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1.
Int J Reprod Med ; 2020: 8053939, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32685438

RESUMO

Background: Hookworm infection in expectant mothers has adverse health effects on both the mothers and their unborn babies. Foetal effects are known to include intrauterine growth retardation and physical and mental growth retardation, while the mothers may develop anemia which could potentially result in death. Unfortunately, little is known about factors that may predispose a pregnant woman to infection by hookworm. In this study, we strived to determine not only the prevalence of hookworm infection among pregnant women attending their first antenatal visit during the current pregnancy in a local health center in northern Uganda but also factors that might predispose them to hookworm infection. Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 346 pregnant women from Ogur Health Center IV located in Lira district, northern Uganda. Stool samples were collected from each study participant and analyzed for hookworms. The independent variables listed in this study (participant's sociodemographic characteristics, preconception care, and sanitation factors) were obtained using a structured questionnaire. Data analysis, including calculation of adjusted ratios, was performed using STATA software (version 14). Results: Prevalence of hookworm infection among pregnant women who attended their first antenatal visit at Ogur Health Center IV was 11% (n = 38). After controlling for confounders, factors found to be significantly associated with this infection among pregnant women here were gardening barefooted (adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 3.4; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.6 to 7.5; P < 0.001) and fetching unsafe water shared with animals for domestic uses (AOR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.3 to 6.2; P value of 0.002). Conclusion: Hookworm infection among pregnant women at Ogur Health Center IV in Lira district, at 11%, is a public health concern and significantly associated with barefoot gardening and fetching water from unsafe sources shared with animals. We, therefore, recommend that special emphasis during routine prenatal health education be placed on the use of protective footwear during farming and fetching water for domestic use from protected safe sources. Author Summary. Hookworm infection is a parasitic condition that more often goes unnoticed, yet it presents immense detrimental effects, especially to pregnant women and their unborn children. It is a chronic disease with accruing effects of blood depletion resulting in anemia. Anemia is, by far, one of the major causes of maternal morbidity and mortality in Uganda. Pregnant women are more prone to hookworm infection by virtue of their compromised immunity, secondary to the physiological process of pregnancy. We demonstrated here that hookworm infection still exists among pregnant women in Uganda. We also showed that gardening barefooted and fetching water for domestic uses from unsafe sources shared with animals were major factors associated with this helminthic infection. This study provides evidence necessary to influence decision making on prevention of hookworm infection in the study area.

2.
J Parasitol Res ; 2019: 6594212, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30956813

RESUMO

Protein N-terminal acetylation is a co- and posttranslational modification, conserved among eukaryotes. It determines the functional fate of many proteins including their stability, complex formation, and subcellular localization. N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs) transfer an acetyl group to the N-termini of proteins, and the major NATs in yeast and humans are NatA, NatB, and NatC. In this study, we characterized the Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) NatC and NatA protein complexes, each consisting of one catalytic subunit and predicted auxiliary subunits. The proteins were found to be expressed in the three main life cycle stages of the parasite, formed stable complexes in vivo, and partially cosedimented with the ribosome in agreement with a cotranslational function. An in vitro acetylation assay clearly demonstrated that the acetylated substrates of the NatC catalytic subunit from T. cruzi were similar to those of yeast and human NatC, suggesting evolutionary conservation of function. An RNAi knockdown of the Trypanosoma brucei (T. brucei) NatC catalytic subunit indicated that reduced NatC-mediated N-terminal acetylation of target proteins reduces parasite growth.

3.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 235, 2019 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31014391

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum multi-drug resistant gene-1 (Pfmdr-1) N86Y and D1246Y genotypes among febrile malaria outpatients attending Lira Regional Referral Hospital, Uganda. RESULTS: Overall, 92.3% (n = 48/52) and 90% (n = 45/50) of the parasites detected carried the wild type alleles 1246D and N86, respectively. Only 7.7% (n = 4/52) and 10% (n = 5/50) of these P. falciparum isolates carried the Pfmdr-1 mutant alleles 1246Y and 86Y, respectively. Our results show high prevalence of wild type alleles N86 and D1246 in P. falciparum isolates from Lira Regional Referral Hospital, which could translate to a decreased sensitivity to artemether-lumefantrine. Continued monitoring of prevalence of single nucleotide polymorphisms is warranted to timely inform malaria treatment policies and guidelines.


Assuntos
Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Febre/epidemiologia , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Proteínas Associadas à Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/genética , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Alelos , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Combinação Arteméter e Lumefantrina/uso terapêutico , Febre/tratamento farmacológico , Febre/parasitologia , Expressão Gênica , Genótipo , Hospitais , Humanos , Malária Falciparum/tratamento farmacológico , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasmodium falciparum/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência , Uganda/epidemiologia
4.
BMC Genomics ; 13: 531, 2012 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23035642

