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1.
Acta Ophthalmol ; 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33423400

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between time spent outdoors, at particular ages in childhood and adolescence, and myopia status in young adulthood using serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration as a biomarker of time spent outdoors. METHODS: Participants of the Raine Study Generation 2 cohort had 25(OH)D concentrations measured at the 6-, 14-, 17- and 20-year follow-ups. Participants underwent cycloplegic autorefraction at age 20 years, and myopia was defined as a mean spherical equivalent -0.50 dioptres or more myopic. Logistic regression was used to analyse the association between risk of myopia at age 20 years and age-specific 25(OH)D concentrations. Linear mixed-effects models were used to analyse trajectory of 25(OH)D concentrations from 6 to 20 years. RESULTS: After adjusting for sex, race, parental myopia, body mass index and studying status, myopia at 20 years was associated with lower 25(OH)D concentration at 20 years (per 10 nmol/L decrease, odds ratio (aOR)=1.10, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.18) and a low vitamin D status [25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L] at 17 years (aOR = 1.71, 95% CI: 1.06, 2.76) and 20 years (aOR = 1.71, 95% CI: 1.14, 2.56), compared to those without low vitamin D status. There were no associations between 25(OH)D at younger ages and myopia. Individuals who were myopic at 20 years had a 25(OH)D concentration trajectory that declined, relative to non-myopic peers, with increasing age. Differences in 25(OH)D trajectory between individuals with and without myopia were greater among non-Caucasians compared to Caucasians. CONCLUSIONS: Myopia in young adulthood was most strongly associated with recent 25(OH)D concentrations, a marker of time spent outdoors.

2.
Maturitas ; 143: 81-88, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308641

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine the associations of childhood adiposity with menopausal symptoms in women aged 45-49 years. STUDY DESIGN: National population-based cohort study of 334 girls prospectively followed from childhood (aged 11-15) through to midlife (aged 45-49). Childhood overweight and obesity were defined by international age- and sex-specific standards for body mass index (BMI), and abdominal obesity was defined as waist/height ratio≥0.5. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Vasomotor symptoms (VMS), vaginal dryness, total menopausal symptoms and domain-specific symptoms (somatic, psychological and urogenital) were measured during 2018-19 using the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) and classified as none, mild, moderate or severe. RESULTS: The prevalence of mild, moderate and severe VMS was 24.0 %, 9.0 % and 3.9 %, and of vaginal dryness was 12.6 %, 4.8 % and 2.4 %. No significant associations of childhood overweight/obesity or abdominal obesity with VMS or vaginal dryness were found after adjustment for childhood age, follow-up length, smoking, socioeconomic status and diet quality. Childhood overweight/obesity was associated with increased risks of more severe total (RR:1.17, 95 % CI:1.02-1.36), psychological (RR:1.19, 95 % CI:1.04-1.35) and urogenital (RR:1.29, 95 % CI:1.14-1.46) symptoms measured using the MRS. Associations with childhood abdominal obesity were mostly stronger with more severe total (RR:2.19, 95 % CI:1.48-3.23), somatic (RR:1.52, 95 % CI:1.15-2.02), psychological (RR:1.21, 95 % CI:1.04-1.42) and urogenital (RR:2.11, 95 % CI:1.39-3.20) symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Childhood adiposity was not associated with increased risks of more severe VMS or vaginal dryness in women aged 45-49 years. Childhood adiposity, especially abdominal obesity, was associated with more severe total, somatic, psychological and urogenital symptoms. However, the association between these symptoms and menopause is not established.


