herbal remedies after adjusting for other factors. Usage was influenced by the belief that herbal medicine is safe and effective. Health workers need to consistently elicit information about herbal remedy use. Research is needed on benefits, adverse effects and outcomes in patients who use herbal remedies to treat primary liver diseases in order to facilitate evidence of efficacy and product safety.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Hepatite Viral Humana/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite/tratamento farmacológico , Medicina Herbária/estatística & dados numéricos , Fitoterapia/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Viral Hepat ; 27(10): 1022-1031, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32388879

RESUMO

Liver fibrosis may be assessed noninvasively with transient electrography (TE). Data on the performance of TE for detecting liver fibrosis in sub-Saharan Africa are limited. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of TE by performing liver biopsies on persons with liver fibrosis indicated by TE. We enrolled HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected participants with TE scores consistent with at least minimal disease (liver stiffness measurement [LSM]≥7.1 kPa). Biopsies were performed and staged using the Ishak scoring system. A concordant result was defined using accepted thresholds for significant fibrosis by TE (LSM ≥ 9.3 kPa) and liver biopsy (Ishak score ≥ 2). We used modified Poisson regression methods to quantify the univariate and adjusted prevalence risk ratios (PRR) of the association between covariates and the concordance status of TE and liver biopsy in defining the presence of liver fibrosis. Of 131 participants with valid liver biopsy and TE data, only 5 participants (3.8%) had Ishak score ≥ 2 of whom 4 had LSM ≥ 9.3 kPa (sensitivity = 80%); of the 126 (96.2%) with Ishak score < 2, 76 had LSM < 9.3 kPa (specificity = 61%). In multivariable analysis, discordance was associated with female gender (adjPRR = 1.80, 95%CI 1.1-2.9; P = .019), herbal medicine use (adjPRR 1.64, 95% CI = 1.0-2.5; P = .022), exposure to lake or river water (adjPRR 2.05, 95% CI = 1.1-3.7; P = .016), and current smoking (adjPRR 1.72, 95%CI 1.0-2.9; P = .045). These data suggest that TE among rural Ugandans has low specificity for detection of histologically confirmed liver fibrosis. Caution should be exercised when using this tool to confirm significant liver fibrosis.

12.
PLoS Med ; 17(4): e1003068, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315297

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: International Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) for elimination of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection set ambitious targets for 2030. In African populations, infant immunisation has been fundamental to reducing incident infections in children, but overall population prevalence of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection remains high. In high-prevalence populations, adult catch-up vaccination has sometimes been deployed, but an alternative Test and Treat (T&T) approach could be used as an intervention to interrupt transmission. Universal T&T has not been previously evaluated as a population intervention for HBV infection, despite high-profile data supporting its success with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). METHODS AND FINDINGS: We set out to investigate the relationship between prevalence of HBV infection and exposure in Africa, undertaking a systematic literature review in November 2019. We identified published seroepidemiology data representing the period 1995-2019 from PubMed and Web of Science, including studies of adults that reported prevalence of both hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg; prevalence of HBV infection) and antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc; prevalence of HBV exposure). We identified 96 studies representing 39 African countries, with a median cohort size of 370 participants and a median participant age of 34 years. Using weighted linear regression analysis, we found a strong relationship between the prevalence of infection (HBsAg) and exposure (anti-HBc) (R2 = 0.45, p < 0.001). Region-specific differences were present, with estimated CHB prevalence in Northern Africa typically 30% to 40% lower (p = 0.007) than in Southern Africa for statistically similar exposure rates, demonstrating the need for intervention strategies to be tailored to individual settings. We applied a previously published mathematical model to investigate the effect of interventions in a high-prevalence setting. The most marked and sustained impact was projected with a T&T strategy, with a predicted reduction of 33% prevalence by 20 years (95% CI 30%-37%) and 62% at 50 years (95% CI 57%-68%), followed by routine neonatal vaccination and prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT; at 100% coverage). In contrast, the impact of catch-up vaccination in adults had a negligible and transient effect on population prevalence. The study is constrained by gaps in the published data, such that we could not model the impact of antiviral therapy based on stratification by specific clinical criteria and our model framework does not include explicit age-specific or risk-group assumptions regarding force of transmission. CONCLUSIONS: The unique data set collected in this study highlights how regional epidemiology data for HBV can provide insights into patterns of transmission, and it provides an evidence base for future quantitative research into the most effective local interventions. In combination with robust neonatal immunisation programmes, ongoing PMTCT efforts, and the vaccination of high-risk groups, diagnosing and treating HBV infection is likely to be of most impact in driving advances towards elimination targets at a population level.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/sangue , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/administração & dosagem , Vírus da Hepatite B , Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , África/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Vacinação/métodos
14.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 982, 2019 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856820

RESUMO

In the original publication of this article [1], some values are missing in the Figure 1, Figure 2 and Figure 3. These errors were introduced during typesetting; thus the publisher apologizes for this error. Additionally, the original manuscript has also been updated to amend this error. The correct figures are shown below.

