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1.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(1): 81-89, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30607663

RESUMO

The association of immunodeficiency-related vaccine-derived rubella virus (iVDRV) with cutaneous and visceral granulomatous disease has been reported in patients with primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDs). The majority of these PID patients with rubella-positive granulomas had DNA repair disorders. To support this line of inquiry, we provide additional descriptive data on seven previously reported patients with Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) (n = 3) and ataxia telangiectasia (AT) (n = 4) as well as eight previously unreported patients with iVDRV-induced cutaneous granulomas and DNA repair disorders including NBS (n = 1), AT (n = 5), DNA ligase 4 deficiency (n = 1), and Artemis deficiency (n = 1). We also provide descriptive data on several previously unreported PID patients with iVDRV-induced cutaneous granulomas including cartilage hair hypoplasia (n = 1), warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, immunodeficiency, myelokathexis (WHIM) syndrome (n = 1), MHC class II deficiency (n = 1), Coronin-1A deficiency (n = 1), X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (X-SCID) (n = 1), and combined immunodeficiency without a molecular diagnosis (n = 1). At the time of this report, the median age of the patients with skin granulomas and DNA repair disorders was 9 years (range 3-18). Cutaneous granulomas have been documented in all, while visceral granulomas were observed in six cases (40%). All patients had received rubella virus vaccine. The median duration of time elapsed from vaccination to the development of cutaneous granulomas was 48 months (range 2-152). Hematopoietic cell transplantation was reported to result in scarring resolution of cutaneous granulomas in two patients with NBS, one patient with AT, one patient with Artemis deficiency, one patient with DNA Ligase 4 deficiency, one patient with MHC class II deficiency, and one patient with combined immunodeficiency without a known molecular etiology. Of the previously reported and unreported cases, the majority share the diagnosis of a DNA repair disorder. Analysis of additional patients with this complication may clarify determinants of rubella pathogenesis, identify specific immune defects resulting in chronic infection, and may lead to defect-specific therapies.

2.
Expert Rev Clin Immunol ; 15(5): 529-540, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30681380

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: CD40 ligand (CD40L) deficiency or X-linked Hyper-IgM syndrome is a severe primary immunodeficiency caused by mutations in the CD40L gene. Despite currently available treatments, CD40L-deficient patients remain susceptible to life-threatening infections and have poor long term survival. Areas covered: Here, we discuss clinical and immunological characteristics of CD40L deficiency as well as current therapeutic strategies used for patient management. This review highlights that beyond B cell defects, patients' susceptibility to opportunistic pathogens might be due to impaired T cell and innate immune responses. In this context, we discuss how better knowledge of CD40L function and regulation may result in the development of new treatments. Expert opinion: Despite the introduction of hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation, immunoglobulin replacement, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) administration, and prophylactic antibiotic therapies, life-threatening infections still cause high morbidity and mortality among CD40L-deficient patients. The reasons for this inadequate response to current therapies remains poorly understood, but recent reports suggest the involvement of CD40L-CD40 interaction in early stages of the innate immune system ontogeny. The development of novel gene therapeutic approaches and the use of redirected immunotherapies represent alternative treatment methods that could offer reduced morbidity and mortality rates for patients with CD40L deficiency.

3.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 5224, 2018 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30523250

RESUMO

Autoantibodies have been associated with autoimmune diseases. However, studies have identified autoantibodies in healthy donors (HD) who do not develop autoimmune disorders. Here we provide evidence of a network of immunoglobulin G (IgG) autoantibodies targeting G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) in HD compared to patients with systemic sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and ovarian cancer. Sex, age and pathological conditions affect autoantibody correlation and hierarchical clustering signatures, yet many of the correlations are shared across all groups, indicating alterations to homeostasis. Furthermore, we identify relationships between autoantibodies targeting structurally and functionally related molecules, such as vascular, neuronal or chemokine receptors. Finally, autoantibodies targeting the endothelin receptor type A (EDNRA) exhibit chemotactic activity, as demonstrated by neutrophil migration toward HD-IgG in an EDNRA-dependent manner and in the direction of IgG from EDNRA-immunized mice. Our data characterizing the in vivo signatures of anti-GPCR autoantibodies thus suggest that they are a physiological part of the immune system.

