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1.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 110(4): 364-370, Apr. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-888054

RESUMO

Abstract Background: Heart failure (HF) is a syndrome, whose advanced forms have a poor prognosis, which is aggravated by the presence of comorbidities. Objective: We assessed the impact of infection in patients with decompensated HF admitted to a tertiary university-affiliated hospital in the city of São Paulo. Methods: This study assessed 260 patients consecutively admitted to our unit because of decompensated HF. The presence of infection and other morbidities was assessed, as were in-hospital mortality and outcome after discharge. The chance of death was estimated by univariate logistic regression analysis of the variables studied. The significance level adopted was P < 0.05. Results: Of the patients studied, 54.2% were of the male sex, and the mean age ± SD was 66.1 ± 12.7 years. During hospitalization, 119 patients (45.8%) had infection: 88 (33.8%) being diagnosed with pulmonary infection and 39 patients (15.0%), with urinary infection. During hospitalization, 56 patients (21.5%) died, and, after discharge, 36 patients (17.6%). During hospitalization, 26.9% of the patients with infection died vs 17% of those without infection (p = 0.05). However, after discharge, mortality was lower in the group that had infection: 11.5% vs 22.2% (p = 0.046). Conclusions: Infection is a frequent morbidity among patients with HF admitted for compensation of the condition, and those with infection show higher in-hospital mortality. However, those patients who initially had infection and survived had a better outcome after discharge.


Resumo Fundamento: A insuficiência cardíaca (IC) é uma síndrome cujas formas avançadas têm mau prognóstico, que é mais agravado pela presença de comorbidades. Objetivo: Avaliamos o impacto da infecção em pacientes com IC descompensada que internaram em hospital universitário terciário de São Paulo. Métodos: Estudamos 260 pacientes consecutivos que internaram em nossa unidade com IC descompensada. Avaliamos a presença de infecção e de outras morbidades. Avaliaram-se mortalidade hospitalar e evolução após a alta. A chance de óbito foi estimada pela análise de regressão logística univariada para as variáveis estudadas. Considerou-se P < 0,05 significativo. Resultados: Dos pacientes estudados, 54,2% eram homens, sendo a idade média ± DP de 66,1 ± 12,7 anos. Durante a internação, 119 pacientes (45,8%) apresentaram infecção: 88 (33,8%) tiveram diagnóstico de infecção pulmonar e 39 (15%), de infecção urinária. A mortalidade hospitalar ocorreu em 56 pacientes (21,5%) e, após a alta, 36 pacientes (17,6%) morreram no seguimento. Durante a internação, 26,9% do grupo com infecção morreu vs 17% do grupo sem infecção (p = 0,05). Entretanto, após a alta, a mortalidade foi menor no grupo com infecção: 11,5% vs 22,2% (p = 0,046). Conclusões: Infecção é uma comorbidade frequente entre os pacientes com IC internados para compensação, causando um aumento da mortalidade durante a hospitalização. Entretanto, após a alta, os pacientes inicialmente com infecção apresentaram melhor evolução.

2.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 110(4): 364-370, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29538504

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is a syndrome, whose advanced forms have a poor prognosis, which is aggravated by the presence of comorbidities. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the impact of infection in patients with decompensated HF admitted to a tertiary university-affiliated hospital in the city of São Paulo. METHODS: This study assessed 260 patients consecutively admitted to our unit because of decompensated HF. The presence of infection and other morbidities was assessed, as were in-hospital mortality and outcome after discharge. The chance of death was estimated by univariate logistic regression analysis of the variables studied. The significance level adopted was P < 0.05. RESULTS: Of the patients studied, 54.2% were of the male sex, and the mean age ± SD was 66.1 ± 12.7 years. During hospitalization, 119 patients (45.8%) had infection: 88 (33.8%) being diagnosed with pulmonary infection and 39 patients (15.0%), with urinary infection. During hospitalization, 56 patients (21.5%) died, and, after discharge, 36 patients (17.6%). During hospitalization, 26.9% of the patients with infection died vs 17% of those without infection (p = 0.05). However, after discharge, mortality was lower in the group that had infection: 11.5% vs 22.2% (p = 0.046). CONCLUSIONS: Infection is a frequent morbidity among patients with HF admitted for compensation of the condition, and those with infection show higher in-hospital mortality. However, those patients who initially had infection and survived had a better outcome after discharge.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Pneumonia/mortalidade , Infecções Urinárias/mortalidade , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Hospitalização , Hospitais Universitários/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia/complicações , Pneumonia/fisiopatologia , Prognóstico , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções Urinárias/complicações , Infecções Urinárias/fisiopatologia
4.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 102(5 Suppl 1): 1-41, 2014 05.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27223869
5.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 22(3,supl.A): 20-24, jul.-set. 2012. graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-682786

RESUMO

Na insuficiência cardíaca descompensada há aumento de gasto energético basal e, frequentemente, redução do consumo alimentar, associado também ao envelhecimento. Assim, o objetivo foi verificar o consumo alimentar e o gasto energético basal em idosos com insuficiência cardíaca. Métodos: Estudo transversal com pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca congestiva descompensada, divididos em idosos (> ou igual 60 anos) e não idosos (< 60 anos). O consumo alimentar foi medido pelo método direto de pesagem e o gasto energético basal foi medido pela calorimetria indireta e foi comparado com a fórmula de Harris-Benedict. A relação entre o gasto energético basal medido pela calorimetria indireta e Harris-Benedict foi feita pelo método de Bland-Altman, p<0,05. Resultados: Foram estudados 55 pacientes, 12 idosos, 43 não idodos. A fração de ejeção nos idosos foi 26% (DP=11,45) e nos adultos de 25,2% (DP=11,2%). O gasto energético basal pela calorimetria indireta foi de 1.165 (DP=447)kcal para os idosos e 1.367(DP=532)kcal para os adultos (p=0,236). Por Harris-Benedict, o gasto enerético basal foi de 1.248 (DO=160)kcal para os idosos e de 1.372 (DP=169)kcal para os adultos (p=0,028). O consumo alimentar dos idosos foi de 1.916(DP=643)kcal e dos adultos foi de 1.910(DP=638)kcal. Houve concordância entre o gasto energético basal pela calorimetria indireta e Harris-Benedict (p=0,001;R=0,435). Conclusão: O consumo alimentar e o gasto energético basal dos idosos foram semelhantes aos dos não idosos, Houve concordância e uma correlação positiva entre a calorimetria indireta e a fórmula de Harris-Benedict.