Assuntos
Menopausa , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Adiposidade , Adolescente , Austrália/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Doenças Urogenitais Femininas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Menopausa/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Dig Liver Dis ; 2020 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33334704

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing in young populations. However, there are inadequate data regarding diagnosis of NAFLD. We aimed to validate three scoring systems against a previous standard of suprailiac skinfold thickness for diagnosing NAFLD in population-based adolescents. METHODS: Seventeen-year-old adolescents (n = 899), participating in the Raine Study, attended a cross-sectional follow-up. NAFLD was diagnosed using liver ultrasound. Scores for Fatty liver index (FLI), Hepatic Steatosis Index (HSI) and Zhejiang University index (ZJU index) were calculated. Diagnostic accuracy of these diagnostic tests was evaluated through discrimination and calibration. RESULTS: NAFLD was diagnosed 9% in males and 15% in females. The three scoring systems demonstrated better discrimination performance for NAFLD in males (AUC was FLI:0.82, HSI: 0.83 and ZJU index: 0.83) compared to females (AUC was FLI: 0.67, HSI: 0.67 and ZJU index: 0.67). Suprailiac skinfold performed better than the scoring systems (overall AUC: 0.82; male AUC:0.88; female AUC:0.73). FLI had best calibration performance. CONCLUSION: Suprailiac skinfold thickness was a better predictor of ultrasound-diagnosed NAFLD than the three diagnostic scoring systems investigated. The higher performance characteristics of the algorithmic scoring systems in males compared with females may have implications for use in population assessments.

4.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 2020 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33190142

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To describe the associations of baseline dietary pattern scores with falls risk, bone mineral density (BMD), and incident fractures measured over 10 years in older adults. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Dietary patterns were identified using exploratory factor analysis. Femoral neck (FN), hip, and lumbar spine (LS) BMD were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, falls risk z-score using the Physiological Profile Assessment, and incident fractures by self-report. Linear mixed-effects models and log-binomial regression were used to estimate associations between baseline dietary pattern z-scores and outcomes. RESULTS: Of 1098 participants at baseline, 567 were retained over 10 years. Four dietary patterns were derived: fruit and vegetable (FV), animal protein (AP), snack, and Western. FV pattern reduced falls risk at baseline by ß = 0.05-0.08/SD and the annual decreases of FN and hip BMD were less for higher Western or AP pattern scores in all populations and women. The annual increase in LS of the entire population was greater with higher scores of FV, AP, and Western patterns (all ß = 0.001 g/cm2/year/SD, p < 0.05). Higher scores of FV and snack were associated with a higher risk of LS BMD increasing over 10 years (p < 0.05 for all, except snack pattern in men) and incident fracture was not associated with any dietary pattern in the overall cohort and both men and women separately. CONCLUSIONS: An FV dietary pattern may be beneficial for reducing falls risk. The associations of dietary patterns and BMD are modest in magnitude and did not translate into an improved fracture risk. Associations between diet and LS BMD may reflect osteoarthritis rather than osteoporosis.

5.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199850

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To derive dietary patterns and examine their longitudinal associations with sociodemographic and lifestyle factors in the Tasmanian Older Adult Cohort. SUBJECTS/METHODS: This is a corrected analysis of a retracted paper. We followed 1098 adults aged ≥50 years for 5 years. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Baseline dietary patterns were identified using exploratory factor analysis and scores at each time point calculated using the weighted sum score method. Associations of energy-adjusted dietary pattern scores with participant characteristics were assessed using linear mixed-effects models. RESULTS: The four dietary patterns identified were: fruit and vegetable (vegetables, potatoes, fruits); animal protein (poultry, red meats, fish); snack (snacks, sweets, nuts); western (meat pies, hamburgers, pizzas). Fruit and vegetable pattern scores were lower in men and current smokers at baseline. Animal protein scores were lower in older and retired people but higher in men and smokers at baseline. The sex difference in animal protein score increased over time (p = 0.012). At baseline, snack score was positively associated with age and physical activity, but lower in men and current smokers. The effect of age on snack score lessened over time (p = 0.035). Western scores were lower in older people but higher in men, current smokers and those living in disadvantaged areas at baseline. The effect of age on western score reduced over time (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The higher scores for healthy and/or lower scores for unhealthy patterns in men, smokers, retirees and those experiencing social disadvantage suggest these could be target groups for interventions to improve diet quality in older adults.