5.
Front Immunol ; 9: 2756, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30564228

RESUMO

Background: Primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDD) comprise a group of life-threatening congenital diseases characterized by absent or impaired immune responses. Despite the fact that effective, curative treatments are available with optimal clinical outcomes when diagnosed early, newborn screening does not exist for the majority of these diseases due to the lack of detectable, specific biomarkers or validated methods for population-based screening. Peptide immunoaffinity enrichment coupled with selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (immuno-SRM) is a sensitive proteomic assay, involving antibody-mediated peptide capture, that allows for concurrent quantification of multiple analytes. This assay has promise for use in potential newborn screening of PIDDs that lead to diminished or absent target proteins in the majority of cases. Objective: To determine and evaluate if a multiplex assay based on immuno-SRM is able to reliably and precisely distinguish affected patients with X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA), Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome (WAS), and CD3ϵ-associated severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) from one another and from unaffected normal control dried blood spot (DBS) samples. Methods: We performed a blinded, multiplexed analysis of proteolytically-generated peptides from WASp, BTK, and CD3ϵ (for WAS, XLA, and SCID, respectively) in DBS samples from 42 PIDD patients, 40 normal adult controls, and 62 normal newborns. The peptide ATPase copper transporting protein (ATP7B) 1056 was simultaneously monitored for quality assurance purposes. Results: The immuno-SRM assays reliably quantified the target peptides in DBS and accurately distinguished affected patients from normal controls. Analysis of signature peptides found statistically significant reduction or absence of peptide levels in affected patients compared to control groups in each case (WASp and BTK: p = 0.0001, SCID: p = 0.05). Intra and inter-assay precision ranged from 11 to 22% and 11 to 43% respectively; linearity (1.39-2000 fmol peptide), and stability (≤ 0.09% difference in 72 h) showed high precision for the multiplexed assay. Inter-laboratory assay comparison showed high concordance for measured peptide concentrations, with R2 linearity ≥ 0.97 for the WASp 274, CD3ϵ 197, BTK 407, and ATP7B 1056 peptides. Conclusion: Immuno-SRM-based quantification of proteotypic peptides from WASp, BTK, and CD3ϵ in DBS distinguishes relevant PIDD cases from one another and from controls, raising the possibility of employing this approach for large-scale multiplexed newborn screening of selective PIDDs.


Assuntos
Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/diagnóstico , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/metabolismo , Agamaglobulinemia/diagnóstico , Agamaglobulinemia/metabolismo , Anticorpos/metabolismo , Bioensaio/métodos , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Estudos de Coortes , ATPases Transportadoras de Cobre/metabolismo , Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco/métodos , Feminino , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/diagnóstico , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/metabolismo , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Triagem Neonatal/métodos , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos
6.
Front Immunol ; 9: 2411, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30443250

RESUMO

Background: Immune Dysregulation, Polyendocrinopathy, Enteropathy, X-linked (IPEX) Syndrome is a rare recessive disorder caused by mutations in the FOXP3 gene. In addition, there has been an increasing number of patients with wild-type FOXP3 gene and, in some cases, mutations in other immune regulatory genes. Objective: To molecularly asses a cohort of 173 patients with the IPEX phenotype and to delineate the relationship between the clinical/immunologic phenotypes and the genotypes. Methods: We reviewed the clinical presentation and laboratory characteristics of each patient and compared clinical and laboratory data of FOXP3 mutation-positive (IPEX patients) with those from FOXP3 mutation-negative patients (IPEX-like). A total of 173 affected patients underwent direct sequence analysis of the FOXP3 gene while 85 IPEX-like patients with normal FOXP3 were investigated by a multiplex panel of "Primary Immune Deficiency (PID-related) genes." Results: Forty-four distinct FOXP3 variants were identified in 88 IPEX patients, 9 of which were not previously reported. Among the 85 IPEX-like patients, 19 different disease-associated variants affecting 9 distinct genes were identified. Conclusions: We provide a comprehensive analysis of the clinical features and molecular bases of IPEX and IPEX-like patients. Although we were not able to identify major distinctive clinical features to differentiate IPEX from IPEX-like syndromes, we propose a simple flow-chart to effectively evaluate such patients and to focus on the most likely molecular diagnosis. Given the large number of potential candidate genes and overlapping phenotypes, selecting a panel of PID-related genes will facilitate a molecular diagnosis.