15.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 760, 2019 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655575

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With most countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) lagging behind schedule to implement a comprehensive viral hepatitis elimination strategy, several barriers to accurate information and hepatitis B virus (HBV) services still exist, that are unique to different regions. In an obstetric population of a high HBV burden SSA setting without antenatal HBV services, we systematically evaluated perceptions and prevention behavioral intentions in relation to HBV and liver cancer. METHODS: Eligible consenting pregnant women were recruited from public health care facilities in the central and northern regions of Uganda, between October 2016 and December 2017. Standardized procedures and instruments based on the health belief model and theory of planned behavior were used to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics, HBV perceptions and behavioral intentions. Descriptive analysis using Chi-square tests was done to obtain distribution of respondents by levels of perceived risk of HBV and liver cancer for themselves, their child under 5 years and their spouse. Modified Poisson regression analyses were used to evaluate relationships between perception variables and different behavioral outcomes (intention to screen, vaccinate and treat HBV). RESULTS: Perceived risk (PRR = 0.95(0.90-1.00), p = 0.055) was inversely associated with intention to screen for HBV. Conversely, perceived self-efficacy showed a consistent association with intention to screen for HBV (PRR = 1.18(1.10-1.23) p = 0.005), to vaccinate (PRR = 1.20(1.05-1.36) p = 0.006) and to seek treatment for HBV (PRR = 1.40(1.18-1.67) p < 0.001). Women from the north, compared to the central region (PRR = 1.76 (1.13-2.72) p = 0.012), and those who self-identified as Catholic (PRR = 1.85 (0.99-3.56) p = 0.056), and as Protestant, (PRR = 2.22 (1.22-4.04) p = 0.002), were more likely to have higher perceived self-efficacy, compared to Muslims. Age and education were not related to perceived self-efficacy. CONCLUSION: Women in both regions hold incorrect perceptions of HBV and liver cancer risk, with women from the central reporting higher perceived risk than those from the north. High perceived self-efficacy influenced intention to participate in HBV prevention. Programs and policies geared towards enhancing HBV prevention in this sub-population may consider socio-cultural factors observed to influence prevention behaviors. These findings may guide HBV interventions aimed at improving capacity to seek HBV prevention services, thereby promoting HBV micro-elimination in this sub-population.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Gestantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Gravidez , Medição de Risco , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
16.
Environ Health ; 18(1): 60, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262333

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The link between use of solid biomass fuel (wood, charcoal, coal, dung, and crop residues) for cooking and/or heating and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: We systematically reviewed the literature and performed a meta-analysis to determine whether cooking fuel type influences esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Knowledge and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for studies investigating cooking fuel and ESCC from 2000 until March 2019. We performed random effects meta-analysis stratified by the continent, World Bank's country income classifications and fuel type and calculated pooled odds ratios and 95% CIs for the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in biomass fuel users compared with non-users. RESULTS: Our analysis included 16 studies (all case-control) with 16,189 participants (5233 cases and 10,956 controls) that compared risk of ESCC among those using nonsolid fuels and biomass fuels. We found use of biomass fuel was associated with Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with a pooled odds ratio (OR) 3.02 (95% CI 2.22, 4.11, heterogeneity (I2) = 79%). In sub-group analyses by continent, Africa (OR 3.35, 95%CI 2.34, 4.80, I2 = 73.4%) and Asia (OR 3.08, 95%CI 1.27, 7.43, I2 = 81.7%) had the highest odds of ESCC. Use of wood as fuel had the highest odds of 3.90, 95% CI 2.25, 6.77, I2 = 63.5%). No significant publication bias was detected. CONCLUSIONS: Biomass fuel is associated with increased risk of Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Biomass fuel status should be considered in the risk assessment for Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Biomassa , Culinária , Neoplasias Esofágicas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/epidemiologia , Calefação , Carvão Vegetal/efeitos adversos , Carvão Mineral/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Esofágicas/induzido quimicamente , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/induzido quimicamente , Fezes , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Madeira/efeitos adversos
17.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0214732, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30951543

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B is a global health problem. Trainees in the health-related fields are exposed to occupational risk of Hepatitis B Virus. In Uganda, there is scarcity of information on vaccination among students in health-care. The objective of this study was to assess hepatitis B vaccination status of the students and factors associated. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This was a cross sectional study, conducted at Makerere University College of Health Sciences among undergraduate students who were eligible. A self-report on Hepatitis B vaccination status and various characteristics were collected on each participant, using a standardized structured self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were computed, bivariate and multivariate analysis were done using Stata 14. RESULTS: Out of 760 participants, 44.3% (95% CI 35.2-52.8) reported full vaccination. Vaccination was associated with gender, course, year of study and student's sponsorship. Males were less likely to be vaccinated, Prevalence Ratio (PR) 0.79; P-value <0.001, while self-sponsored students were also most likely to be vaccinated, PR 2.08; P-value <0.001. About 37% reported an accidental needle injury during their training. CONCLUSION: Full vaccination was low and given the high prevalence of needle injuries, it raises a safety concern. Vaccination should be mandatory for all students prior to clinical exposure. There is need for targeted interventions to increase uptake.


