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2.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 173, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34584599

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), first appearing in Wuhan, China, and later declared as a pandemic, has caused serious morbidity and mortality worldwide. Severe cases usually present with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), pneumonia, acute kidney injury (AKI), liver damage, or septic shock. However, with recent advances in severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) research, the virus´s effect on cardiac tissues has become evident. Reportedly, an increased number of COVID-19 patients manifested serious cardiac complications such as heart failure, increased troponin, and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide levels (NT-proBNP), cardiomyopathies, and myocarditis. These cardiac complications initially present as chest tightness, chest pain, and heart palpitations. Diagnostic investigations such as telemetry, electrocardiogram (ECG), cardiac biomarkers (troponin, NT-proBNP), and inflammatory markers (D-dimer, fibrinogen, PT, PTT), must be performed according to the patient´s condition. The best available options for treatment are the provision of supportive care, anti-viral therapy, hemodynamic monitoring, IL-6 blockers, statins, thrombolytic, and anti-hypertensive drugs. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) healthcare workers should be well-informed about the evolving research regarding COVID-19 and approach as a multi-disciplinary team to devise effective strategies for challenging situations to reduce cardiac complications.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Cardiopatias/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Teste para COVID-19 , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico , Cardiopatias/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração
3.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 71(5): 1521, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091652

Assuntos
Capsicum , Humanos
5.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 71(3): 810-815, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34057926

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether C-reactive protein and liver function tests can serve as severity markers for dengue fever. METHODS: The cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015-16 in Karachi and comprised patients with dengue fever visiting a tertiary care hospital. World Health Organisation classifications 1997 and 2009 were used to categorise patients according to clinical signs and symptoms. Receiver Operating Characteristics curve was used to determine discriminative ability and optimum cut-off value of biochemical markers. Comparisons were done through one-way analysis of variance using SPSS 17. RESULTS: Of the 218 patients, 133(61%) were males and 85(39%) were females. The overall mean age was 35.07±15.96 years. Levels of C-reactive protein and total bilirubin were significantly higher for dengue haemorrhagic fever compared to dengue fever; dengue shock syndrome compared to dengue fever; dengue shock syndrome compared to dengue haemorrhagic fever; and dengue shock syndrome compared to dengue fever / dengue haemorrhagic fever (p<0.05 each). Levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase were significantly higher for dengue shock syndrome compared to dengue fever; dengue shock syndrome compared to dengue haemorrhagic fever; and dengue shock syndrome compared to dengue fever / dengue haemorrhagic fever (p<0.05 each). Levels of C-reactive protein, total bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatise in patients with severe dengue were significantly higher compared to non-severe dengue. CONCLUSIONS: C-reactive protein and liver function tests were found to be effective biochemical markers in assessing dengue fever severity.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa , Dengue , Adulto , Aspartato Aminotransferases , Estudos Transversais , Dengue/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Função Hepática , Masculino
6.
Rev Cardiovasc Med ; 22(1): 83-95, 2021 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33792250

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic has forced hospitals to prioritize COVID-19 patients, restrict resources, and cancel all non-urgent elective cardiac procedures. Clinical visits have only been facilitated for emergency purposes. Fewer patients have been admitted to the hospital for both ST-segment elevation myocardial infarctions (STEMI) and non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarctions (NSTEMI) and a profound decrease in heart failure services has been reported. A similar reduction in the patient presentation is seen for ischemic heart disease, decompensated heart failure, and endocarditis. Cardiovascular services, including catheterization, primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI), cardiac investigations such as electrocardiograms (ECGs), exercise tolerance test (ETT), dobutamine stress test, computed tomography (CT) angiography, transesophageal echocardiography (TOE) have been reported to have declined and performed on a priority basis. The long-term implications of this decline have been discussed with major concerns of severe cardiac complications and vulnerabilities in cardiac patients. The pandemic has also had psychological impacts on patients causing them to avoid seeking medical help. This review discusses the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the provision of various cardiology services and aims to provide strategies to restore cardiovascular services including structural changes in the hospital to make up for the reduced staff personnel, the use of personal protective equipment in healthcare workers, and provides alternatives for high-risk cardiac imaging, cardiac interventions, and procedures. Implementation of the triage system, risk assessment scores, and telemedicine services in patients and their adaptation to the cardiovascular department have been discussed.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Cardiologia/organização & administração , Atenção à Saúde/organização & administração , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/transmissão , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardiovasculares , Humanos , Telemedicina , Triagem
8.
J Ethn Subst Abuse ; 20(3): 471-489, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566085