6.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-11, 2020 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878651

RESUMO

Depression is a major cause of disability in adolescents. Higher dietary fibre intake has been associated with lower depressive symptoms in adults, but there is a lack of research in adolescents. We examined the association between dietary fibre intake (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) FFQ) and depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory for Youth) in adolescents with prospective data from the Raine Study Gen2 14- and 17-year follow-ups (n 1260 and 653). Odds of moderate/extreme (clinically relevant) depressive symptoms by quartile of fibre intake were calculated using mixed-effects logistic regression for all participants, in a paired sample without moderate/extreme depressive symptoms at 14 years and in a sub-sample of participants with available inflammatory data at the ages of 14 and 17 years (n 718 and 547). Odds of moderate/extreme depressive symptoms were lower in the fourth (highest) quartile of overall fibre intake (OR 0·273, 95 % CI 0·09, 0·81) compared with the first (lowest) quartile, adjusting for sex, age, energy intake, adiposity, and family and lifestyle factors. However, further adjustment for dietary patterns attenuated the results. Associations of depressive symptoms with cereal or fruit and vegetable fibre intake were not significant in the final model. Adjustment for inflammation had no effect on OR. The association between a higher dietary fibre intake and lower odds of clinically relevant depressive symptoms may be more reflective of a high-fibre diet with all its accompanying nutrients than of an independent effect of fibre.

7.
Environ Health Perspect ; 128(9): 97003, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32930613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fetal exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with the development of noncommunicable diseases in the offspring. Maternal smoking may induce such long-term effects through persistent changes in the DNA methylome, which therefore hold the potential to be used as a biomarker of this early life exposure. With declining costs for measuring DNA methylation, we aimed to develop a DNA methylation score that can be used on adolescent DNA methylation data and thereby generate a score for in utero cigarette smoke exposure. METHODS: We used machine learning methods to create a score reflecting exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy. This score is based on peripheral blood measurements of DNA methylation (Illumina's Infinium HumanMethylation450K BeadChip). The score was developed and tested in the Raine Study with data from 995 white 17-y-old participants using 10-fold cross-validation. The score was further tested and validated in independent data from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC1986) (16-y-olds) and 1966 (NFBC1966) (31-y-olds). Further, three previously proposed DNA methylation scores were applied for comparison. The final score was developed with 204 CpGs using elastic net regression. RESULTS: Sensitivity and specificity values for the best performing previously developed classifier ("Reese Score") were 88% and 72% for Raine, 87% and 61% for NFBC1986 and 72% and 70% for NFBC1966, respectively; corresponding figures using the elastic net regression approach were 91% and 76% (Raine), 87% and 75% (NFBC1986), and 72% and 78% for NFBC1966. CONCLUSION: We have developed a DNA methylation score for exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy, outperforming the three previously developed scores. One possible application of the current score could be for model adjustment purposes or to assess its association with distal health outcomes where part of the effect can be attributed to maternal smoking. Further, it may provide a biomarker for fetal exposure to maternal smoking. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP6076.

8.
Transl Vis Sci Technol ; 9(6): 29, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32821526

RESUMO

Purpose: Potential links may exist between vitamin A intake and myopia via various pathways. In this study, we examined the association between dietary vitamin A intake during adolescence and myopia in early adulthood. Methods: We performed a prospective analysis utilizing data collected from participants of the Raine Study Gen2. Dietary vitamin A intake, determined via food frequency questionnaires completed at ages 14, 17, and 20 years, was compared with ophthalmic measurements collected at year 20. Low vitamin A levels were defined as <600 µg/day. Regression models were used to adjust for ocular sun exposure level, educational level, and parental myopia as potential confounders. Results: A total of 642 subjects were analyzed. Although those with adequate vitamin A intakes were less likely to be myopic (P = 0.03), this association became insignificant when adjusted for potential confounding factors in logistic regression modeling (odds ratio, 0.59; 95% confidence interval, 0.98-2.52; P = 0.06). Conclusions: There were no significant associations between total vitamin A intakes during adolescence and year 20 refractive errors after adjustment for confounders. Replication of this finding and further investigations are essential to rule out the suggestion that sufficient vitamin A intake during adolescence is associated with lower risk of myopia in early adulthood. Translational Relevance: Our findings are not definitive that ingesting foods high in vitamin A during childhood and adolescence does not have a role for preventing myopia in early adulthood.

