Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 22
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Gene ; 806: 145920, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455026

RESUMO

Depression is deemed a mood disorder characterized by a high rate of relapse. Therefore, overcoming of the recurrent depression is globally expecting. Kososan, a traditional Japanese herbal medicine, has been clinically used for mild depressive mood, and our previous studies have shown some evidence for its antidepressive-like efficacy in experimental animal models of depression. However, it remains unclear whether kososan has beneficial effects on recurrent depression. Here, we examined its effect using a mouse model of modified repeated social defeat stress (SDS) paradigm. Male BALB/c mice were exposed to a 5-min SDS from unfamiliar aggressive CD-1 mice for 5 days. Kososan extract (1.0 kg/kg/day) or an antidepressant milnacipran (60 mg/kg/day) was administered orally for 26 days (days 7-32) to depression-like mice with social avoidant behaviors on day 6. Single 5 min of SDS was subjected to mice recovered from the social avoidance on day 31, and then the recurrence of depression-like behaviors was evaluated on day 32. Hippocampal gene expression patterns were also assayed by DNA microarray analysis. Water- or milnacipran-administered mice resulted in a recurrence of depression-like behaviors by re-exposure of single SDS, whereas kososan-administered mice did not recur depression-like behaviors. Distinct gene expression patterns were also found for treating kososan and milnacipran. Collectively, this finding suggests that kososan exerts a preventive effect on recurrent depression-like behaviors in mice. Pretreatment of kososan is more useful for recurrent depression than that of milnacipran.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Derrota Social , Estresse Psicológico/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Animais , Depressão/genética , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Depressão/psicologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Ontologia Genética , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipocampo/fisiopatologia , Japão , Masculino , Medicina Kampo/métodos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Milnaciprano/farmacologia , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/classificação , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Recidiva , Estresse Psicológico/genética , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia
2.
Tokai J Exp Clin Med ; 46(2): 75-82, 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216479

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine how Kampo education in Japanese medical schools changed between 2011 and 2019. METHODS: We administered nationwide postal questionnaire surveys about current characteristics of Kampo medicine education in all 82 Japanese medical schools, directed to the persons responsible for Kampo education at each university. One survey was conducted in 2011 and one in 2019. Analysis used Welch's t-test and a chi-squared test. RESULTS: The average class meeting time was shorter in 2019 than in 2011. The proportion of class meetings that were about Kampo saw a statistically significant increase in the third year and a significant decrease in the fourth and sixth years of medical school. Curriculum standardisation, preparation of simple textbooks, and fostering Kampo medicine instructors were the primary problems in both years. The proportion of mainstream medical education contents focusing on traditional Japanese Kampo medicine did not change over time, nor did the percentage of those considering using standardised textbooks. Other changes were statistically nonsignificant. CONCLUSION: In Japanese medical schools, the number of class meetings teaching Kampo medicine has increased; however, this number is not statistically significant. Persistent problems in Kampo education, including curriculum standardisation, need to be addressed.

3.
J Nat Med ; 75(3): 475-488, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33569695

RESUMO

Identifying different species of the genus Atractylodes which are commonly used in Chinese and Japanese traditional medicine, using chromatographic approaches can be difficult. 1H NMR metabolic profiling of DNA-authenticated, archived rhizomes of the genus Atractylodes was performed for genetic and chemical evaluation. The ITS region of the nuclear rDNA was sequenced for five species, A. japonica, A. macrocephala, A. lancea, A. chinensis, and A. koreana. Our samples had nucleotide sequences as previously reported, except that part of the A. lancea cultivated in Japan had a type 5, hybrid DNA sequence. Principal component analysis (PCA) using 1H NMR spectra of extracts with two solvent systems (CD3OD, CDCl3) was performed. When CDCl3 extracts were utilized, the chemometric analysis enabled the identification and classification of Atractylodes species according to their composition of major sesquiterpene compounds. The 1H NMR spectra using CD3OD contained confounding sugar peaks. PCA removal of these peaks gave the same result as that obtained using CDCl3 and allowed species distinction. Such chemometric methods with multivariate analysis of NMR spectra will be useful for the discrimination of plant species, without specifying the index components and quantitative analysis on multi-components.