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei is a bat-associated parasite of the subgenus Schizotrypanum and it is regarded as a T. cruzi subspecies. Here we report a draft genome sequence of T. c. marinkellei and comparison with T. c. cruzi. Our aims were to identify unique sequences and genomic features, which may relate to their distinct niches. RESULTS: The T. c. marinkellei genome was found to be ~11% smaller than that of the human-derived parasite T. c. cruzi Sylvio X10. The genome size difference was attributed to copy number variation of coding and non-coding sequences. The sequence divergence in coding regions was ~7.5% between T. c. marinkellei and T. c. cruzi Sylvio X10. A unique acetyltransferase gene was identified in T. c. marinkellei, representing an example of a horizontal gene transfer from eukaryote to eukaryote. Six of eight examined gene families were expanded in T. c. cruzi Sylvio X10. The DGF gene family was expanded in T. c. marinkellei. T. c. cruzi Sylvio X10 contained ~1.5 fold more sequences related to VIPER and L1Tc elements. Experimental infections of mammalian cell lines indicated that T. c. marinkellei has the capacity to invade non-bat cells and undergo intracellular replication. CONCLUSIONS: Several unique sequences were identified in the comparison, including a potential subspecies-specific gene acquisition in T. c. marinkellei. The identified differences reflect the distinct evolutionary trajectories of these parasites and represent targets for functional investigation.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/parasitologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/genética , Trypanosoma/genética , Acetiltransferases/genética , Animais , Doença de Chagas/parasitologia , Biologia Computacional , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Ligação Genética , Humanos , Retroelementos/genética , Trypanosoma/classificação , Trypanosoma cruzi/classificação
5.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 5(3): e984, 2011 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21408126

RESUMO

Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of Chagas disease, which affects more than 9 million people in Latin America. We have generated a draft genome sequence of the TcI strain Sylvio X10/1 and compared it to the TcVI reference strain CL Brener to identify lineage-specific features. We found virtually no differences in the core gene content of CL Brener and Sylvio X10/1 by presence/absence analysis, but 6 open reading frames from CL Brener were missing in Sylvio X10/1. Several multicopy gene families, including DGF, mucin, MASP and GP63 were found to contain substantially fewer genes in Sylvio X10/1, based on sequence read estimations. 1,861 small insertion-deletion events and 77,349 nucleotide differences, 23% of which were non-synonymous and associated with radical amino acid changes, further distinguish these two genomes. There were 336 genes indicated as under positive selection, 145 unique to T. cruzi in comparison to T. brucei and Leishmania. This study provides a framework for further comparative analyses of two major T. cruzi lineages and also highlights the need for sequencing more strains to understand fully the genomic composition of this parasite.


Assuntos
DNA de Protozoário/genética , Genoma de Protozoário , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Trypanosoma cruzi/genética , DNA de Protozoário/química , Humanos , América Latina , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mutagênese Insercional , Deleção de Sequência , Homologia de Sequência , Sintenia
6.
Mol Biochem Parasitol ; 152(2): 123-31, 2007 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17270289

RESUMO

Trypanosomatids are widespread parasites that cause three major tropical diseases. In trypanosomatids, as in most other organisms, acetylation is a common protein modification that is important in multiple, diverse processes. This paper describes a new member of the Trypanosoma cruzi acetyltransferase family. The gene is single copy and orthologs are also present in the other two sequenced trypanosomatids, Trypanosoma brucei and Leishmania major. This protein (TcAT-1) has the essential motifs present in members of the GCN5-related acetyltransferase (GNAT) family, as well as an additional motif also found in some enzymes from plant and animal species. The protein is evolutionarily more closely related to this group of enzymes than to histone acetyltransferases. The native protein has a cytosolic cellular location and is present in all three life-cycle stages of the parasite. The recombinant protein was shown to have autoacetylation enzymatic activity.


Assuntos
Acetiltransferases/química , Trypanosoma cruzi/enzimologia , Acetilação , Acetiltransferases/genética , Acetiltransferases/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Genes de Protozoários , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Poliadenilação , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Análise de Sequência de Proteína , Trypanosoma cruzi/genética , Trypanosoma cruzi/metabolismo
7.
Mol Biochem Parasitol ; 147(1): 30-8, 2006 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16481054

RESUMO

As a part of the Trypanosoma cruzi genome project, 239 genetic markers were hybridised to PFGE separated DNA from T. cruzi, in order to determine the number and size of chromosomes and to aid the assembly of the genome sequence. We used three strains, T. cruzi IIe CL Brener (the genome project reference strain) and two T. cruzi I strains, Sylvio X10/7 and CAI/72, to perform a comparative study of their karyotypes and to determine marker linkage. A densitometry analysis of the separations estimated the total chromosome numbers to be 55 in CL Brener and 57 in the two other strains. In all, 45 markers hybridised to single chromosomal bands and 103 markers to two bands in CL Brener, while the number of markers in Sylvio X10/7 and CAI/72 were 102/68 and 61/105, respectively. Size differences between homologous chromosomes were often large, up to 1900 kb (173%). The average difference was 36% for CL Brener and 23.5% for the T. cruzi I strains. Larger differences in CL Brener are consistent with a recent hybrid origin. Forty markers distributed into 15 linkage groups were found to identify specific chromosomes or chromosomes pairs. While the same markers are generally linked in all three strains, the sizes of the chromosomes vary extensively, indicating large chromosomal rearrangements. These data provide valuable information for the finishing of the CL Brener genome sequence.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Genoma de Protozoário/genética , Trypanosoma cruzi/genética , Animais , Bandeamento Cromossômico , DNA Complementar/genética , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado , Marcadores Genéticos , Cariotipagem , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Trypanosoma cruzi/classificação
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