9.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32617793

RESUMO

This study explored the association between autistic-like traits in young adults and dietary intake in early childhood in the Gen2 Raine Study cohort. Data were available from 811 participants at years 1, 2 and 3 for the assessment of dietary intake, and at year 20 for measurement of autistic-like traits. Results showed as autistic-like traits increased, total food variety, core food variety and dairy variety decreased (p < 0.05), with a lower consumption of citrus fruits and yoghurt (both p = 0.04). As autistic-like traits increased, diet quality decreased, this trend was significant at 2 years (p = 0.024). Our results suggest that young adults with higher autistic-like traits were more likely to have had lower food variety and diet quality in early childhood.

10.
Mult Scler ; : 1352458520943087, 2020 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dietary patterns and their association with subsequent clinical course have not been well studied in early multiple sclerosis (MS). OBJECTIVES: To describe dietary patterns in people in 5 years following first clinical demyelination and assess associations with MS conversion and relapse. METHODS: This study included baseline food frequency questionnaire dietary intake (entry to the Ausimmune Study) and 5-year follow-up; iterated principal factor analysis was applied. MS conversion and relapse risks were assessed by Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for age, sex, study site, education, body mass index (BMI), smoking and omega-3 supplement use. RESULTS: In cases with a first clinical diagnosis of central nervous system (CNS) demyelination, we identified three major dietary patterns, 'Prudent', 'High-Vegetable' and 'Mixed', explaining 43%, 37% and 24% of diet variance in dietary intake, respectively. Fruits, vegetables, fish, wholegrains and nuts loaded highly on the Prudent pattern, starchy vegetables and legumes on the High-Vegetable pattern, and meats and alcohol on the Mixed pattern. Diet factor scores were not associated with MS conversion risk. Those with baseline Prudent scores above the median had significantly lower relapse risk (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.54, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.37, 0.81) with some evidence of a plateau effect. CONCLUSION: Prudent diet factor score above the median was prospectively associated with lower relapse risk in the 5 years following the first clinical demyelinating event.

11.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-8, 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32378492

RESUMO

A high dietary fibre intake has been associated with improvements in inflammatory conditions in adults. However, little is known on whether associations between dietary fibre and inflammation are evident during adolescence. We examined the relationship between dietary fibre intake measured by FFQ and the inflammatory marker high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and the adipokines leptin and adiponectin cross-sectionally in 17-year-olds participating in the Raine Study (n 621). In weighted analysis using tobit and linear regression, and after excluding participants with hs-CRP > 10 mg/l, higher total dietary fibre intake (per 5 g/d) was significantly associated with lower leptin (ß = -0·13, 95 % CI -0·17, -0·09) and adiponectin (ß = -0·28, 95 % CI -0·49, -0·07), but not hs-CRP, in unadjusted analyses. These associations were no longer significant after adjustment for sex, anthropometry and a number of lifestyle factors. However, higher cereal and grain fibre intake was significantly associated with lower leptin (ß = -0·06, 95 % CI -0·10, -0·01) in fully adjusted analysis. Our findings suggest that a higher intake of cereal and grain fibre may contribute to lower leptin in adolescents. This may contribute to reductions in low-grade chronic inflammation and improved health outcomes.