RESUMO

Several studies have been carried out regarding the awareness and usage of cannabis around the world, especially in developed countries. Pakistan ranks amongst the top nations in regards to cannabis consumption. However, the amount of literature shedding light on people's perception, knowledge and practices are scarce. Therefore, the authors sought to establish a baseline study to ignite the discussion on the possibility of cannabis' induction in the medical field in Pakistan, and additionally provide a foundation for further research. The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of understanding and consumption practices in Karachi with respondents from different socio-economic backgrounds, age groups and gender regarding cannabis use and assessing the awareness of the general population. The null hypothesis is that the usage of cannabis does not have a significant correlation with age, gender, or socio-economic status of a population. We conducted a cross-sectional study in November 2018 using convenience sampling and interviewed 518 individuals for their gender, age, and socio-economic status, to determine their knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding cannabis usage. The participants were questioned about their knowledge and its source. Attitudes were judged using three and five-point Likert scales while questions regarding practices centered upon the past and current usage of cannabis. One-way analysis of variance and chi-square tests were used as the primary statistical tests. Out of the 518 people who responded, more than half of the respondents were males (n = 340, 65.6%). The majority was familiar with the use of cannabis (n = 514, 99.2%), and the different ways in which it is consumed (n = 435, 84%). About one-third of the participants happened to consume cannabis (n = 168, 32.4%), and a quarter mentioned recreational use/curiosity as the principal reason (n = 134, 25.9%). Majority of the respondents agreed upon the harmful effects of consuming cannabis (n = 364, 70.3%), while when compared to other inimical drugs, half of them believed it to be less harmful (n = 259, 50%). Besides, an overwhelming majority stated, that if they were to consume cannabis, they would not consider taking permission from their parents/guardians (n = 441, 85.2%). Concerning legality, three-fifths of the participants chose cannabis to remain illegal in Pakistan (n = 307, 59.3%) and, for not consuming/quitting cannabis, the primary reason chosen was its harmful consequences (n = 210, 40.5%). Our study revealed that knowledge about usage of cannabis still requires a great deal of attention. Only individuals from higher socio-economic backgrounds have a positive attitude towards cannabis usage and are aware of it. There is an urgent need for awareness programs that especially reach out to the lower socio-economic status population, who otherwise do not have access to essential information resources. We also found that males were more likely to be consumers and to have more knowledge about cannabis, therefore, it is equally important to educate females about this topic so that an informed discussion about cannabis use and its medical benefits can be generated in Pakistan.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Estudos Transversais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Paquistão , Percepção , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Cureus ; 12(9): e10487, 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33083187

RESUMO

Background Since the outbreak, healthcare systems across the globe are overcrowded with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patients. To sustain the response towards the pandemic, many hospitals have adapted to virtual healthcare and telemedicine. Google™ has become the most widely used search engine over the years. Google Trends™ can be used to depict the public interest over a certain topic. The output of the Google Trends™ is displayed as relative search volume (RSV) which is the proportionate search volume regarding a specific topic comparative to the total search volume in a specific time and region. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the daily reported number of new COVID-19 cases and deaths and the corresponding changes in Google Trends™ RSV of telehealth over six months. Methods A retrospective study was conducted from January 21, 2020 to July 21, 2020. About 17 countries that reported the total number of cases greater than 200,000 in the situation report of July 21, 2020 were selected to be a part of this study. The daily reported new cases and deaths globally and of the selected countries were extracted from the World Health Organization (WHO) situation reports. The combination of keywords used for obtaining the RSV data through Google Trends™ was "telehealth", "telemedicine", "mHealth", and "eHealth". These words were used with the "+" feature of Google Trends™ with "1/21/2020 to 7/21/2020" as time range, "all categories" for the category, and "web search" for the type of search. The worldwide RSV as well as the RSVs of the selected countries were obtained from the Google Trends™ website. Spearman's correlation coefficient (ρ) was used to determine the strength of the relationship between new cases or deaths and RSVs related to telehealth. Results A positive fair correlation was established between the global interest in telehealth and the new cases (ρ=0.307, p-value<0.001) and deaths (ρ=0.469, p-value<0.001) reported worldwide. The United States of America (USA), India, and Bangladesh were found to have a positive fair correlation between the public interest regarding telehealth and the emerging new COVID-19 cases and deaths. The United Kingdom (UK) and Italy demonstrated a positive poor correlation between the rising new cases or deaths and RSV. Similar statistics were noted for the daily new cases of Chile. For Turkey, a positive fair correlation between new deaths and RSV while a positive poor correlation between new cases and RSV was observed. No significant correlation was observed for the rest of the selected countries. Conclusion This study highlights the steadily rising public interest in telehealth during the COVID-19 pandemic. Telemedicine can provide the necessary remote consultation and healthcare for patients in the current situation. However, previous studies have shown that the majority of the countries are inadequately equipped for the digitization of the healthcare system. Therefore, it has become necessary to incorporate telemedicine into the healthcare system to combat any possible pandemic in the future.