7.
Front Pediatr ; 6: 230, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30177960

RESUMO

We report a novel homozygous JAK3 mutation in two female Brazilian SCID infants from two unrelated kindreds. Patient 1 was referred at 2 months of age due to a family history of immunodeficiency and the appearance of a facial rash. The infant was screened for TRECs (T-cell receptor excision circles) and KRECs (kappa-deleting recombination excision circles) for the assessment of newly formed naïve T and B cells respectively, which showed undetectable TRECs and normal numbers of KRECs. Lymphocyte immunophenotyping by flow cytometry confirmed the screening results, revealing a T-B+NK- SCID. The patient underwent successful HSCT. Patient 2 was admitted to an intensive care unit at 8 months of age with severe pneumonia, BCGosis, and oral moniliasis; she also had a positive family history for SCID but newborn screening was not performed at birth. At 10 months of age she was diagnosed as a T-B+NK- SCID and underwent successful HSCT. JAK3 sequencing revealed the same homozygous missense mutation (c.2350G>A) in both patients. This mutation affects the last nucleotide of exon 17 and it is predicted to disrupt the donor splice site. cDNA sequencing revealed skipping of exon 17 missing in both patients, confirming the predicted effect on mRNA splicing. Skipping of exon 17 leads to an out of frame deletion of 151 nucleotides, frameshift and creation of a new stop codon 60 amino acids downstream of the mutation resulting in a truncated protein which is likely nonfunctional.

8.
Immunol Cell Biol ; 2018 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30264496

RESUMO

Hyper IgE syndromes comprise a group of rare primary immunodeficiency disorders characterized by a triad of atopic dermatitis, recurrent skin and lung infections along with elevated IgE levels. Job syndrome or autosomal dominant hyper IgE syndrome because of heterozygous loss-of-function mutations with dominant negative effect in signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 is the prototype of these disorders. However, several other genetically characterized immunodeficiency disorders have been identified over the past decade and joined the umbrella of hyper IgE syndromes including autosomal recessive mutations in the DOCK8, ZNF431 and PGM3 genes and heterozygous mutations with dominant negative effect in the CARD11 gene. Moreover, a number of phenotypically distinct immunodeficiency disorders can mimic hyper IgE syndromes, adding to the diagnostic challenge. Herein, we will concisely review these disorders, their molecular bases, highlighting key distinguishing clinical and laboratory findings and therapeutic options.

9.
Immunotherapy ; 10(14): 1193-1202, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30088423

RESUMO

AIM: To assess the safety and efficacy of an intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) 10% preparation (Panzyga®; Octapharma AG, Lachen, Switzerland) in predominantly antibody-deficient children with primary immunodeficiency disease. METHODS: Data from two prospective, open-label and noncontrolled multicenter Phase III studies of IVIG 10% that included 25 patients <16 years of age were analyzed for efficacy, pharmacokinetics and safety. RESULTS: The rate of serious bacterial infections was 0.04/patient-year. A maximal infusion rate of 0.14 ml/kg/min was achieved in 82% of pediatric patients (n = 9). Infusions of immunoglobulin G trough levels between infusions remained ≥5-6 g/l; median half-life was 32.79-36.62 days. Abdominal pain, headache and chills were the most common treatment-related adverse events. CONCLUSION: IVIG 10% is safe and effective for the treatment of predominantly antibody-deficient children.