In decompensate heart failure there is an increased resting energy expenditure and often a reduction in food intake, also associated with aging. The objective was to assess food intake and resting energy expenditure in elderly patients with heart failure. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of patients with decompensate congestive heart failure and were divided into elderly (> ou igual 60 years) and nonelderly (< 60 years). Food intake was measured by the direct method of weighing and resting enegy expenditure was measured by indirect calorimetry and was compared with the Harris-Bendict formula. The relationship between resting energy expenditure measured by indirect calorimetry and Harris-Benedict was made by a Band-Altman, p<0,05. Results: We studied 55 patients, 12 elderly, 43 nonelderly. The ejection fraction in elderly patients was 26% (SD=11,4%) of adults and 25,2%(SD==11,2%). The resting energy expenditure by indirect calorimetry was 1.165(SD=447)kcal for the elderly and 1.372(SD=532)kcal for adults(p=0,236). For the Harris-Benedict resting energy expenditure was 1.248(SD=160)kcal for the elderly and 1.372(SD=169)kcal for adults(p=0,028). The food intake of elderly was 1.916(SD=643)kcal and adults was 1.910(SD=638)kcal. There was agreement between resting energy expenditure by indirect calorimetry and Harris-Benedict (p=0,001,R=0,435). Conclusions: Dietary intake and resting expenditure of the elderly were similar to those of non-elderly. There was agreement and a positive correlation between indirect clorimetry and the Harris-Benedict formula.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Desnutrição/patologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Terapia Nutricional/métodos , Calorimetria Indireta , Metabolismo Energético , Fatores de Tempo
6.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 99(3): 843-847, set. 2012. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-649257

RESUMO

FUNDAMENTO: A avaliação clínico-hemodinâmica à beira do leito e o uso do cateter de artéria pulmonar para a estimativa de dados hemodinâmicos têm sido utilizados na insuficiência cardíaca descompensada. Entretanto, não existem dados com o uso da monitorização hemodinâmica contínua não invasiva. OBJETIVO: Comparar as medidas obtidas com a monitorização hemodinâmica não invasiva com as invasivas em pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca descompensada e refratária ao tratamento. MÉTODOS: As medidas hemodinâmicas não invasivas foram obtidas através da monitorização contínua da pressão arterial sistêmica pelo modelo de ondas de pulso (modelflow) e foram comparadas com as medidas obtidas pela passagem do cateter de artéria pulmonar, simultaneamente. RESULTADOS: Foram realizadas 56 medidas em 14 pacientes estudados em dias e horários diferentes. O índice de correlação entre as medidas da pressão arterial sistólica foi de r = 0,26 (IC 95% = 0,00 a 0,49, p = 0,0492) e da diastólica de r = 0,50 (IC 95% = 0,27 a 0,67, p < 0,0001). A correlação foi de r = 0,55 (IC 95% = 0,34 a 0,71, p 0,0001) para o índice cardíaco e de r = 0,32 (IC 95% = 0,06 a 0,53, p = 0,0178) para a resistência vascular sistêmica. CONCLUSÃO: Houve correlação entre as medidas hemodinâmicas não invasivas quando comparadas às medidas do cateter de artéria pulmonar. A monitorização hemodinâmica contínua não invasiva pode ser útil para pacientes internados com insuficiência cardíaca descompensada.


BACKGROUND: The clinical and hemodynamic assessment at the bedside and the use of pulmonary artery catheter for the estimation of hemodynamic data have been used in decompensated heart failure. However, there are no data on the use of continuous noninvasive hemodynamic monitoring. OBJECTIVE: To compare the data obtained through noninvasive hemodynamic monitoring with invasive ones in patients with decompensated heart failure and refractory to treatment. METHODS: The non-invasive hemodynamic measurements were obtained through continuous monitoring of systemic blood pressure by the pulse wave model (Modelflow) and compared with measurements obtained by the passage of a pulmonary artery catheter, simultaneously. RESULTS: A total of 56 measurements were performed in 14 patients studied on different days and time periods. The correlation index between systolic blood pressure measurements was r = 0.26 (95% CI = 0.00 to 0.49, p = 0.0492) and diastolic ones, r = 0.50 (95% CI = 0.27 to 0.67, p <0.0001). The correlation was r = 0.55 (95% CI = 0.34 to 0.71, p <0.0001) for cardiac index and r = 0.32 (95% CI = 0.06 to 0 53, p = 0.0178) for systemic vascular resistance. CONCLUSION: There was a correlation between the hemodynamic measurements when compared to noninvasive pulmonary artery catheter measurements. The continuous noninvasive hemodynamic monitoring may be useful for hospitalized patients with decompensated heart failure.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Monitorização Fisiológica , Resistência Vascular
7.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 99(3): 843-7, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22836357

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The clinical and hemodynamic assessment at the bedside and the use of pulmonary artery catheter for the estimation of hemodynamic data have been used in decompensated heart failure. However, there are no data on the use of continuous noninvasive hemodynamic monitoring. OBJECTIVE: To compare the data obtained through noninvasive hemodynamic monitoring with invasive ones in patients with decompensated heart failure and refractory to treatment. METHODS: The non-invasive hemodynamic measurements were obtained through continuous monitoring of systemic blood pressure by the pulse wave model (Modelflow) and compared with measurements obtained by the passage of a pulmonary artery catheter, simultaneously. RESULTS: A total of 56 measurements were performed in 14 patients studied on different days and time periods. The correlation index between systolic blood pressure measurements was r = 0.26 (95% CI = 0.00 to 0.49, p = 0.0492) and diastolic ones, r = 0.50 (95% CI = 0.27 to 0.67, p <0.0001). The correlation was r = 0.55 (95% CI = 0.34 to 0.71, p <0.0001) for cardiac index and r = 0.32 (95% CI = 0.06 to 0 53, p = 0.0178) for systemic vascular resistance. CONCLUSION: There was a correlation between the hemodynamic measurements when compared to noninvasive pulmonary artery catheter measurements. The continuous noninvasive hemodynamic monitoring may be useful for hospitalized patients with decompensated heart failure.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Fisiológica , Resistência Vascular
8.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 66(2): 239-44, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21484040