13.
Infez Med ; 28(3): 332-345, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920568

RESUMO

Marburg Virus (MARV), along with the Ebola virus, belongs to the family of Filovirus and is cause of a lethal and severely affecting hemorrhagic fever. The Marburgvirus genus includes two viruses: MARV and Ravn. MARV has been recognized as one of utmost importance by the World Health Organization (WHO). The case fatality rate of the virus ranges from 24.0 to 88.0% which demonstrates its lethal nature and the need for its widespread information. The first case of the Marburgvirus disease (MARD) was reported in 1967 when lab personnel working with African green monkeys got infected in Germany and Serbia simultaneously. Following the initial case, many more outbreaks occurred around the world such as Uganda, Angola, Congo, Kenya and even in the United States in 2008. It was soon found out that the MARV was a zoonotic virus and mainly contracted from animal-to-human contact and further transmitted via human-to-human contact. The Egyptian fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus) is known to be one of the significant sources of the infection and tourists visiting caves inhabited by these bats or workers accessing mines, populated by the bats, are at an increased risk of contracting the illness. The incubation period ranges from 2-21 days and the clinical outcome can be broken down into three phases: initial generalized phase (day 1-4), early organ phase (day 5 to 13) and either a late organ/convalescence phase (day 13 onwards). Furthermore, the treatment of MARD is solely based on supportive care. Much has been investigated in over the past half-century of the initial infection but only a few treatment options show promising results. In addition, special precaution is advised whilst handling the patient or the biospecimens. Disease-modifying agents and inhibitors of viral replications show constructive outcomes. It is crucial to identify the host of the virus and educate the populations that are greatly at risk of the disease. While much is being investigated to devise a vaccine, it is important to educate Health Care Workers (HCWs) and close contacts facing the illness. Stopping the transmission remains the best measure that can be taken.


Assuntos
Doença do Vírus de Marburg , Zoonoses Virais , Animais , Humanos , Doença do Vírus de Marburg/diagnóstico , Doença do Vírus de Marburg/epidemiologia , Doença do Vírus de Marburg/terapia , Doença do Vírus de Marburg/transmissão , Zoonoses Virais/diagnóstico , Zoonoses Virais/epidemiologia , Zoonoses Virais/terapia , Zoonoses Virais/transmissão
14.
Am Heart J ; 230: 71-81, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941789

RESUMO

Cardiovascular randomized controlled trials (RCTs) typically set composite end points as the primary outcome to enhance statistical power. However, influence of individual component end points on overall composite outcomes remains understudied. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE for RCTs published in 6 high-impact journals (The Lancet, the New England Journal of Medicine, Journal of the American Medical Association, Circulation, Journal of the American College of Cardiology and the European Heart Journal) from 2011 to 2017. Two-armed, parallel-design cardiovascular RCTs which reported composite outcomes were included. All-cause or cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction, heart failure, and stroke were deemed "hard" end points, whereas hospitalization, angina, and revascularization were identified as "soft" end points. Type of outcome (primary or secondary), event rates in treatment and control groups for the composite outcome and of its components according to predefined criteria. RESULTS: Of the 45.8% (316/689) cardiovascular RCTs which used a composite outcome, 79.4% set the composite as the primary outcome. Death was the most common component (89.8%) followed by myocardial infarction (66.1%). About 80% of the trials reported complete data for each component. One hundred forty-seven trials (46.5%) incorporated a "soft" end point as part of their composite. Death contributed the least to the estimate of effects (R2 change = 0.005) of the composite, whereas revascularization contributed the most (R2 change = 0.423). CONCLUSIONS: Cardiovascular RCTs frequently use composite end points, which include "soft" end points, as components in nearly 50% of studies. Higher event rates in composite end points may create a misleading interpretation of treatment impact due to large contributions from end points with less clinical significance.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Angina Pectoris/epidemiologia , Angina Pectoris/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Estudos Transversais , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Fator de Impacto de Revistas , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Revascularização Miocárdica/estatística & dados numéricos , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto , Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Infez Med ; 28(2): 212-222, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32487785

RESUMO

Ebola Virus Disease (EVD), also known as Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever (EHF), initially emerged over 40 years ago in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Endemic to Africa, outbreaks have been recorded in six African countries since its detection in 1976. Fruit bats are believed to be the natural hosts of Ebola viruses (EBoV), with humans and other mammals serving as accidental hosts. Transmission of EBoV has been reported in various ways, including human to human transmission through close contact with blood and bodily fluids. The virus has an incubation period ranging from two to twenty-one days, followed by a multitude of clinical manifestations such as the sudden onset of high fever, chills and myalgia depicting a flu-like syndrome. It is usually diagnosed based on several clinical symptoms such as the sudden onset of illness, high fevers for less than three weeks, and at least two hemorrhagic symptoms despite no predisposing factors. This generally provides enough evidence for clinicians to consider EHF and begin supportive treatment until the virus is confirmed through laboratory findings. Management of patients involves supportive care such as maintaining fluid along with electrolyte balance, blood pressure and oxygen saturation. This also includes treating complications arising from secondary infections. The main options include: prophylactic strategies, anti-viral therapy for EVD, immunotherapies, vaccines, and ZMapp. Finally, the key to managing EBoV epidemics is to stop the transmission of disease in the most severely affected population, as prevention has become of utmost importance to alleviate the significant physical and economic burden.