11.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 142(5): 1571-1588.e9, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29518426

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome caused by CD40 ligand (CD40L) deficiency often present with episodic, cyclic, or chronic neutropenia, suggesting abnormal neutrophil development in the absence of CD40L-CD40 interaction. However, even when not neutropenic and despite immunoglobulin replacement therapy, CD40L-deficient patients are susceptible to life-threatening infections caused by opportunistic pathogens, suggesting impaired phagocyte function and the need for novel therapeutic approaches. OBJECTIVES: We sought to analyze whether peripheral neutrophils from CD40L-deficient patients display functional defects and to explore the in vitro effects of recombinant human IFN-γ (rhIFN-γ) on neutrophil function. METHODS: We investigated the microbicidal activity, respiratory burst, and transcriptome profile of neutrophils from CD40L-deficient patients. In addition, we evaluated whether the lack of CD40L in mice also affects neutrophil function. RESULTS: Neutrophils from CD40L-deficient patients exhibited defective respiratory burst and microbicidal activity, which were improved in vitro by rhIFN-γ but not soluble CD40L. Moreover, neutrophils from patients showed reduced CD16 protein expression and a dysregulated transcriptome suggestive of impaired differentiation. Similar to CD40L-deficient patients, CD40L knockout mice were found to have impaired neutrophil responses. In parallel, we demonstrated that soluble CD40L induces the promyelocytic cell line HL-60 to proliferate and mature by regulating the expression of genes of the same Gene Ontology categories (eg, cell differentiation) when compared with those dysregulated in peripheral blood neutrophils from CD40L-deficient patients. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest a nonredundant role of CD40L-CD40 interaction in neutrophil development and function that could be improved in vitro by rhIFN-γ, indicating a potential novel therapeutic application for this cytokine.

12.
Front Immunol ; 9: 289, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29503650

RESUMO

Background: New sequencing techniques have revolutionized the identification of the molecular basis of primary immunodeficiency disorders (PID) not only by establishing a gene-based diagnosis but also by facilitating defect-specific treatment strategies, improving quality of life and survival, and allowing factual genetic counseling. Because these techniques are generally not available for physicians and their patients residing in developing countries, collaboration with overseas laboratories has been explored as a possible, albeit cumbersome, strategy. To reduce the cost of time and temperature-sensitive shipping, we selected Guthrie cards, developed for newborn screening, to collect dried blood spots (DBS), as a source of DNA that can be shipped by regular mail at minimal cost. Method: Blood was collected and blotted onto the filter paper of Guthrie cards by completely filling three circles. We enrolled 20 male patients with presumptive X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) cared for at the Vietnam National Children's Hospital, their mothers, and several sisters for carrier analysis. DBS were stored at room temperature until ready to be shipped together, using an appropriately sized envelope, to a CLIA-certified laboratory in the US for sequencing. The protocol for Sanger sequencing was modified to account for the reduced quantity of gDNA extracted from DBS. Result: High-quality gDNA could be extracted from every specimen. Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) mutations were identified in 17 of 20 patients studied, confirming the diagnosis of XLA in 85% of the study cohort. Type and location of the mutations were similar to those reported in previous reviews. The mean age when XLA was suspected clinically was 4.6 years, similar to that reported by Western countries. Two of 15 mothers, each with an affected boy, had a normal BTK sequence, suggesting gonadal mosaicism. Conclusion: DBS collected on Guthrie cards can be shipped inexpensively by airmail across continents, providing sufficient high-quality gDNA for Sanger sequencing overseas. By using this method of collecting gDNA, we were able to confirm the diagnosis of XLA in 17 of 20 Vietnamese patients with the clinical diagnosis of agammaglobulinemia.