Assuntos
Atractylodes/química , Atractylodes/classificação , Metabolômica , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Sequência de Bases , DNA de Plantas/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Japão , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Filogenia , Análise de Componente Principal , Rizoma/química , Rizoma/genética , Sesquiterpenos/análise
4.
Exp Gerontol ; 142: 111109, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069781

RESUMO

Aging causes psychological dysfunction and neurodegeneration, and can lead to cognitive impairments. Although numerous studies have reported that neurodegeneration and subsequent cognitive impairments are involved in neuroinflammation, relationship between psychological disturbance and neuroinflammation with aging (neuroinflammaging) remains unclear. Here, to clarify the relationship, we examined whether neuroinflammaging affects emotional behaviors in senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mice. Microglial inflammatory responses to a subsequent lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge were significantly enhanced in male SAMP8 mice relative to normal aging senescence-accelerated mouse resistant 1 (SAMR1) mice at 17 weeks, but not 8 weeks of age. LPS injection also significantly increased brain and systemic inflammation in SAMP8 mice at 17 weeks. In a battery of behavioral tests, SAMP8 mice at 17 weeks, but not 8 weeks, exhibited anxiety- and depression-like behaviors and circadian rhythm disruption. Taken together, SAMP8 mice at 17 weeks possess a brain microenvironment in which it is easier to trigger neuroinflammatory priming; this may lead to an emergence of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors and circadian rhythm disruption. These findings provide new insights into the temporal relationship between neuroinflammaging and emotion.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Ritmo Circadiano , Animais , Ansiedade , Encéfalo , Emoções , Masculino , Camundongos
5.
Neuroscience ; 443: 148-163, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707290

RESUMO

Prolonged stress triggers neuroinflammation, which plays a significant role in the development of depression; however, stressed people do not always suffer from depression because of individual differences in stress vulnerability. Negative cognitive bias (NCB) toward pessimistic judgment often underlies depressive episodes. However, a relationship between stress vulnerability, neuroinflammation, and NCB remains elusive. In addition, an animal model with all the traits would be a powerful tool for studying the etiology of depression and its therapeutic approaches. Accordingly, this study evaluated the effect of stress vulnerability on neuroinflammation and depression-related behaviors, including NCB in males, using a modified version of repeated social defeat stress (mRSDS) paradigm, a validated animal model of psychosocial stress. Exposure to mRSDS, consisting of 5 min of social defeat by unfamiliar CD-1 aggressor mice for five consecutive days, caused NCB, which co-occurred with depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors, and neuroinflammation in male BALB/c mice. Treatment with minocycline, an antibiotic with anti-inflammatory property, blocked mRSDS-induced depressive-like behaviors and neuroinflammation, but not NCB, indicating the limited effect of an anti-inflammatory intervention. In addition, marked differences were found in neuroinflammatory profiles and hippocampal gene expression patterns between resilient and unstressed mice, as well as between susceptible and resilient mice. Therefore, mice resilient to mRSDS are indeed not intact. Our findings provide insights into the unique features of the mRSDS model in male BALB/c mice, which could be used to investigate the etiological mechanisms underlying depression as well as bridge the gap in the relationship between stress vulnerability, neuroinflammation, and NCB in males.


Assuntos
Derrota Social , Estresse Psicológico , Animais , Ansiedade , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
6.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 68(2): 140-149, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32009081

RESUMO

Previously, we reported that the c-Met inhibitory effect of Ephedra Herb extract (EHE) is derived from ingredients besides ephedrine alkaloids. Moreover, analgesic and anti-influenza activities of EHE and ephedrine alkaloids-free Ephedra Herb extract (EFE) have been reported recently. In this study, we examined the fractions containing c-Met kinase inhibitory activity from EHE and the fractions with analgesic and anti-influenza activities from EFE, and elucidated the structural characteristics of the active fractions. Significant c-Met kinase activity was observed in 30, 40, and 50% methanol (MeOH) eluate fractions obtained from water extract of EHE using Diaion HP-20 column chromatography. Similarly, 20 and 40% MeOH, and MeOH eluate fractions obtained from water extract of EFE were found to display analgesic and anti-influenza activities. Reversed phase-HPLC analysis of the active fractions commonly showed broad peaks characteristic of high-molecular mass condensed tannin. The active fractions were analyzed using 13C-NMR and decomposition reactions; the deduced structures of active components were high-molecular mass condensed tannins, which were mainly procyanidin B-type and partly procyanidin A-type, including pyrogallol- and catechol-type flavan 3-ols as extension and terminal units. HPLC and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) analyses estimated that the ratio of pyrogallol- and catechol-type was approximately 9 : 2, and the weight-average molecular weight based on the polystyrene standard was >45000. Furthermore, GPC-based analysis was proposed as the quality evaluation method for high-molecular mass condensed tannin in EHE and EFE.