Assuntos
Doença pelo Vírus Ebola , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/diagnóstico , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/terapia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/virologia , Humanos
16.
Infez Med ; 28(2): 231-237, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32487788

RESUMO

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is currently a global threat with an estimated 38.6 million people affected with HIV worldwide. According to the Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), since 2004 the total number of cases of HIV in Pakistan has risen from 2700 to 130,000. In light of the rising burden of HIV/AIDS across the country, it is essential that medical students possess appropriate knowledge regarding the subject. Therefore, we aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of medical students towards HIV patients in their pre-clinical and post-clinical years in Karachi, Pakistan. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 518 pre-clinical (year 1 and 2) and post-clinical (year 3, 4, and 5) medical students from two medical schools in Karachi during the months of October - December 2019. Similar numbers of participants were taken from each year. Data were analyzed using SPSS. Descriptive statistics were used to report frequencies and proportions for categorical responses. Chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used as the primary statistical tests. About 55% of participants were female, and most belonged to the Islamic faith. More than half of the participants learned about HIV from books (315/518), followed by medical personnel (287/518). A quarter (134/518) of the participants believed HIV could be transmitted by sharing saliva, more than half of whom consisted of pre-clinical year students. Over half the participants (60.4%) knew that there was a difference between HIV and AIDs, most of whom belonged to the 5th year group. When detecting HIV, only about 30% of participants knew about indirect fluorescent antibody. Regarding attitudes, one-third would not be friends with a person diagnosed with HIV/AIDS. As a medical officer, a large majority (76.6%; n=397/518) of the participants would be anxious or somewhat anxious. Two-thirds believed that treating an HIV patient can make them contract HIV, and a majority of participants (333/518) did not feel adequately prepared to deal with the psycho-social problems of an HIV/AIDS patient. Finally, regarding practice, only one-third of the participants were willing to treat an HIV/AIDS patient, most of whom belonged to the pre-clinical 2nd year group and fewer to the post-clinical 3rd year group. Knowledge amongst medical students regarding HIV/AIDS was generally high, although there are some knowledge inadequacies which require more emphasis in the medical school curriculum. However, contrasting with the level of knowledge, in terms of attitude the majority were anxious or somewhat anxious when treating an HIV patient, and only one-third were willing to treat a patient with HIV.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Paquistão , Autorrelato
19.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 12(12): e005755, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31822121

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Efficacy of an intervention is commonly evaluated using P values, in addition to effect size measures such as absolute risk reduction, relative risk reduction, and numbers needed to treat. However, these measures are not always intuitive to clinicians. The fragility index (FI) is a more intuitive number that can facilitate interpretation but can only be used with binary outcomes. FI is the minimum number of patients who must be moved from the nonevent group to the event group to turn a significant result nonsignificant. In this retrospective analysis, we assessed the robustness of cardiovascular randomized controlled trials (RCTs), which report a positive (statistically significant) primary outcome by using the FI. METHODS AND RESULTS: We searched Medline from 2007 to 2017 to identify cardiovascular RCTs published in 6 high impact journals (The Lancet, New England Journal of Medicine, Journal of the American Medical Association, Circulation, Journal of the American College of Cardiology and European Heart Journal). Only RCTs with sample sizes >500 and a 2-by-2 factorial design or dichotomous primary outcomes were selected. FI was calculated using a defined approach. Among the cohort of 123 RCTs that met inclusion criteria, median FI was 13 (interquartile range, 5-26). In 28 trials (22.8%), FI ranged between 1 and 4. In 37 trials (30.1%), number of patients lost to follow-up was higher than the FI. Pharmaceutical interventions had higher FI compared with other interventions, FI=19 (7-52; P=0.002). Median FI varied according to subspecialty (electrophysiology=2; heart failure=11; interventional cardiology=8; P=0.020) and multiregional RCTs had higher FI=22 (12-53.25; P=0.023). FI did not differ based on risk of bias indicators, funding, or publication year. CONCLUSIONS: Considerable variations in FI were observed among cardiovascular trials, suggesting the need for careful interpretation of results, particularly when number of patients lost to follow-up exceeds FI.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Modelos Estatísticos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Projetos de Pesquisa/estatística & dados numéricos , Tamanho da Amostra , Viés , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Humanos , Perda de Seguimento , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Resultado do Tratamento
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