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify predictors of low cardiac output and mortality in decompensated heart failure. INTRODUCTION: Introduction: Patients with decompensated heart failure have a high mortality rate, especially those patients with low cardiac output. However, this clinical presentation is uncommon, and its management is controversial. METHODS: We studied a cohort of 452 patients hospitalized with decompensated heart failure with an ejection fraction of <0.45. Patients underwent clinical-hemodynamic assessment and Chagas disease immunoenzymatic assay. Low cardiac output was defined according to L and C clinical-hemodynamic profiles. Multivariate analyses assessed clinical outcomes. P<0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: The mean age was 60.1 years; 245 (54.2%) patients were >60 years, and 64.6% were men. Low cardiac output was present in 281 (63%) patients on admission. Chagas disease was the cause of heart failure in 92 (20.4%) patients who had higher B type natriuretic peptide levels (1,978.38 vs. 1,697.64 pg/mL; P = 0.015). Predictors of low cardiac output were Chagas disease (RR: 3.655, P<0.001), lower ejection fraction (RR: 2.414, P<0.001), hyponatremia (RR: 1.618, P = 0.036), and renal dysfunction (RR: 1.916, P = 0.007). Elderly patients were inversely associated with low cardiac output (RR: 0.436, P = 0.001). Predictors of mortality were Chagas disease (RR: 2.286, P<0.001), ischemic etiology (RR: 1.449, P = 0.035), and low cardiac output (RR: 1.419, P = 0.047). CONCLUSIONS: In severe decompensated heart failure, predictors of low cardiac output are Chagas disease, lower ejection fraction, hyponatremia, and renal dysfunction. Additionally, Chagas disease patients have higher B type natriuretic peptide levels and a worse prognosis independent of lower ejection fraction.


Assuntos
Baixo Débito Cardíaco/etiologia , Doença de Chagas/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Baixo Débito Cardíaco/epidemiologia , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Hiponatremia/complicações , Nefropatias/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valores de Referência , Fatores de Risco
9.
Clinics ; 66(2): 239-244, 2011. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-581508

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify predictors of low cardiac output and mortality in decompensated heart failure. INTRODUCTION: Introduction: Patients with decompensated heart failure have a high mortality rate, especially those patients with low cardiac output. However, this clinical presentation is uncommon, and its management is controversial. METHODS: We studied a cohort of 452 patients hospitalized with decompensated heart failure with an ejection fraction of <0.45. Patients underwent clinical-hemodynamic assessment and Chagas disease immunoenzymatic assay. Low cardiac output was defined according to L and C clinical-hemodynamic profiles. Multivariate analyses assessed clinical outcomes. P<0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: The mean age was 60.1 years; 245 (54.2 percent) patients were >60 years, and 64.6 percent were men. Low cardiac output was present in 281 (63 percent) patients on admission. Chagas disease was the cause of heart failure in 92 (20.4 percent) patients who had higher B type natriuretic peptide levels (1,978.38 vs. 1,697.64 pg/mL; P = 0.015). Predictors of low cardiac output were Chagas disease (RR: 3.655, P<0.001), lower ejection fraction (RR: 2.414, P<0.001), hyponatremia (RR: 1.618, P = 0.036), and renal dysfunction (RR: 1.916, P = 0.007). Elderly patients were inversely associated with low cardiac output (RR: 0.436, P = 0.001). Predictors of mortality were Chagas disease (RR: 2.286, P<0.001), ischemic etiology (RR: 1.449, P = 0.035), and low cardiac output (RR: 1.419, P = 0.047). CONCLUSIONS: In severe decompensated heart failure, predictors of low cardiac output are Chagas disease, lower ejection fraction, hyponatremia, and renal dysfunction. Additionally, Chagas disease patients have higher B type natriuretic peptide levels and a worse prognosis independent of lower ejection fraction.


Assuntos
Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Baixo Débito Cardíaco/etiologia , Doença de Chagas/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Baixo Débito Cardíaco/epidemiologia , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Hiponatremia/complicações , Nefropatias/complicações , Valores de Referência , Fatores de Risco
10.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 95(6): 732-737, dez. 2010. graf, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-572196

RESUMO

FUNDAMENTO: A depressão é uma comorbidade frequente na insuficiência cardíaca (IC), mas os mecanismos relacionados a pior evolução de pacientes deprimidos com IC ainda não estão esclarecidos. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o papel da depressão grave na evolução dos pacientes com IC descompensada. MÉTODOS: Estudamos consecutivamente 43 pacientes com IC avançada e FE < 40,0 por cento, hospitalizados para compensação cardíaca. Os pacientes, após história e exame físico, foram submetidos a exames laboratoriais, incluindo a dosagem de BNP. Após o diagnóstico de depressão, aplicou-se a escala de Hamilton-D. Depressão grave foi definida por escore igual ou maior que 18. As variáveis clínico-laboratoriais, segundo a presença ou não de depressão grave, foram analisadas pela regressão logística. A curva ROC definiu o ponto de corte para o BNP. RESULTADOS: Depressão grave ou muito grave foi identificada em 24 (55,8 por cento) pacientes. Os pacientes deprimidos graves não diferiram dos não deprimidos quanto à idade, sexo e função renal, mas apresentaram menor comprometimento cardíaco (FE 23,4 ± 7,2 por cento vs 19,5 ± 5,2 por cento; p = 0,046) e valores mais elevados do BNP (2.582,8 ± 1.596,6 pg/ml vs 1.206,6 ± 587,0 pg/ml; p < 0,001). Entretanto, os pacientes com BNP maior que 1.100 pg/ml tiveram 12,0 (odds ratio [IC 95 por cento] = 2,61 - 55,26) vezes mais chance de desenvolverem quadros de depressão grave. CONCLUSÃO: Os pacientes com depressão grave apresentaram maior grau de estimulação neuro-hormonal, apesar do grau de disfunção ventricular ser menor. As alterações fisiopatológicas relacionadas à depressão, aumentando a estimulação neuro-hormonal e as citocinas, provavelmente contribuíram para essa maior manifestação clínica, mesmo em presença de menor dano cardíaco.