Assuntos
Ephedra/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Alcaloides/química , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Analgésicos/química , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Animais , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/farmacologia , Biflavonoides/química , Biflavonoides/farmacologia , Catequina/química , Catequina/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cães , Efedrina/química , Efedrina/farmacologia , Humanos , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Masculino , Camundongos , Proantocianidinas/química , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-met/antagonistas & inibidores
7.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 139(11): 1417-1425, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685738

RESUMO

Ephedra Herb is defined in the 17th edition of the Japanese Pharmacopoeia (JP) as the terrestrial stem of Ephedra sinica Stapf., Ephedra intermedia Schrenk et C.A. Meyer, or Ephedra equisetina Bunge (Ephedraceae). The stems of Ephedra Herb contain greater than 0.7% ephedrine alkaloids (ephedrine and pseudoephedrine). Despite its high effectiveness, Ephedra Herb exert several adverse effects, including palpitation, excitation, insomnia, and dysuria. Both the primary and adverse effects of Ephedra Herb have been traditionally believed to be mediated by these ephedrine alkaloids. However, our study found that several pharmacological actions of Ephedra Herb were not associated with ephedrine alkaloids. We prepared an ephedrine alkaloid-free Ephedra Herb extract (EFE) by eliminating ephedrine alkaloids from Ephedra Herb extract (EHE) using ion-exchange column chromatography. EFE exerted analgesic, anti-influenza, and anticancer activities in the same manner as EHE. Moreover, EFE did not induce adverse effects due to ephedrine alkaloids, such as excitation, insomnia, and arrhythmias, and showed no toxicity. Furthermore, we evaluated the safety of EFE in healthy volunteers. The number of adverse event cases was higher in the EHE-treated group than in the EFE-treated group, although the difference was not significant. Our evidence suggested that EFE was safer than EHE.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/efeitos adversos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Ephedra/química , Idoso , Analgésicos , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos , Antivirais , Cromatografia por Troca Iônica , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Efedrina/efeitos adversos , Efedrina/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pseudoefedrina/efeitos adversos , Pseudoefedrina/isolamento & purificação , Segurança
8.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 42(9): 1538-1544, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474713

RESUMO

The analgesic effect of Ephedra Herb (EH) is believed to be derived from the anti-inflammatory action of pseudoephedrine (Pse). We recently reported that ephedrine alkaloids-free EH extract (EFE) attenuates formalin-induced pain to the same level as that achieved by EH extract (EHE), which suggests that the analgesic effect of EH may not be due to ephedrine alkaloids (EAs). To examine the contribution of EAs to the analgesic effect of EH, mice were injected with formalin to induce a biphasic pain reaction (first phase, 0-5 min; second phase, 10-45 min) at various time points after oral administration of the following test drugs: ephedrine (Eph), Pse, "authentic" EHE from Tsumura & Co. (EHE-Ts), EFE, and EHE that was used as the source of EFE (EHE-To). Biphasic pain was suppressed at 30 min after administration of Eph, EHE-Ts, and EHE-To. At 6 h after administration of EFE, EHE-To, and Pse-and at 4 to 6 h after administration of EHE-Ts-only second-phase pain was suppressed; however, the effect of Pse at 6 h was not significant. These results suggested that EHE has a biphasic analgesic effect against biphasic formalin-induced pain: in the first phase of analgesia (30 min after administration), biphasic pain is suppressed by Eph; in the second phase of analgesia (4-6 h after administration), second-phase pain is alleviated by constituents other than EAs, although Pse may partially contribute to the relief of second-phase pain.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Ephedra/química , Efedrina/uso terapêutico , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Pseudoefedrina/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Analgésicos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Medição da Dor , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Teste de Desempenho do Rota-Rod , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30174707