13.
Eur J Pharm Sci ; 118: 80-86, 2018 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29522908

RESUMO

Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy is commonly used to treat patients with primary antibody deficiency. This prospective, open-label, non-randomised, multicentre, phase III trial investigated the pharmacokinetics of a new 10% liquid IVIG product (panzyga®; Octapharma) in 51 patients aged 2-75 years with common variable immunodeficiency (n = 43) or X-linked agammaglobulinaemia (n = 8). Patients were treated with IVIG 10% every 3 (n = 21) or 4 weeks (n = 30) at a dose of 200-800 mg/kg for 12 months. Total immunoglobulin G (IgG) and subclass concentrations approximately doubled from pre- to 15 min post-infusion. The maximum concentration of total IgG (mean ±â€¯SD) was 21.82 ±â€¯5.83 g/L in patients treated 3-weekly and 17.42 ±â€¯3.34 g/L in patients treated 4-weekly. Median trough IgG concentrations were nearly constant over the course of the study, remaining between 11.0 and 12.2 g/L for patients on the 3-week schedule and between 8.10 and 8.65 g/L for patients on the 4-week schedule. The median terminal half-life of total IgG was 36.1 (range 18.5-65.9) days, with generally similar values for the IgG subclasses (26.7-38.0 days). Median half-lives for specific antibodies ranged between 21.3 and 51.2 days for anti-cytomegalovirus, anti-Haemophilus influenzae, anti-measles, anti-tetanus toxoid, anti-varicella zoster virus antibodies, and anti-Streptococcus pneumoniae subtype antibodies. Overall, IVIG 10% demonstrated pharmacokinetic properties similar to those of other commercial IVIG 10% preparations and 3- or 4-weekly administration achieved sufficient concentrations of IgG, IgG subclasses, and specific antibodies, exceeding the recommended level needed to effectively prevent serious bacterial infections.


Assuntos
Agamaglobulinemia/metabolismo , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/metabolismo , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/metabolismo , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/farmacocinética , Adolescente , Adulto , Agamaglobulinemia/sangue , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/sangue , Feminino , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/sangue , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Clin Immunol ; 38(1): 129-143, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29226301

RESUMO

Since the 1990s, the International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS) PID expert committee (EC), now called Inborn Errors of Immunity Committee, has published every other year a classification of the inborn errors of immunity. This complete catalog serves as a reference for immunologists and researchers worldwide. However, it was unadapted for clinicians at the bedside. For those, the IUIS PID EC is now publishing a phenotypical classification since 2013, which proved to be more user-friendly. There are now 320 single-gene inborn errors of immunity underlying phenotypes as diverse as infection, malignancy, allergy, auto-immunity, and auto-inflammation. We herein propose the revised 2017 phenotypic classification, based on the accompanying 2017 IUIS Inborn Errors of Immunity Committee classification.

16.
J Clin Immunol ; 38(1): 96-128, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29226302

RESUMO

Beginning in 1970, a committee was constituted under the auspices of the World Health Organization (WHO) to catalog primary immunodeficiencies. Twenty years later, the International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS) took the remit of this committee. The current report details the categorization and listing of 354 (as of February 2017) inborn errors of immunity. The growth and increasing complexity of the field have been impressive, encompassing an increasing variety of conditions, and the classification described here will serve as a critical reference for immunologists and researchers worldwide.

17.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(4): 784-803, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28941161

RESUMO

The field of primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID) is rapidly expanding with more than 300 genetically defined disorders that have been clinically described and molecularly analyzed. The molecular dissection of these entities has led to the discovery of new immunologic pathways and to novel and effective disease-specific therapies. This review provides a summary of these primary immune defects categorized by clinical phenotype and molecular similarity as defined by the International Union of Immunologic Societies (IUIS) Expert Committee for PID. In this synopsis, we discuss the molecular basis of various categories of PIDs including, but not limited to, severe combined immunodeficiencies, primary antibody deficiencies, immune dysregulation syndromes, as well as defects of the innate immune system such as phagocytic abnormalities, autoinflammatory fever syndromes, and complement deficiencies. We have attempted to focus on current strategies to prevent complications, ameliorate symptoms, or cure these disorders by promptly using antimicrobial therapies, immunoglobulin replacement, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In addition, we will explore novel therapies such as molecularly targeted immunosuppression with monoclonal antibodies and specific immunomodulatory agents. Finally, we address experimental therapies targeting specific molecular defects, including gene therapy and gene editing.