BACKGROUND: Depression is a common comorbidity in heart failure (HF); however, the mechanisms related to a poorer outcome of depressed patients with HF remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of severe depression in the outcome of patients with decompensated HF. METHODS: A total of 43 patients with advanced HF, EF < 40.0 percent, and hospitalized for cardiac compensation were consecutively studied. After history taking and physical examination, the patients underwent laboratory tests including BNP determination. After the diagnosis of depression was made, the Hamilton-D scale was applied. Severe depression was defined by a score equal to or greater than 18. The clinical and laboratory variables according to the presence or absence of severe depression were analyzed using logistic regression. The ROC curve defined the cut-off point for BNP. RESULTS: Severe or very severe depression was identified in 24 (55.8 percent) patients. Severely depressed patients did not differ from non-depressed patients as regards age, gender and renal function, but showed less cardiac impairment (EF 23.4 ± 7.2 percent vs 19.5 ± 5.2 percent; p = 0.046) and higher BNP levels (2,582.8 ± 1,596.6 pg/ml vs 1,206.6 ± 587.0 pg/ml; p < 0.001). However, patients with BNP levels higher than 1,100 pg/ml had a 12.0-fold higher chance (odds ratio [95 percent CI] = 2.61 - 55.26) of developing severe depression. CONCLUSION: Patients with severe depression showed a higher degree of neurohormonal stimulation despite their lower degree of ventricular dysfunction. The pathophysiological changes related to depression, leading to increased neurohormonal stimulation and cytokines, probably contributed to this more intense clinical manifestation even in the presence of less cardiac damage.


FUNDAMENTO: La depresión es una comorbilidad frecuente en la insuficiencia cardíaca (IC), pero los mecanismos relacionados a peor evolución de pacientes deprimidos con IC aun no están aclarados. OBJETIVO: Evaluar el papel de la depresión grave en la evolución de los pacientes con IC descompensada. MÉTODOS: Estudiamos consecutivamente 43 pacientes con IC avanzada y FE < 40,0 por ciento, hospitalizados para compensación cardíaca. Los pacientes, después de historia y examen físico, fueron sometidos a exámenes de laboratorio, incluyendo el dosaje de BNP. Después del diagnóstico de depresión, se aplicó la escala de Hamilton-D. Depresión grave fue definida por escore igual o mayor que 18. Las variables clínicas-de laboratorio, según la presencia o no de depresión grave, fueron analizadas por la regresión logística. La curva ROC definió el punto de corte para el BNP. RESULTADOS: Depresión grave o muy grave fue identificada en 24 (55,8 por ciento) pacientes. Los pacientes deprimidos graves no difirieron de los no deprimidos en cuanto a la edad, sexo y función renal, pero presentaron menor compromiso cardíaco (FE 23,4 ± 7,2 por ciento vs. 19,5 ± 5,2 por ciento; p = 0,046) y valores más elevados del BNP (2.582,8 ± 1.596,6 pg/ml vs. 1.206,6 ± 587,0 pg/ml; p < 0,001). Mientras tanto, los pacientes con BNP mayor que 1.100 pg/ml tuvieron 12,0 (odds ratio [IC 95 por ciento] = 2,61 - 55,26) veces más chance de desarrollar cuadros de depresión grave. CONCLUSÍON: Los pacientes con depresión grave presentaron mayor grado de estimulación neurohormonal, a pesar del grado de disfunción ventricular ser menor. Las alteraciones fisiopatológicas relacionadas a la depresión, aumentando la estimulación neurohormonal y las citocinas, probablemente contribuyeron a esa mayor manifestación clínica, aun en presencia de menor daño cardíaco.


Assuntos
Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Depressão/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Disfunção Ventricular/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Depressão/diagnóstico , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Valores de Referência
11.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 95(4): 530-535, out. 2010. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-568964

RESUMO

FUNDAMENTO: Há evidências de que a suspensão do betabloqueador (BB) na descompensação cardíaca pode aumentar mortalidade. A dobutamina (dobuta) é o inotrópico mais utilizado na descompensação, no entanto, BB e dobuta atuam no mesmo receptor com ações antagônicas, e o uso concomitante dos dois fármacos poderia dificultar a compensação. OBJETIVO: Avaliar se a manutenção do BB associado à dobuta dificulta a compensação cardíaca. MÉTODOS: Estudados 44 pacientes com FEVE < 45 por cento e necessidade de inotrópico. Divididos em três grupos de acordo com o uso de BB. Grupo A (n=8): os que não usavam BB na admissão; Grupo B (n=25): os que usavam BB, porém foi suspenso para iniciar a dobuta; Grupo C (n=11): os que usaram BB concomitante à dobuta. Para comparação dos grupos, foram utilizados os testes t de Student, exato de Fisher e qui-quadrado. Considerado significante p < 0,05. RESULTADOS: FEVE média de 23,8 ± 6,6 por cento. O tempo médio do uso de dobuta foi semelhante nos três grupos (p=0,35), e o uso concomitante da dobuta com o BB não aumentou o tempo de internação (com BB 20,36 ± 11,04 dias vs sem BB 28,37 ± 12,76 dias, p=NS). Na alta, a dose do BB foi superior nos pacientes em que a medicação não foi suspensa (35,8 ± 16,8 mg/dia vs 23,0 ± 16,7 mg/dia, p=0,004). CONCLUSÃO: A manutenção do BB associado à dobuta não aumentou o tempo de internação e não foi acompanhada de pior evolução. Os pacientes que não suspenderam o BB tiveram alta com doses mais elevadas do medicamento.


BACKGROUND: There is evidence that the suspension of betablockers (BB) in decompensated heart failure may increase mortality. Dobutamine (dobuta) is the most commonly used inotrope in decompensation, however, BB and dobuta act with the same receptor with antagonist actions, and concurrent use of both drugs could hinder compensation. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the maintenance of BB associated with dobuta difficults cardiac compensation. METHODS: We studied 44 patients with LVEF < 45 percent and the need for inotropics. Divided into three groups according to the use of BB. Group A (n=8): those who were not using BB at baseline; Group B (n=25): those who used BB, but was suspended to start dobuta; Group C (n = 11): those who used BB concomitant to dobuta. To compare groups, we used the Student t, Fisher exact and chi-square tests. Considered significant if p < 0.05. RESULTS: Mean LVEF 23.8 ± 6.6 percent. The average use of dobuta use was similar in all groups (p = 0.35), and concomitant use of dobutamine with BB did not increase the length of stay (BB 20.36 ± 11.04 days vs without BB 28.37 ± 12.76 days, p = NS). In the high dose, BB was higher in patients whose medication was not suspended (35.8 ± 16.8 mg/day vs 23.0 ± 16.7 mg/day, p = 0.004). CONCLUSION: Maintaining BB associated with dobutamine did not increase the length of hospitalization and was not associated with the worst outcome. Patients who did not suspend BB were discharged with higher doses of the drug.