RESUMO

Ephedra Herb is an important crude drug; it is used in various Traditional Japanese Medicine (Kampo) formulations. Its significant pharmacological effects have been believed to be attributed to ephedrine and pseudoephedrine, which sometimes induce adverse effects. On the other hand, it has been reported that some of these pharmacological effects are not dependent on ephedrine or pseudoephedrine. Ephedrine alkaloids-free Ephedra Herb extract has been newly developed. It has been reported to have analgesic, anti-influenza, and antimetastatic effects. This clinical trial was aimed at verifying the noninferiority of EFE's safety compared to that of Ephedra Herb extract (EHE) in humans. This was a single-institution, double-blinded, randomized, two-drug, two-stage, crossover comparative study. Twelve healthy male subjects were equally and randomly allocated into two groups: prior administration of EFE (EFE-P) and prior administration of EHE (EHE-P). In Stage 1, EFE and EHE were orally administered to the EFE-P and EHE-P groups, respectively, for six days. After a 4-week washout period, Stage 2 was initiated wherein the subjects were given a study drug different from Stage 1 study drug for six days. Eleven adverse events with a causal relationship to the study drugs (EHE: 8; EFE: 3) were noted; all events were mild in severity. With regard to the incidence of adverse events, EHE and EFE administration, respectively, accounted for 4 cases (out of 12 subjects, similarly below) and 1 case of increased pulse rate (p=0.32) and 3 cases and 1 case of insomnia (p=0.59). Further, there was one case of hot flashes (p=1.00) due to EFE administration and one case of dysuria (p=1.00) due to EHE administration. There were no significant differences in the incidences of adverse events between EHE administration and EFE administration. Therefore, we concluded that EFE is not inferior to EHE in terms of safety.

10.
J Pharmacol Sci ; 137(4): 379-386, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30145033

RESUMO

Zingiberis processum rhizoma (ZPR) is a major active component of daikenchuto (DKT), which induces anti-inflammatory action by inhibiting macrophage infiltration. However, it is unclear whether ZPR is related to DKT-induced anti-inflammatory action via a reduction of neutrophil infiltration against postoperative ileus (POI). In this study, we orally administered individual herbal components of DKT to mice four times before and after intestinal manipulation (IM). The anti-inflammatory action of each crude drug was evaluated by histochemical analysis of relevant molecules. The results showed that treatment with all herbal components of DKT significantly inhibits neutrophil infiltration. This inhibition of neutrophil infiltration by ZPR was significantly reduced in 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 4 (5-HT4R) knockout (KO) mice but not in alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) KO mice. Also, transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) antagonists partly and significantly inhibited the amelioration of neutrophil infiltration by ZPR. Therefore, DKT-induced anti-inflammatory action, mediated by inhibition of neutrophil infiltration in POI, depends, in part, on the effects of ZPR. ZPR activates TRPA1 channels, possibly in enterochromaffin (EC) cells, to release 5-HT. This 5-HT stimulates 5-HT4R in the myenteric plexus neurons to release acetylcholine, which, in turn, activates mAChR to inhibit inflammation in POI.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios , Íleus/imunologia , Infiltração de Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/imunologia , Receptores Muscarínicos/metabolismo , Zingiberaceae/química , Acetilcolina/metabolismo , Administração Oral , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Enterocromafins/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Plexo Mientérico/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Receptores 5-HT4 de Serotonina/metabolismo , Serotonina/metabolismo , Canal de Cátion TRPA1/metabolismo
11.
J Nat Med ; 72(2): 594, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29497901

RESUMO

The article Ephedra Herb extract activates/desensitizes transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 and reduces capsaicin-induced pain, written by Shunsuke Nakamori, Jun Takahashi, Sumiko Hyuga, Toshiko Tanaka-Kagawa, Hideto Jinno, Masashi Hyuga, Takashi Hakamatsuka, Hiroshi Odaguchi, Yukihiro Goda, Toshihiko Hanawa and Yoshinori Kobayashi, was originally published Online First without open access. After publication in volume 71, issue 1, page 105-113 the author decided to opt for Open Choice and to make the article an open access publication. Therefore, the copyright of the article has been changed to

12.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 41(2): 247-253, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29386484