12.
Eur J Nutr ; 59(8): 3841-3856, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32170374

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The consumption of dietary flavonoids from plant-based foods has been related to the prevention of multiple chronic diseases. However, intake data from adolescents are lacking. We aimed to characterise the intake and major sources of dietary flavonoids among Australian adolescents and investigate changes during adolescence. METHODS: The Raine Study Gen 2 participants completed a 212-item food frequency questionnaire at age 14 years and 17 years, with repeated measures for n = 883. Items were assigned a content for six flavonoid subclasses using the Phenol-Explorer database, which were summed for total flavonoid intake. Daily intakes and sources of flavonoids and flavonoid-subclasses were determined, and change assessed between 14 and 17 years, for males and females. RESULTS: Major food sources of flavonoids and each subclass were similar at 14 and 17 years, with fruit juice the major contributor to total flavonoid intake at both time points (providing 44% and 38%, respectively). Citrus flavanones (predominantly hesperitin) were the major subclass at 14 years, while tea flavan-3-ols were a major subclass (predominantly procyanidin dimers) at 17 years. The mean intake of total flavonoids at 14 years was 210 ± 133 mg/day, reducing by 5% (10 mg/day) by 17 years. Females consumed a more flavonoid-dense diet compared to males (104.5 ± 71.5 mg/1000 kcal vs 80.4 ± 50.3 mg/1000 kcal per day; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: This study provides a comprehensive estimation of flavonoid intake and their major food sources in a sample of Australian adolescents, which may be useful in the development of practical dietary recommendations.

13.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1646, 2020 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32015372

RESUMO

Abdominal pain is a common reason for medical visits. We examined the prevalence, gastrointestinal, and emotional significance of abdominal pain in a population-based cohort serially followed up from birth to 17 years. Children and adolescents from Generation 2 of the Raine Study participated in comprehensive cross-sectional assessments at ages 2, 5, 8, 10, 14 and 17 years. At 17 years, medical history, general health, gastrointestinal symptoms, medications, health practitioner attendance, and self-rated unhappiness were recorded. Longitudinal data regarding abdominal pain or unhappiness, from serial questionnaires, were analysed to identify factors associated with abdominal pain and adverse emotional health at age 17 years. Females experienced more abdominal pain than males at all ages (p < 0.05). Seventeen-year-old adolescents with abdominal pain reported a higher prevalence of depression, anxiety, being bullied at school, and poorer health status than those without abdominal pain (p < 0.05 for all). Abdominal pain and unhappiness during childhood and mid-adolescence were prospectively associated with recurrent abdominal pain, anxiety, depression and unhappiness during late adolescence (p < 0.05 for all). In conclusion, abdominal pain in children and adolescents associates with depression, anxiety, being bullied, unhappiness and reduced overall health-rating during adolescence. Awareness of these factors may guide management decisions.


Assuntos
Dor Abdominal/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Dor Abdominal/complicações , Dor Abdominal/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Ansiedade/complicações , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Bullying , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/complicações , Depressão/epidemiologia , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Tristeza , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 74(1): 214, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804629

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

15.
Public Health Nutr ; 23(14): 2539-2547, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31806061

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Dietary fibre is essential for a healthy diet; however, intake is often inadequate. Understanding of sources of dietary fibre and familial factors associated with intake in adolescents is limited, hampering efforts to increase intake. We aimed to determine adequacy of dietary fibre intake in adolescents, examine how intake changes from mid to late adolescence, identify major food sources and explore associations with familial factors. DESIGN: Dietary fibre intake measured with semi-quantitative FFQ and sources calculated with the AUSNUT database. Familial factors determined by questionnaire. SETTING: Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. PARTICIPANTS: Generation 2 adolescents from the 14- (n 1626) and 17-year (n 835) follow-ups. RESULTS: Mean intake of dietary fibre did not meet national dietary guidelines other than for females aged 14 years. Mean intake of both sexes was lower at 17 years (23·0 (sd 10·0) g/d) than at 14 years (24·3 (sd 9·0) g/d, P < 0·001). The quantity of dietary fibre consumed per megajoule also decreased (2·6 (sd 0·7) g/MJ at 14 years, 2·5 (sd 0·9) g/MJ at 17 years, P = 0·007). The greatest source of dietary fibre was cereals and grains, followed by fruits, then vegetables. In multivariable mixed-model analysis, female sex, Caucasian race, age 14 years, good family functioning, high level of parental education and high energy intake were independently associated with higher dietary fibre intake. CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights an age range and characteristics of adolescents lacking in dietary fibre, thereby identifying target populations for interventions to improve dietary fibre intake across adolescence, which would lead to better health.