FUNDAMENTO: Hay evidencias de que la suspensión del betabloqueante (BB) en la descompensación cardíaca puede aumentar la mortalidad. La dobutamina (dobuta) es el inotrópico más utilizado en la descompensación, mientras tanto, BB y dobuta actúan en el mismo receptor con acciones antagónicas, y el uso concomitante de los dos fármacos podría dificultar la compensación. OBJETIVO: Evaluar si la manutención del BB asociado a la dobuta dificulta la compensación cardíaca. MÉTODOS: Estudiados 44 pacientes con FEVI < 45 por ciento y necesidad de inotrópico. Divididos en tres grupos de acuerdo con el uso de BB. Grupo A (n=8): los que no usaban BB en la admisión; Grupo B (n=25): los que usaban BB, sin embargo fue suspendido para iniciar la dobuta; Grupo C (n=11): los que usaron BB concomitantemente a la dobuta. Para comparación de los grupos, fueron utilizados los test t de Student, exacto de Fisher y qui-cuadrado. Considerado significante P < 0,05. RESULTADOS: FEVI media de 23,8±6,6 por ciento. El tiempo medio de uso de dobuta fue semejante en los tres grupos (p=0,35), y el uso concomitante de la dobuta con el BB no aumentó el tiempo de internación (con BB 20,36 ± 11,04 días vs sin BB 28,37 ± 12,76 días, p=NS). En el alta, la dosis del BB fue superior en los pacientes en que la medicación no fue suspendida (35,8 ± 16,8 mg/día vs 23,0 ± 16,7 mg/día, p=0,004). CONCLUSIÓN: La manutención del BB asociado a la dobuta no aumentó el tiempo de internación y no fue acompañada de peor evolución. Los pacientes que no suspendieron el BB tuvieron alta con dosis más elevadas del medicamento.


Assuntos
Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/efeitos adversos , Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Dobutamina/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Suspensão de Tratamento , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/metabolismo , Baixo Débito Cardíaco/complicações , Baixo Débito Cardíaco/tratamento farmacológico , Quimioterapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos
12.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 95(4): 524-529, out. 2010. ilus, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-568971

RESUMO

FUNDAMENTO: Anemia está associada à pior evolução nos pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca (IC). Entretanto, há poucos estudos sobre a anemia nos pacientes com IC avançada. OBJETIVO: Avaliar as características da anemia na IC em fase avançada. MÉTODOS: Foram incluídos 99 pacientes hospitalizados para compensação de IC (CF IV/NYHA), com idade > 18 anos e FEVE < 45 por cento. Foram considerados anêmicos os pacientes com hemoglobina (Hb) < 12 g/dl. Dados foram comparados entre anêmicos e não anêmicos. Empregaram-se os testes t de Student, Qui-quadrado e Fisher. O risco relativo (IC 95 por cento) foi calculado pela regressão de Cox. RESULTADOS: O acompanhamento médio foi de 10,8 meses (8,9), e 34,3 por cento dos pacientes com IC apresentaram anemia. Pacientes anêmicos, comparados com não anêmicos, apresentaram maior idade média (64,1±15,6 vs 54,8±12,9 anos, p = 0,004), creatinina mais elevada (1,9 ± 1 vs 1,5 + 0,5 mg/dl, p = 0,018) e BNP mais elevado (2.077,4 ± 1.979,4 vs 1.212,56 ± 1.080,6 pg/ml, p = 0,026). Anemia ferropriva esteve presente em 38,24 por cento dos anêmicos. Após melhora da congestão, apenas 25 por cento dos pacientes que apresentavam anemia receberam alta com Hb > 12 g/dl. A anemia foi marcador independente de mau prognóstico na análise multivariada (mortalidade 47 por cento vs 24,6 por cento, p = 0,016, risco relativo 2,54). CONCLUSÃO: Anemia acomete, aproximadamente, 1/3 dos pacientes com IC avançada, e a deficiência de ferro é uma importante etiologia. Pacientes anêmicos são mais idosos e apresentaram função renal mais deteriorada. A melhora da congestão não foi suficiente para melhorar a anemia na maioria dos casos. Nos pacientes com IC avançada, a anemia é marcador independente de mau prognóstico.


BACKGROUND: Anemia is linked with worsening of progress in patients with heart failure (HF). However, there are few studies of anemia in patients with advanced HF. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the characteristics of anemia in HF at an advanced stage. METHODS: The study included 99 patients, aged > 18 and LVEF < 45 percent, who were hospitalized for HF compensation (FC IV/NYHA). Patients with hemoglobin (Hb) levels < 12 g/dl were considered anemic. Data on anemic and nonanemic patients were compared. The Student's t-test, Chi-square test and Fisher test were used. The relative risk (HF 95 percent) was calculated by the Cox regression. RESULTS: On average, the patients were monitored for 10.8 months (8.9), and 34.3 percent of patients with HF had anemia. On average, in comparison with nonanemic patients, anemic patients were older (64.1 ± 15.6 versus 54.8 ± 12.9 years old, p = 0.004), their creatinine level was higher (1.9 ± 1 versus 1.5 + 0.5 mg/dl, p = 0.018) and their BNP level was also higher (2,077.4 ± 1,979.4 versus 1,212.56 ± 1,080.6 pg/ml, p = 0.026). 38.24 percent of the anemic patients had iron deficiency anemia. After there was an improvement in the congestion, only 25 percent of patients with anemia were discharged with Hb > 12 g/dl. Anemia was an independent marker of poor prognosis in the multivariate analysis (mortality of 47 percent vs 24.6 percent, p = 0.016, relative risk of 2.54). CONCLUSION: Anemia affects approximately one third of patients with advanced HF, and iron deficiency is an important etiology. Anemic patients are older their renal function was more deteriorated. The improvement in the congestion was not enough to improve the anemia in most cases. In patients with advanced HF, anemia is an independent marker of poor prognosis.