RESUMO

Ephedrine alkaloids-free Ephedra Herb extract (EFE) has been developed to eliminate the adverse effects caused by ephedrine alkaloid-induced sympathetic hyperactivation. Previously, we reported that EFE possesses analgesic, anti-influenza, and cancer metastatic inhibitory effects at comparable levels to that of Ephedra Herb extract (EHE). However, it has not yet been demonstrated that EFE is free from the known side effects of EHE, such as excitation, insomnia, and arrhythmias. In this study, the incidence of these adverse effects was compared between mice administered EHE and those administered EFE. Increased locomotor activity in an open-field test, reduced immobility times in a forced swim test, and reduced sleep times in a pentobarbital-induced sleep test were observed in EHE-treated mice, when compared to the corresponding values in vehicle-treated mice. In contrast, EFE had no obvious effects in these tests. In electrocardiograms, atrial fibrillation (i.e., irregular heart rhythm, absence of P waves, and appearance of f waves) was observed in the EHE-treated mice. It was suggested that this atrial fibrillation was induced by stimulation of adrenaline ß1 receptors, but not by hypokalemia. However, EFE did not affect cardiac electrophysiology. These results suggest that the abovementioned side effects are caused by ephedrine alkaloids in EHE, and that EFE is free from these adverse effects, such as excitation, insomnia, and arrhythmias. Thus, EFE is a promising new botanical drug with few adverse effects.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Arritmias Cardíacas/prevenção & controle , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Ephedra/química , Efedrina/efeitos adversos , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/prevenção & controle , Alcaloides/análise , Alcaloides/toxicidade , Analgésicos não Narcóticos/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos não Narcóticos/efeitos adversos , Analgésicos não Narcóticos/química , Animais , Animais não Endogâmicos , Ansiedade/sangue , Ansiedade/induzido quimicamente , Ansiedade/etiologia , Arritmias Cardíacas/sangue , Arritmias Cardíacas/induzido quimicamente , Arritmias Cardíacas/etiologia , Comportamento Animal , Cafeína/envenenamento , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/envenenamento , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Efedrina/administração & dosagem , Efedrina/química , Contaminação de Alimentos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Japão , Masculino , Camundongos , Pentobarbital/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/química , Caules de Planta/química , Potássio/sangue , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/sangue , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/induzido quimicamente , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/etiologia
13.
J Nat Med ; 72(1): 73-79, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28776291

RESUMO

As part of our continuing study of ephedrine alkaloids-free Ephedra Herb extract (EFE) in pursuit of its approval as a crude drug preparation, we identified two quantitative markers for the quality control of the manufacturing process of EFE and sought to establish cost-effective and simple methods for quantitative analyses. We analysed Ephedra Herb extracts grown in different habitats and collection years by liquid chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC/HRMS) and detected two notable peaks common to each extract. These peaks were identified as vicenin-2 (1) and isovitexin 2″-O-rhamnoside (2). Quantitative analyses using the isocratic condition of LC/MS showed that the content percentages of 1 and 2 in EFE were 0.140-0.146% and 0.350-0.411%, respectively. We concluded that 1 and 2 were adequate quality control markers for quantitative analysis of EFE. Furthermore, we quantitatively analysed apigenin (3), an aglycon common to 1 and 2, and found that the conversion factors of 1 to 3 and 2 to 3 were 1.3 and 1.5, respectively. Therefore, we concluded that 3 was a secondary standard for quantifying the contents of 1 and 2 in EFE. A series of results obtained from this study will be valuable for the quality control of EFE.


Assuntos
Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Ephedra/química , Efedrina/química , Flavonas/química , Glicosídeos/metabolismo , Efedrina/análise , Controle de Qualidade
14.
J Healthc Eng ; 2017: 7460168, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29065640

RESUMO

In tongue diagnosis, colour information of tongue body has kept valuable information regarding the state of disease and its correlation with the internal organs. Qualitatively, practitioners may have difficulty in their judgement due to the instable lighting condition and naked eye's ability to capture the exact colour distribution on the tongue especially the tongue with multicolour substance. To overcome this ambiguity, this paper presents a two-stage tongue's multicolour classification based on a support vector machine (SVM) whose support vectors are reduced by our proposed k-means clustering identifiers and red colour range for precise tongue colour diagnosis. In the first stage, k-means clustering is used to cluster a tongue image into four clusters of image background (black), deep red region, red/light red region, and transitional region. In the second-stage classification, red/light red tongue images are further classified into red tongue or light red tongue based on the red colour range derived in our work. Overall, true rate classification accuracy of the proposed two-stage classification to diagnose red, light red, and deep red tongue colours is 94%. The number of support vectors in SVM is improved by 41.2%, and the execution time for one image is recorded as 48 seconds.