16.
Nutr Rev ; 78(5): 394-411, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31750916

RESUMO

Dietary fiber is a crucial component of a healthy diet, with benefits that can be attributed to processes in the gut microbiota and the resulting by-products. Observational studies support associations between dietary fiber intake and depression and inflammation, but the potential mechanisms are poorly understood. This review examines evidence of the effects of dietary fiber on depression and inflammation and considers plausible mechanisms linking dietary fiber and depression, including microbiota-driven modification of gene expression and increased production of neurotransmitters. Additionally, inflammation may mediate the relationship between dietary fiber intake and depression. A high-fiber diet potentially lowers inflammation by modifying both the pH and the permeability of the gut. The resultant reduction in inflammatory compounds may alter neurotransmitter concentrations to reduce symptoms of depression. Further research into the link between dietary fiber intake and inflammation and depression is essential, as findings could potentially provide guidance for improvement in or prevention of inflammatory and depressive disorders.


Assuntos
Depressão , Fibras na Dieta , Inflamação , Animais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos
17.
Pregnancy Hypertens ; 19: 218-225, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810823

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE(S): To investigate the associations between adiposity in childhood, and adiposity change from childhood to adulthood, with pregnancy hypertension. STUDY DESIGN: The study followed-up 985 girls from the 1985 Australian Schools Health and Fitness Survey (aged 9-15 years) who were ever pregnant in 2004-2006 and/or 2009-2011. In childhood, overweight and obesity were defined by age-sex-specific international standard for body mass index (BMI) and in adulthood as BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2. Childhood and adult abdominal obesity were defined as waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) ≥ 0.5. A subsample of adults had abdominal obesity measures (n = 549). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pregnancy hypertension was self-reported as having had high blood pressure during or due to pregnancy. RESULTS: Childhood overweight/obesity (relative risk [RR] = 1.66, 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.07-2.52) and abdominal obesity (RR = 2.55, 95% CI:1.34-4.85) were associated with higher risks of pregnancy hypertension after adjustment for age, socioeconomic status and parity. Further adjustment for adult BMI attenuated the association for childhood overweight/obesity which was no longer statistically significant (RR = 1.28, 95% CI:0.79-2.07). The association with childhood abdominal obesity persisted after adjustment for adult WHtR (RR = 2.15, 95% CI:1.10-4.20). Compared to participants with persistently normal BMI or WHtR, those who were overweight/obese in adulthood only (RR = 1.49, 95% CI:1.10-2.02), persistently overweight/obese (RR = 2.06, 95% CI:1.29-3.29) or persistently abdominally obese (RR = 3.09, 95% CI:1.54-6.20) had increased risks of pregnancy hypertension. CONCLUSION(S): Childhood adiposity was associated with increased risk of pregnancy hypertension, with the association of childhood abdominal obesity independent of adult abdominal obesity. Women who were persistently overweight/obese or abdominally obese since childhood had the highest risk of pregnancy hypertension.