Assuntos
Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hepatite B/imunologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Autorrelato , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
18.
Afr Health Sci ; 19(4): 3225-3234, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32127900

RESUMO

Background: Variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is common in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). However, poor access to endoscopy services precludes the diagnosis of varices. Objectives: We determined the diagnostic accuracy of routine clinical findings for detection of esophageal varices among patients with UGIB in rural SSA where schistosomiasis is endemic. Methods: We studied patients with a history of UGIB. The index tests included routine clinical findings and the reference test was diagnostic endoscopy. Multivariable regression with post-estimation provided measures of association and diagnostic accuracy. Results: We studied 107 participants with UGIB and 21% had active bleeding. One hundred and three (96%) had liver disease and 86(80%) varices. Factors associated with varices (p-value <0.05) were ≥ 4 lifetime episodes of UGIB, prior blood transfusion, splenomegaly, liver fibrosis, thrombocytopenia, platelet count spleen diameter ratio <909, and a dilated portal vein. Two models showed an overall diagnostic accuracy of > 90% in detection of varices with a number needed to misdiagnose of 13(number of patients who needed to be tested in order for one to be misdiagnosed by the test). Conclusion: Where access to endoscopy is limited, routine clinical findings could improve the diagnosis of patients with UGIB in Africa.The diagnostic accuracy of routine clinical findings for detection of esophageal varices in rural sub-Saharan Africa where schistosomiasis is endemic.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Diagnóstico do Sistema Digestório/estatística & dados numéricos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico do Sistema Digestório/normas , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/diagnóstico , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/etiologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Esquistossomose/complicações , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Regressão , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia
19.
Hepatology ; 69(4): 1426-1441, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30387174

RESUMO

The global plan to eradicate hepatitis C virus (HCV) led by the World Health Organization outlines the use of highly effective direct-acting antiviral drugs (DAAs) to achieve elimination by 2030. Identifying individuals with active disease and investigation of the breadth of diversity of the virus in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is essential as genotypes in this region (where very few clinical trials have been carried out) are distinct from those found in other parts of the world. We undertook a population-based, nested case-control study in Uganda and obtained additional samples from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) to estimate the prevalence of HCV, assess strategies for disease detection using serological and molecular techniques, and characterize genetic diversity of the virus. Using next-generation and Sanger sequencing, we aimed to identify strains circulating in East and Central Africa. A total of 7,751 Ugandan patients were initially screened for HCV, and 20 PCR-positive samples were obtained for sequencing. Serological assays were found to vary significantly in specificity for HCV. HCV strains detected in Uganda included genotype (g) 4k, g4p, g4q, and g4s and a newly identified unassigned g7 HCV strain. Two additional unassigned g7 strains were identified in patients originating from DRC (one partial and one full open reading frame sequence). These g4 and g7 strains contain nonstructural (ns) protein 3 and 5A polymorphisms associated with resistance to DAAs in other genotypes. Clinical studies are therefore indicated to investigate treatment response in infected patients. Conclusion: Although HCV prevalence and genotypes have been well characterized in patients in well-resourced countries, clinical trials are urgently required in SSA, where highly diverse g4 and g7 strains circulate.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C/virologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Epitopos , Feminino , Genoma Viral , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Uganda/epidemiologia , Carga Viral
20.
Hepatol Med Policy ; 3: 3, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30288326

RESUMO

Background: WHO hepatitis B guidelines recommend testing all new HIV patients, treating them accordingly or providing immunization. At the Infectious Diseases Institute (IDI) following an audit done in 2012, only 46% patients had been screened for hepatitis B with variable management plans therefore new internal guidelines were implemented. This study describes the uptake of hepatitis B screening and management of patients with hepatitis B and HIV con-infection after the implementation. Methods: Data included for all HIV positive patients in care at IDI by October 2015. Data are expressed as median with interquartile range (IQR) and percentages were compared using the chi square test. Statistical analysis was performed using STATA version 13. The IDI laboratory upper limit of normal for alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (ASTs) was 40 IU/ml. Results: Number of hepatitis B screening tests increased from 800 by 2012 to 1400 in 2015. By 2015 8042/8604(93.5%) patients had been screened for hepatitis B. Overall hepatitis B positive were 359 (4.6%). 166 (81.4%) hepatitis B positives were switched to a tenofovir (TDF) containing regimen. Conclusion: Our study confirms the importance of screening for hepatitis B and of using ART regimens containing tenofovir in hepatitis B co-infected patients. Whilst our program has made improvements in care still 18.6% of patients with hepatitis B were not on tenofovir regimens, 98.1% had no hepatitis B viral loads done. Clinicians should recognize the potential for hepatitis B in HIV positive patients and the importance of early diagnosis and treatment to ensure optimal management of cases and follow up.

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