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Cell Rep ; 30(7): 2416-2429.e7, 2020 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32075739


It has been long assumed that normally leading strand synthesis must proceed coordinated with the lagging strand to prevent strand uncoupling and the pathological accumulation of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) in the cell, a dogma recently challenged by in vitro studies in prokaryotes. Here, we report that human DNA polymerases can function independently at each strand in vivo and that the resulting strand uncoupling is supported physiologically by a cellular tolerance to ssDNA. Active forks rapidly accumulate ssDNA at the lagging strand when POLA1 is inhibited without triggering a stress response, despite ssDNA formation being considered a hallmark of replication stress. Acute POLA1 inhibition causes a lethal RPA exhaustion, but cells can duplicate their DNA with limited POLA1 activity and exacerbated strand uncoupling as long as RPA molecules suffice to protect the elevated ssDNA. Although robust, this uncoupled mode of DNA replication is also an in-built weakness that can be targeted for cancer treatment.

Replicação do DNA/genética , DNA de Cadeia Simples/genética , Ligação Proteica/genética , Humanos
Nature ; 574(7779): 571-574, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645724


To safeguard genome integrity in response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), mammalian cells mobilize the neighbouring chromatin to shield DNA ends against excessive resection that could undermine repair fidelity and cause damage to healthy chromosomes1. This form of genome surveillance is orchestrated by 53BP1, whose accumulation at DSBs triggers sequential recruitment of RIF1 and the shieldin-CST-POLα complex2. How this pathway reflects and influences the three-dimensional nuclear architecture is not known. Here we use super-resolution microscopy to show that 53BP1 and RIF1 form an autonomous functional module that stabilizes three-dimensional chromatin topology at sites of DNA breakage. This process is initiated by accumulation of 53BP1 at regions of compact chromatin that colocalize with topologically associating domain (TAD) sequences, followed by recruitment of RIF1 to the boundaries between such domains. The alternating distribution of 53BP1 and RIF1 stabilizes several neighbouring TAD-sized structures at a single DBS site into an ordered, circular arrangement. Depletion of 53BP1 or RIF1 (but not shieldin) disrupts this arrangement and leads to decompaction of DSB-flanking chromatin, reduction in interchromatin space, aberrant spreading of DNA repair proteins, and hyper-resection of DNA ends. Similar topological distortions are triggered by depletion of cohesin, which suggests that the maintenance of chromatin structure after DNA breakage involves basic mechanisms that shape three-dimensional nuclear organization. As topological stabilization of DSB-flanking chromatin is independent of DNA repair, we propose that, besides providing a structural scaffold to protect DNA ends against aberrant processing, 53BP1 and RIF1 safeguard epigenetic integrity at loci that are disrupted by DNA breakage.

Cromatina/genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , Instabilidade Genômica , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/deficiência , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cromatina/química , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , Reparo do DNA , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/deficiência , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteínas de Ligação a Telômeros/deficiência , Proteínas de Ligação a Telômeros/metabolismo , Proteína 1 de Ligação à Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/deficiência , Proteína 1 de Ligação à Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
Science ; 358(6364): 797-802, 2017 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29123070


DNA replication requires coordination between replication fork progression and deoxynucleotide triphosphate (dNTP)-generating metabolic pathways. We find that perturbation of ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) in humans elevates reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are detected by peroxiredoxin 2 (PRDX2). In the oligomeric state, PRDX2 forms a replisome-associated ROS sensor, which binds the fork accelerator TIMELESS when exposed to low levels of ROS. Elevated ROS levels generated by RNR attenuation disrupt oligomerized PRDX2 to smaller subunits, whose dissociation from chromatin enforces the displacement of TIMELESS from the replisome. This process instantly slows replication fork progression, which mitigates pathological consequences of replication stress. Thus, redox signaling couples fluctuations of dNTP biogenesis with replisome activity to reduce stress during genome duplication. We propose that cancer cells exploit this pathway to increase their adaptability to adverse metabolic conditions.

Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Replicação do DNA , Instabilidade Genômica , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Neoplasias/genética , Peroxirredoxinas/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Ribonucleotídeo Redutases/metabolismo , Adaptação Biológica , Cromatina/metabolismo , Desoxirribonucleotídeos/metabolismo , Humanos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Oxirredução , Transdução de Sinais
Mol Cell ; 64(6): 1127-1134, 2016 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27984746


Human cancers are characterized by the presence of oncogene-induced DNA replication stress (DRS), making them dependent on repair pathways such as break-induced replication (BIR) for damaged DNA replication forks. To better understand BIR, we performed a targeted siRNA screen for genes whose depletion inhibited G1 to S phase progression when oncogenic cyclin E was overexpressed. RAD52, a gene dispensable for normal development in mice, was among the top hits. In cells in which fork collapse was induced by oncogenes or chemicals, the Rad52 protein localized to DRS foci. Depletion of Rad52 by siRNA or knockout of the gene by CRISPR/Cas9 compromised restart of collapsed forks and led to DNA damage in cells experiencing DRS. Furthermore, in cancer-prone, heterozygous APC mutant mice, homozygous deletion of the Rad52 gene suppressed tumor growth and prolonged lifespan. We therefore propose that mammalian RAD52 facilitates repair of collapsed DNA replication forks in cancer cells.

Proteína da Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/genética , Ciclina E/genética , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , DNA/genética , Osteossarcoma/genética , Proteína Rad52 de Recombinação e Reparo de DNA/genética , Reparo de DNA por Recombinação , Proteína da Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/deficiência , Animais , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclina E/metabolismo , DNA/metabolismo , Fase G1 , Expressão Gênica , Instabilidade Genômica , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Nocodazol/farmacologia , Osteossarcoma/metabolismo , Osteossarcoma/mortalidade , Osteossarcoma/patologia , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Proteína Rad52 de Recombinação e Reparo de DNA/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Rad52 de Recombinação e Reparo de DNA/metabolismo , Fase S , Estresse Fisiológico , Análise de Sobrevida
Nat Struct Mol Biol ; 23(8): 714-21, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27348077


Repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in mammals is coordinated by the ubiquitin-dependent accumulation of 53BP1 at DSB-flanking chromatin. Owing to its ability to limit DNA-end processing, 53BP1 is thought to promote nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) and to suppress homology-directed repair (HDR). Here, we show that silencing 53BP1 or exhausting its capacity to bind damaged chromatin changes limited DSB resection to hyper-resection and results in a switch from error-free gene conversion by RAD51 to mutagenic single-strand annealing by RAD52. Thus, rather than suppressing HDR, 53BP1 fosters its fidelity. These findings illuminate causes and consequences of synthetic viability acquired through 53BP1 silencing in cells lacking the BRCA1 tumor suppressor. We show that such cells survive DSB assaults at the cost of increasing reliance on RAD52-mediated HDR, which may fuel genome instability. However, our findings suggest that when challenged by DSBs, BRCA1- and 53BP1-deficient cells may become hypersensitive to, and be eliminated by, RAD52 inhibition.

Proteína 1 de Ligação à Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/fisiologia , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular , Cromatina/metabolismo , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , Reparo do DNA , Humanos , Transporte Proteico , Rad51 Recombinase/metabolismo , Proteína Rad52 de Recombinação e Reparo de DNA/metabolismo