Assuntos
Informática Médica/métodos , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte , Língua/diagnóstico por imagem , Algoritmos , Análise por Conglomerados , Cor , Diagnóstico por Computador , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Luz , Informática Médica/instrumentação , Modelos Estatísticos , Linguagens de Programação , Temperatura
15.
J Neuroinflammation ; 14(1): 98, 2017 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28468634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Kososan, a Kampo (traditional Japanese herbal) medicine, has been used for the therapy of depressive mood in humans. However, evidence for the antidepressant efficacy of kososan and potential mechanisms are lacking. Recently, it has been recognized that stress triggers neuroinflammation and suppresses adult neurogenesis, leading to depression and anxiety. Here, we examined whether kososan extract affected social behavior in mice exposed to chronic social defeat stress (CSDS), an animal model of prolonged psychosocial stress, and neuroinflammation induced by CSDS. METHODS: In the CSDS paradigm, C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 10 min of social defeat stress from an aggressive CD-1 mouse for 10 consecutive days (days 1-10). Kososan extract (1.0 g/kg) was administered orally once daily for 12 days (days 1-12). On day 11, the social avoidance test was performed to examine depressive- and anxious-like behaviors. To characterize the impacts of kososan on neuroinflammation and adult neurogenesis, immunochemical analyses and ex vivo microglial stimulation assay with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were performed on days 13-15. RESULTS: Oral administration of kososan extract alleviated social avoidance, depression- and anxiety-like behaviors, caused by CSDS exposure. CSDS exposure resulted in neuroinflammation, as indicated by the increased accumulation of microglia, the resident immune cells of the brain, and their activation in the hippocampus, which was reversed to normal levels by treatment with kososan extract. Additionally, in ex vivo studies, CSDS exposure potentiated the microglial pro-inflammatory response to a subsequent LPS challenge, an effect that was also blunted by kososan extract treatment. Indeed, the modulatory effect of kososan extract on neuroinflammation appears to be due to a hippocampal increase in an anti-inflammatory phenotype of microglia while sparing an increased pro-inflammatory phenotype of microglia caused by CSDS. Moreover, reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis in defeated mice was recovered by kososan extract treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that kososan extract prevents a social avoidant behavior in socially defeated mice that is partially mediated by the downregulation of hippocampal neuroinflammation, presumably by the relative increased anti-inflammatory microglia and regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Our present study also provides novel evidence for the beneficial effects of kososan on depression/anxiety and the possible underlying mechanisms.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem da Esquiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/antagonistas & inibidores , Medicina Kampo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Comportamento Social , Animais , Aprendizagem da Esquiva/fisiologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/isolamento & purificação , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipocampo/patologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Estresse Psicológico/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/patologia
16.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 137(2): 195-197, 2017.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28154331

RESUMO

We aimed to test the clinical usefulness of ephedrine alkaloids-free Ephedra Herb extract (EFE), which has been proven to be effective and safe in animal studies. First, we performed a safety trial with 7 healthy volunteers, and increased white blood cell counts were observed in 2. However, it was unknown whether this observation was a result of EFE administration. Then, we implemented a controlled, double-blind, randomized crossover trial as the second safety trial for EFE. The trial was conducted under strict conditions, and the participants were managed in the hospital and monitored using an increased number of endpoints. Twelve healthy volunteers were randomly allocated to group 1, who were administered EFE first, or group 2, who were administered Ephedra Herb first. In both groups, the drug was administered for 6 d. After a 4-week washout period with no drug administration, each group was administered the alternate drug for 6 d. In the third stage, a dose-response trial is planned to test the effectiveness and safety of EFE on chronic joint pain. Patients with chronic knee joint pain will be randomly allocated to three groups, and each group will be administered EFE prepared from different amounts of Ephedra Herb. Until this stage, the studies will be conducted as investigator-initiated clinical trials. In the fourth stage, industry-sponsored clinical trials will be planned. This multicenter trial will involve 300 patients with joint pain, neuralgia, and/or muscle pain.