FUNDAMENTO: Anemia está asociada a peor evolución en los pacientes con insuficiencia cardíaca (IC). Mientras tanto, hay pocos estudios sobre la anemia en los pacientes con IC avanzada. OBJETIVO: Evaluar las características de la anemia en la IC en fase avanzada. MÉTODOS: Fueron incluidos 99 pacientes hospitalizados para compensación de IC (CF IV/NYHA), con edad > 18 años y FEVI < 45 por ciento. Fueron considerados anémicos los pacientes con hemoglobina (Hb) < 12 g/dl. Datos fueron comparados entre anémicos y no anémicos. Se emplearon los test t de Student, Qui-cuadrado y Fisher. El riesgo relativo (IC 95 por ciento) fue calculado por la regresión de Cox. RESULTADOS: El control medio fue de 10,8 meses (8,9), y 34,3 por ciento de los pacientes con IC presentaron anemia. Pacientes anémicos, comparados con no anémicos, presentaron mayor edad media (64,1 ± 15,6 vs 54,8 ± 12,9 años, p = 0,004), creatinina más elevada (1,9 ± 1 vs 1,5 + 0,5 mg/dl, p = 0,018) y BNP más elevado (2.077,4±1.979,4 vs 1.212,56 ± 1.080,6 pg/ml, p = 0,026). Anemia ferropénica estuvo presente en 38,24 por ciento de los anémicos. Después de mejora de la congestión, apenas 25 por ciento de los pacientes que presentaban anemia recibieron alta con Hb > 12 g/dl. La anemia fue marcador independiente de mal pronóstico en el análisis multivariado (mortalidad 47 por ciento vs 24,6 por ciento, p = 0,016, riesgo relativo 2,54). CONCLUSIÓN: Anemia afecta, aproximadamente, 1/3 de los pacientes con IC avanzada, y la deficiencia de hierro es una importante etiología. Pacientes anémicos son más añosos y presentaron función renal más deteriorada. La mejora de la congestión no fue suficiente para mejorar la anemia en la mayoría de los casos. En los pacientes con IC avanzada, la anemia es marcador independiente de mal pronóstico.


Assuntos
Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Anemia/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Anemia/sangue , Anemia/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Prognóstico , Valores de Referência
13.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 95(6): 732-7, 2010 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês, Português, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20835680

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression is a common comorbidity in heart failure (HF); however, the mechanisms related to a poorer outcome of depressed patients with HF remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of severe depression in the outcome of patients with decompensated HF. METHODS: A total of 43 patients with advanced HF, EF < 40.0%, and hospitalized for cardiac compensation were consecutively studied. After history taking and physical examination, the patients underwent laboratory tests including BNP determination. After the diagnosis of depression was made, the Hamilton-D scale was applied. Severe depression was defined by a score equal to or greater than 18. The clinical and laboratory variables according to the presence or absence of severe depression were analyzed using logistic regression. The ROC curve defined the cut-off point for BNP. RESULTS: Severe or very severe depression was identified in 24 (55.8%) patients. Severely depressed patients did not differ from non-depressed patients as regards age, gender and renal function, but showed less cardiac impairment (EF 23.4 ± 7.2% vs 19.5 ± 5.2%; p = 0.046) and higher BNP levels (2,582.8 ± 1,596.6 pg/ml vs 1,206.6 ± 587.0 pg/ml; p < 0.001). However, patients with BNP levels higher than 1,100 pg/ml had a 12.0-fold higher chance (odds ratio [95% CI] = 2.61 - 55.26) of developing severe depression. CONCLUSION: Patients with severe depression showed a higher degree of neurohormonal stimulation despite their lower degree of ventricular dysfunction. The pathophysiological changes related to depression, leading to increased neurohormonal stimulation and cytokines, probably contributed to this more intense clinical manifestation even in the presence of less cardiac damage.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Disfunção Ventricular/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Depressão/diagnóstico , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valores de Referência
14.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 95(4): 530-5, 2010 Oct.
Artigo em Mul | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20721517

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: there is evidence that the suspension of betablockers (BB) in decompensated heart failure may increase mortality. Dobutamine (dobuta) is the most commonly used inotrope in decompensation, however, BB and dobuta act with the same receptor with antagonist actions, and concurrent use of both drugs could hinder compensation. OBJECTIVE: to evaluate whether the maintenance of BB associated with dobuta difficults cardiac compensation. METHODS: we studied 44 patients with LVEF < 45% and the need for inotropics. Divided into three groups according to the use of BB. Group A (n=8): those who were not using BB at baseline; Group B (n=25): those who used BB, but was suspended to start dobuta; Group C (n = 11): those who used BB concomitant to dobuta. To compare groups, we used the Student t, Fisher exact and chi-square tests. Considered significant if p < 0.05. RESULTS: mean LVEF 23.8 ± 6.6%. The average use of dobuta use was similar in all groups (p = 0.35), and concomitant use of dobutamine with BB did not increase the length of stay (BB 20.36 ± 11.04 days vs without BB 28.37 ± 12.76 days, p = NS). In the high dose, BB was higher in patients whose medication was not suspended (35.8 ± 16.8 mg/day vs 23.0 ± 16.7 mg/day, p = 0.004). CONCLUSION: maintaining BB associated with dobutamine did not increase the length of hospitalization and was not associated with the worst outcome. Patients who did not suspend BB were discharged with higher doses of the drug.


Assuntos
Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/efeitos adversos , Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Dobutamina/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Suspensão de Tratamento , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/metabolismo , Baixo Débito Cardíaco/complicações , Baixo Débito Cardíaco/tratamento farmacológico , Quimioterapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
15.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 95(4): 524-8, 2010 Oct.
Artigo em Mul | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20802963

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: anemia is linked with worsening of progress in patients with heart failure (HF). However, there are few studies of anemia in patients with advanced HF. OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the characteristics of anemia in HF at an advanced stage. METHODS: the study included 99 patients, aged > 18 and LVEF < 45%, who were hospitalized for HF compensation (FC IV/NYHA). Patients with hemoglobin (Hb) levels < 12 g/dl were considered anemic. Data on anemic and nonanemic patients were compared. The Student's t-test, Chi-square test and Fisher test were used. The relative risk (HF 95%) was calculated by the Cox regression. RESULTS: on average, the patients were monitored for 10.8 months (8.9), and 34.3% of patients with HF had anemia. On average, in comparison with nonanemic patients, anemic patients were older (64.1 ± 15.6 versus 54.8 ± 12.9 years old, p = 0.004), their creatinine level was higher (1.9 ± 1 versus 1.5 + 0.5 mg/dl, p = 0.018) and their BNP level was also higher (2,077.4 ± 1,979.4 versus 1,212.56 ± 1,080.6 pg/ml, p = 0.026). 38.24% of the anemic patients had iron deficiency anemia. After there was an improvement in the congestion, only 25% of patients with anemia were discharged with Hb > 12 g/dl. Anemia was an independent marker of poor prognosis in the multivariate analysis (mortality of 47% vs 24.6%, p = 0.016, relative risk of 2.54). CONCLUSION: anemia affects approximately one third of patients with advanced HF, and iron deficiency is an important etiology. Anemic patients are older their renal function was more deteriorated. The improvement in the congestion was not enough to improve the anemia in most cases. In patients with advanced HF, anemia is an independent marker of poor prognosis.