18.
Clin Nutr ; 39(2): 516-523, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30852031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Aging is characterized by progressive decline in physiologic reserves and functions as well as prolonged inflammation, increasing susceptibility to disease. Diet plays an important role in maintaining health, and reducing morbidity and mortality, especially in older populations. This study was designed to determine prospective associations between dietary inflammatory index (DII®) scores and bone health, sarcopenia-related outcomes, falls risk and incident fractures in community-dwelling Australian older adults. METHODS: A total of 1098 [51% male; age (mean ± SD) 63.0 ± 7.5 years] non-institutionalized older adults who participated in the Tasmanian Older Adult Cohort Study (TASOAC) at baseline, 768 at 5 years, and 566 at 10 years follow-up were included in this analysis. Baseline energy-adjusted DII (E-DII) scores were calculated using a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire. Changes in bone mineral density (BMD) and appendicular lean mass (ALM) were measured over ten years using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Ten-year changes in hand grip, knee extensor and whole lower-limb muscle strength and quality were assessed by dynamometers and change in falls risk score using the Physical Profile Assessment (PPA). Incident fractures at any site and non-vertebral fractures over 10 years were self-reported. RESULTS: The E-DII range was -3.48 to +3.23 in men and -3.80 to +2.74 in women. Higher E-DII score (indicating a more pro-inflammatory diet) was associated with lower total hip (B: -0.009; 95% CI: -0.017, 0.000) and lumbar spine BMD (B: -0.013; 95% CI: -0.024, -0.002), and higher falls risk score (B: 0.040; 95% CI: 0.002, 0.078) over 10 years in men. Women with higher E-DII scores had higher whole lower-limb muscle quality over 10 years (B: 0.109; 95% CI: 0.002, 0.215). For every unit increase in E-DII score, incident fracture rates increased by 9.0% in men (IRR: 1.090; 95% CI: 1.011, 1.175) and decreased by 12.2% in women (IRR: 0.878; 95% CI: 0.800, 0.964) in a fully adjusted model. CONCLUSION: Higher E-DII scores were associated with lower bone density, higher falls risk, and increased incidence of fractures in community-dwelling older men, but decreased fracture incidence in women, over 10 years. This suggests pro-inflammatory diets may be more detrimental to musculoskeletal health in older men than in women. Additional studies are warranted to elucidate these sex differences.

19.
Front Genet ; 10: 770, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31616461

RESUMO

Background: Several studies have shown effects of current and maternal smoking during pregnancy on DNA methylation of CpG sites in newborns and later in life. Here, we hypothesized that there are long-term and persistent epigenetic effects following maternal smoking during pregnancy on adolescent offspring DNA methylation, independent of paternal and postnatal smoke exposure. Furthermore, we explored the association between DNA methylation and cardiometabolic risk factors at 17 years of age. Materials and Methods: DNA methylation was measured using the Illumina HumanMethylation450K BeadChip in whole blood from 995 participants attending the 17-year follow-up of the Raine Study. Linear mixed effects models were used to identify differential methylated CpGs, adjusting for parental smoking during pregnancy, and paternal, passive, and adolescent smoke exposure. Additional models examined the association between DNA methylation and paternal, adolescent, and passive smoking over the life course. Offspring CpGs identified were analyzed against cardiometabolic risk factors (blood pressure, triacylglycerols (TG), high-density lipoproteins cholesterol (HDL-C), and body mass index). Results: We identified 23 CpGs (genome-wide p level: 1.06 × 10-7) that were associated with maternal smoking during pregnancy, including associated genes AHRR (cancer development), FTO (obesity), CNTNAP2 (developmental processes), CYP1A1 (detoxification), MYO1G (cell signalling), and FRMD4A (nicotine dependence). A sensitivity analysis showed a dose-dependent relationship between maternal smoking and offspring methylation. These results changed little following adjustment for paternal, passive, or offspring smoking, and there were no CpGs identified that associated with these variables. Two of the 23 identified CpGs [cg00253568 (FTO) and cg00213123 (CYP1A1)] were associated with either TG (male and female), diastolic blood pressure (female only), or HDL-C (male only), after Bonferroni correction. Discussion: This study demonstrates a critical timing of cigarette smoke exposure over the life course for establishing persistent changes in DNA methylation into adolescence in a dose-dependent manner. There were significant associations between offspring CpG methylation and adolescent cardiovascular risk factors, namely, TG, HDL-C, and diastolic blood pressure. Future studies on current smoking habits and DNA methylation should consider the importance of maternal smoking during pregnancy and explore how the persistent DNA methylation effects of in utero smoke exposure increase cardiometabolic risk.

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