Assuntos
Artralgia/tratamento farmacológico , Ephedra , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Alcaloides , Doença Crônica , Estudos Cross-Over , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Efedrina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Nat Med ; 71(1): 105-113, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27631428

RESUMO

Kampo medicines containing Ephedra Herb (EH) such as eppikajutsubuto and makyoyokukanto are used to treat myalgia, arthralgia, and rheumatism. The analgesic effects of these Kampo medicines are attributed to the anti-inflammatory action of EH. However, the molecular mechanism of the analgesic effect of EH remains to be clarified. In this study, the effects of EH extract (EHE) on transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), a nonselective ligand-gated cation channel, which plays an essential role in nociception on sensory neurons, were investigated using mTRPV1/Flp-In293 cells (stable mouse TRPV1-expressing transfectants). Administration of EHE increased the intracellular Ca2+ concentration in these cells, which was inhibited by the TRPV1 antagonist, N-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-1,2-dihydro-4-(3-chloropyridine-2-yl) tetrahydropyrazine-1-carboxamide (BCTC), indicating that EHE activated TRPV1. Examination of EHE-induced nociceptive pain in vivo revealed that an intradermal (i.d.) injection of EHE into the hind paw of mice induced paw licking, a pain-related behavior, and that the extract increased paw licking times in a dose-dependent manner. The EHE-induced paw licking was also inhibited by BCTC. An i.d. injection of EHE 30 min before administration of capsaicin decreased capsaicin-induced paw licking times. Similarly, oral administration of the extract also suppressed capsaicin-induced paw licking, without affecting the physical performance of the mice. These results suggest that EHE suppresses capsaicin-induced paw licking by regulating TRPV1 activity. Thus, the antinociceptive effects of EHE seem to be produced by its direct action on sensory neurons through TRPV1.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Capsaicina/efeitos adversos , Ephedra/química , Dor/induzido quimicamente , Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Medição da Dor , Canais de Cátion TRPV , Transfecção
19.
J Nat Med ; 70(3): 571-83, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26943796

RESUMO

It is generally accepted that the primary pharmacological activities and adverse effects of Ephedra Herb are caused by ephedrine alkaloids. Interestingly, our research shows that Ephedra Herb also has ephedrine alkaloid-independent pharmacological actions, such as c-MET inhibitory activity. This study describes the preparation of an ephedrine alkaloids-free Ephedra Herb extract (EFE) by ion-exchange column chromatography, as well as in vitro and in vivo evaluation of its pharmacological actions and toxicity. We confirmed that EFE suppressed hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-induced cancer cell motility by preventing both HGF-induced phosphorylation of c-Met and its tyrosine kinase activity. We also investigated the analgesic effect of EFE. Although the analgesic effect of Ephedra Herb has traditionally been attributed to pseudoephedrine, oral administration of EFE reduced formalin-induced pain in a dose-dependent manner in mice. Furthermore, we confirmed the anti-influenza virus activity of EFE by showing inhibition of MDCK cell infection in a concentration-dependent manner. All assessments of toxicity, even after repeated oral administration, suggest that EFE would be a safer alternative to Ephedra Herb. The findings described here suggest that EFE has c-Met inhibitory action, analgesic effect, and anti-influenza activity, and that it is safer than Ephedra Herb extract itself. Therefore, EFE could be a useful pharmacological agent.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Ephedra/química , Efedrina/química , Influenza Humana/tratamento farmacológico , Alcaloides/química , Efedrina/análise , Humanos
20.
J Altern Complement Med ; 19(12): 946-50, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23837690

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of Go-rei-San (GRS), a Kampo medicine, in the treatment of postoperative nausea, vomiting, or both nausea and vomiting (PONV). DESIGN: The study was a randomized, controlled, single-blind study of two groups of adult female patients who were scheduled to undergo benign gynecological laparoscopic surgery under general anesthesia. Patients in each group possessed an American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status of 1 (normal, healthy patient) to 2 (patient with a mild systemic disease). Patients were randomly assigned to the GRS group or the no-intervention group. INTERVENTION: Patients in the GRS group were given 7.5 g of GRS orally the day before surgery. OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome measure was the severity of nausea at 0-3 h and 0-24 h after tracheal extubation. The secondary outcome measures were the incidence of vomiting at 0-3 h and 0-24 h and the frequency of vomiting at 0-24 h. The severity of nausea was measured by the patient, who used an 11-point verbal scale to indicate her strongest nausea. RESULTS: Of the 100 female patients selected for the study, 99 completed the trial, and no adverse events occurred. The severity of nausea, frequency of vomiting, and incidence of vomiting were significantly lower in the GRS group than in the no-intervention group. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that GRS may be effective for the reduction of PONV.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Náusea e Vômito Pós-Operatórios/tratamento farmacológico , Náusea e Vômito Pós-Operatórios/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Feminino , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos em Ginecologia/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos em Ginecologia/métodos , Humanos , Medicina Kampo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Método Simples-Cego , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Resultado do Tratamento
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...