Assuntos
Anemia/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Anemia/sangue , Anemia/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Valores de Referência
16.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 65(3): 251-5, 2010 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20360914

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of delirium on post-discharge mortality in hospitalized older patients. INTRODUCTION: Delirium is frequent in hospitalized older patients and correlates with high hospital mortality. There are only a few studies about its impact on post-discharge mortality. METHODS: This is a prospective study of patients over 60 years old who were hospitalized in the Geriatric Unit at Hospital das Clínicas of São Paulo between May 2006 and March 2007. Upon admission, demographics, comorbidities, number of drugs taken, and serum albumin concentration were evaluated for each patient. Delirium was diagnosed according to the DSM-IV criteria. Patients were divided into group A (with delirium) and group B (without delirium). One year after discharge, the patients or their caregivers were contacted to assess days of survival. RESULTS: The sample included 199 patients, 66 (33%) of whom developed delirium (Group A). After one year, 33 (50%) group A patients had died, and 45 (33.8%) group B patients had died (p = 0.03). There was a significant statistical difference in average age (p = 0.001) and immobility (p <0.001) between groups A and B. There were no statistically significant differences between groups A and B in number of drugs taken greater than four (p = 0.62), sex (p = 0.54) and number of diagnoses greater than four (p = 0.21). According to a multivariate analysis, delirium was not an independent predictor of post-discharge mortality. The predictors of post-discharge mortality were age > or = 80 years (p = 0.029), albumin concentration < 3.5 g/dl (p = 0.001) and immobility (p = 0.007). CONCLUSION: Delirium is associated with higher post-discharge mortality as a dependent predictor.


Assuntos
Delírio/mortalidade , Hospitalização , Alta do Paciente , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fatores de Confusão (Epidemiologia) , Delírio/sangue , Delírio/etiologia , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Limitação da Mobilidade , Albumina Sérica/análise
17.
Clinics ; 65(3): 251-255, 2010. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-544016

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of delirium on post-discharge mortality in hospitalized older patients. INTRODUCTION: Delirium is frequent in hospitalized older patients and correlates with high hospital mortality. There are only a few studies about its impact on post-discharge mortality. METHODS: This is a prospective study of patients over 60 years old who were hospitalized in the Geriatric Unit at Hospital das Clínicas of São Paulo between May 2006 and March 2007. Upon admission, demographics, comorbidities, number of drugs taken, and serum albumin concentration were evaluated for each patient. Delirium was diagnosed according to the DSM-IV criteria. Patients were divided into group A (with delirium) and group B (without delirium). One year after discharge, the patients or their caregivers were contacted to assess days of survival. RESULTS: The sample included 199 patients, 66 (33 percent) of whom developed delirium (Group A). After one year, 33 (50 percent) group A patients had died, and 45 (33.8 percent) group B patients had died (p = 0.03). There was a significant statistical difference in average age (p = 0.001) and immobility (p <0.001) between groups A and B. There were no statistically significant differences between groups A and B in number of drugs taken greater than four (p = 0.62), sex (p = 0.54) and number of diagnoses greater than four (p = 0.21). According to a multivariate analysis, delirium was not an independent predictor of post-discharge mortality. The predictors of post-discharge mortality were age > 80 years (p = 0.029), albumin concentration < 3.5 g/dl (p = 0.001) and immobility (p = 0.007). CONCLUSION: Delirium is associated with higher post-discharge mortality as a dependent predictor.


Assuntos
Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Delírio/mortalidade , Hospitalização , Alta do Paciente , Fatores Etários , Fatores de Confusão (Epidemiologia) , Delírio/sangue , Delírio/etiologia , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Limitação da Mobilidade , Albumina Sérica/análise
18.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 92(1): 46-53, 2009 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês, Português, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19219264

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microneurography and venous occlusion plethysmography can be considered methods of assessment of the sympathetic activity. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the intensity of the sympathetic activity through microneurography and venous occlusion plethysmography in patients with heart failure (HF) and correlate this intensity with prognosis. METHODS: 52 patients with HF (ejection fraction < 45% at the echocardiogram): 12 with FCII and 40 with FCIV. After compensation, the muscular sympathetic nervous activity (MSNA) in the peroneal nerve (microneurography) and the muscular blood flow (MBF) in the forearm were evaluated (venous occlusion plethysmography). After an 18-month follow-up, the patients were divided in 3 groups: 12 with FCII, 19 with FCIV that did not die and 21 with FCIV that died. The intensity of the sympathetic activity was compared in the three different groups. RESULTS: Patients with FCII presented lower MSNA (p=0.026) and higher MBF (p=0.045) than the ones with FCIV that did not die. The patients with FCIV that died presented higher MSNA (p<0.001) and lower MBF (p=0.002) than the patients with FCIV that did not die. ROC curve: cutoff >53.5 impulses/min for MSNA (S=90.55. E=73.68%) and < 1.81 ml/min/100gr for MBF (S=90.4%. E=73.7%). Kaplan-Meier curve: higher survival with MSNA < 53.5 impulses/min (p<0.001), and/or MBF >1.81 ml/min/100gr (P<0.001). Logistic regression analysis: the higher the MSNA and the lower the MBF, the higher is the probability of death. CONCLUSION: The intensity of the MSNA and the MBF can be considered prognostic markers in advanced HF.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Músculo Esquelético/inervação , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Eletrofisiologia/métodos , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Antebraço/irrigação sanguínea , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/irrigação sanguínea , Nervo Fibular/fisiologia , Pletismografia , Prognóstico , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 92(1): 46-53, jan. 2009. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol, Português | LILACS | ID: lil-505199