18.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 6(3): 996-1001, 2018 May - Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28939137

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autosomal dominant hyper-IgE syndrome (AD-HIES) is a rare condition. OBJECTIVE: Data from the USIDNET Registry provide a resource to examine the characteristics of patients with rare immune deficiency diseases. METHODS: A query was submitted to the USIDNET requesting deidentified data for patients with physician-diagnosed AD-HIES through July 2016. RESULTS: Data on 85 patients diagnosed with AD-HIES (50 males; 35 females) born between 1950 and 2013, collected by 14 physicians from 25 states and Quebec, were entered into the USIDNET Registry by July 2016. Cumulative follow-up was 2157 years. Of these patients, 45.9% had a family history of HIES. The complications reported included skin abscesses (74.4%), eczema (57.7%), retained primary teeth (41.4%), fractures (39%), scoliosis (34.1%), and cancer (7%). Reported allergic diseases included food (37.8%), environmental (18%), and drugs (42.7%). The mean serum IgE level was 8383.7 kU/mL and was inversely correlated to the patient's age. A total of 49.4% had eosinophilia; 56% were known to be on trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 26.6% on antifungal coverage, and 30.6% on immunoglobulin replacement therapy. Pneumonias were more commonly attributed to Staphylococcus aureus (55.3%) or Aspergillus fumigatus (22.4%); 19.5% had a history of lung abscess; these were most often associated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P Fisher's exact test = .029) or A. fumigatus (P Fisher's exact test = .016). Lung abscesses were significantly associated with drug reactions (P χ2 = .01; odds ratio: 4.03 [1.2-12.97]), depression (P Fisher's exact test = .036), and lower Karnofsky index scores (P Mann-Whitney = .007). DISCUSSION: Data from the USIDNET Registry summarize the currently reported clinical characteristics of a large cohort of subjects with AD-HIES.

19.
Allergol Int ; 67(1): 43-54, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28684198

RESUMO

Primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) are a heterogeneous group of inherited diseases of the immune system. The definite diagnosis of PID is ascertained by genetic analysis; however, this takes time and is costly. Flow cytometry provides a rapid and highly sensitive tool for diagnosis of PIDs. Flow cytometry can evaluate specific cell populations and subpopulations, cell surface, intracellular and intranuclear proteins, biologic effects associated with specific immune defects, and certain functional immune characteristics, each being useful for the diagnosis and evaluation of PIDs. Flow cytometry effectively identifies major forms of PIDs, including severe combined immunodeficiency, X-linked agammaglobulinemia, hyper IgM syndromes, Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome, familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome, IPEX syndrome, CTLA 4 haploinsufficiency and LRBA deficiency, IRAK4 and MyD88 deficiencies, Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease, chronic mucocuneous candidiasis, and chronic granulomatous disease. While genetic analysis is the definitive approach to establish specific diagnoses of PIDs, flow cytometry provides a tool to effectively evaluate patients with PIDs at relatively low cost.


Assuntos
Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/diagnóstico , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/patologia
20.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 141(2): 704-717.e5, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28601685

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gain-of-function (GOF) mutations in signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) cause susceptibility to a range of infections, autoimmunity, immune dysregulation, and combined immunodeficiency. Disease manifestations can be mild or severe and life-threatening. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has been used in some patients with more severe symptoms to treat and cure the disorder. However, the outcome of HSCT for this disorder is not well established. OBJECTIVE: We sought to aggregate the worldwide experience of HSCT in patients with GOF-STAT1 mutations and to assess outcomes, including donor engraftment, overall survival, graft-versus-host disease, and transplant-related complications. METHODS: Data were collected from an international cohort of 15 patients with GOF-STAT1 mutations who had undergone HSCT using a variety of conditioning regimens and donor sources. Retrospective data collection allowed the outcome of transplantation to be assessed. In vitro functional testing was performed to confirm that each of the identified STAT1 variants was in fact a GOF mutation. RESULTS: Primary donor engraftment in this cohort of 15 patients with GOF-STAT1 mutations was 74%, and overall survival was only 40%. Secondary graft failure was common (50%), and posttransplantation event-free survival was poor (10% by 100 days). A subset of patients had hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis before transplant, contributing to their poor outcomes. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that HSCT for patients with GOF-STAT1 mutations is curative but has significant risk of secondary graft failure and death.

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