RESUMO

FUNDAMENTO: Microneurografia e pletismografia de oclusão venosa podem ser considerados métodos de avaliação da atividade simpática. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a intensidade da atividade simpática através da microneurografia e da pletismografia de oclusão venosa em pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca, e correlacionar essa intensidade com prognóstico. MÉTODOS: 52 pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca (FE <45 por cento ao ecocardiograma), sendo 12 em CFII e quarenta em CFIV. Após compensação avaliou-se a atividade nervosa simpática muscular (ANSM) no nervo peronero (microneurografia), e o fluxo sanguíneo muscular (FSM) no antebraço (pletismografia de oclusão venosa). Após seguimento de 18 meses os pacientes foram divididos em três grupos: 12 em CFII, 19 em CFIV que não morreram e 21 em CFIV que morreram. A intensidade da atividade da simpática foi comparada nos três diferentes grupos. RESULTADOS: CFII apresentaram menor ANSM (Atividade Nervosa Simpática Muscular) (p=0,026) e maior FSM (p=0,045) que os CFIV que não morreram. CFIV que morreram apresentaram maior ANSM (p<0.001) e menor FSM (p=0,002) que os CFIV que não morreram. Curva ROC: valor de corte >53,5 impulsos/min para ANSM (S=90,55. E=73,68 por cento) e <1,81 ml/mn/100gr para FSM (S=90,4 por cento. E=73,7 por cento). Curva Kaplan-Meier: sobrevida maior com ANSM <53,5 impulsos/min (p<0,001), e ou FSM >1,81 ml/min/100gr (P<0,001). Análise de regressão logística: quanto maior a ANSM e menor o FSM, maior é a probabilidade de morte. CONCLUSÃO: A intensidade da ANSM e do FSM podem ser considerados marcadores prognósticos na insuficiência cardíaca avançada.


BACKGROUND: Microneurography and venous occlusion plethysmography can be considered methods of assessment of the sympathetic activity. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the intensity of the sympathetic activity through microneurography and venous occlusion plethysmography in patients with heart failure (HF) and correlate this intensity with prognosis. METHODS: 52 patients with HF (ejection fraction < 45 percent at the echocardiogram): 12 with FCII and 40 with FCIV. After compensation, the muscular sympathetic nervous activity (MSNA) in the peroneal nerve (microneurography) and the muscular blood flow (MBF) in the forearm were evaluated (venous occlusion plethysmography). After an 18-month follow-up, the patients were divided in 3 groups: 12 with FCII, 19 with FCIV that did not die and 21 with FCIV that died. The intensity of the sympathetic activity was compared in the three different groups. RESULTS: Patients with FCII presented lower MSNA (p=0.026) and higher MBF (p=0.045) than the ones with FCIV that did not die. The patients with FCIV that died presented higher MSNA (p<0.001) and lower MBF (p=0.002) than the patients with FCIV that did not die. ROC curve: cutoff >53.5 impulses/min for MSNA (S=90.55. E=73.68 percent) and < 1.81 ml/min/100gr for MBF (S=90.4 percent. E=73.7 percent). Kaplan-Meier curve: higher survival with MSNA < 53.5 impulses/min (p<0.001), and/or MBF >1.81 ml/min/100gr (P<0.001). Logistic regression analysis: the higher the MSNA and the lower the MBF, the higher is the probability of death. CONCLUSION: The intensity of the MSNA and the MBF can be considered prognostic markers in advanced HF.


FUNDAMENTO: Microneurografía y pletismografía de oclusión venosa se pueden considerar como métodos de evaluación de la actividad simpática. OBJETIVO: Evaluar la intensidad de la actividad simpática a través de la microneurografía y de la pletismografía de oclusión venosa en pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca, y correlacionar esa intensidad con pronóstico. MÉTODOS: Un total de 52 pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca (FE <45 por ciento al ecocardiograma), 12 de ellos en clase funcional II (CFII) y 40 en clase funcional IV (CFIV). Tras la compensación, se evaluaron la actividad nerviosa simpática muscular (ANSM) en el nervio peronero (microneurografía), y el flujo sanguíneo muscular (FSM) en el antebrazo (pletismografía de oclusión venosa). Tras el seguimiento de 18 meses, se dividieron a los pacientes en tres grupos: 12 individuos en CFII, 19 en CFIV que no murieron y 21 en CFIV que murieron. La intensidad de la actividad simpática se la comparó en los tres diferentes grupos. RESULTADOS: Los pacientes en CFII presentaron menor actividad nerviosa simpática muscular (p=0,026) y mayor FSM (p=0,045) que los en CFIV que no murieron. Los individuos en CFIV que murieron presentaron mayor ANSM (p<0.001) y menor FSM (p=0,002) que los en CFIV que no murieron. Curva ROC: valor de corte >53,5 impulsos/min para ANSM (S=90,55. E=73,68 por ciento) y <1,81 ml/mn/100gr para FSM (S=90,4 por ciento. E=73,7 por ciento). Curva Kaplan-Meier: sobrevida mayor con ANSM <53,5 impulsos/min (p<0,001), y/ó FSM >1,81 ml/min/100gr (P<0,001). Análisis de regresión logística: cuanto mayor sea la ANSM y menor el FSM, mayor será la probabilidad de muerte. CONCLUSIONES: La intensidad de la ANSM y del FSM puede considerarse como marcadores pronósticos en la insuficiencia cardiaca avanzada.


Assuntos
Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Músculo Esquelético/inervação , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/fisiopatologia , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Eletrofisiologia/métodos , Antebraço/irrigação sanguínea , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Músculo Esquelético/irrigação sanguínea , Pletismografia , Prognóstico , Nervo Fibular/fisiologia , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 91(3): 177-82, 194-9, 2008 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18853060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of hyperkalemia related to spironolactone use is low in stable heart failure; however, it has not been studied during decompensation. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of spironolactone on serum potassium in decompensated heart failure (HF). METHODS: In a cohort study, patients that had been hospitalized due to decompensated HF, with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) < 0.45 and serum potassium between 3.5 and 5.5 mEq/l were selected. The patients were divided according to spironolactone use (Group S) or no use (Group C). The outcome was potassium increase (> 6.0 mEq/l) and the use of calcium polystyrene. A multivariate analysis through logistic regression was carried out and values of p < 0.05 were considered significant. RESULTS: A total of 186 patients (group S: 56; group C: 130) were studied; LVEF of 0.25, aged 55.5 years and 65.2% of them males. The incidence of hyperkalemia was 10.7% in group S and 5.4% in group C (p = 0.862). The multivariate analysis showed that serum urea > 60.5 mg/dl during the hospitalization presents a relative risk of 9.6 (95%CI 8.03 - 11.20; p = 0.005) for the occurrence of hyperkalemia. CONCLUSION: The incidence of hyperkalemia was two-fold higher with spironolactone use, but it was not statistically significant. The increase in urea levels was associated to the hyperkalemia. Randomized studies are necessary to clarify this issue.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperpotassemia/induzido quimicamente , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Espironolactona/efeitos adversos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperpotassemia/sangue , Hiperpotassemia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Potássio/sangue , Espironolactona/uso terapêutico , Ureia/sangue
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