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1.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(12)2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208448

RESUMO

Tumor-associated vasculature is responsible for the delivery of nutrients, removal of waste, and allowing growth beyond 2-3 mm3. Additionally, the vascular network, which is changing in both space and time, fundamentally influences tumor response to both systemic and radiation therapy. Thus, a robust understanding of vascular dynamics is necessary to accurately predict tumor growth, as well as establish optimal treatment protocols to achieve optimal tumor control. Such a goal requires the intimate integration of both theory and experiment. Quantitative and time-resolved imaging methods have emerged as technologies able to visualize and characterize tumor vascular properties before and during therapy at the tissue and cell scale. Parallel to, but separate from those developments, mathematical modeling techniques have been developed to enable in silico investigations into theoretical tumor and vascular dynamics. In particular, recent efforts have sought to integrate both theory and experiment to enable data-driven mathematical modeling. Such mathematical models are calibrated by data obtained from individual tumor-vascular systems to predict future vascular growth, delivery of systemic agents, and response to radiotherapy. In this review, we discuss experimental techniques for visualizing and quantifying vascular dynamics including magnetic resonance imaging, microfluidic devices, and confocal microscopy. We then focus on the integration of these experimental measures with biologically based mathematical models to generate testable predictions.

2.
Comput Mech ; : 1-14, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32836598

RESUMO

We consider a mixture-theoretic continuum model of the spread of COVID-19 in Texas. The model consists of multiple coupled partial differential reaction-diffusion equations governing the evolution of susceptible, exposed, infectious, recovered, and deceased fractions of the total population in a given region. We consider the problem of model calibration, validation, and prediction following a Bayesian learning approach implemented in OPAL (the Occam Plausibility Algorithm). Our goal is to incorporate COVID-19 data to calibrate the model in real-time and make meaningful predictions and specify the confidence level in the prediction by quantifying the uncertainty in key quantities of interests. Our results show smaller mortality rates in Texas than what is reported in the literature. We predict 7003 deceased cases by September 1, 2020 in Texas with 95 % CI 6802-7204. The model is validated for the total deceased cases, however, is found to be invalid for the total infected cases. We discuss possible improvements of the model.

3.
J Mech Phys Solids ; 1392020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32394987

RESUMO

We develop a general class of thermodynamically consistent, continuum models based on mixture theory with phase effects that describe the behavior of a mass of multiple interacting constituents. The constituents consist of solid species undergoing large elastic deformations and compressible viscous fluids. The fundamental building blocks framing the mixture theories consist of the mass balance law of diffusing species and microscopic (cellular scale) and macroscopic (tissue scale) force balances, as well as energy balance and the entropy production inequality derived from the first and second laws of thermodynamics. A general phase-field framework is developed by closing the system through postulating constitutive equations (i.e., specific forms of free energy and rate of dissipation potentials) to depict the growth of tumors in a microenvironment. A notable feature of this theory is that it contains a unified continuum mechanics framework for addressing the interactions of multiple species evolving in both space and time and involved in biological growth of soft tissues (e.g., tumor cells and nutrients). The formulation also accounts for the regulating roles of the mechanical deformation on the growth of tumors, through a physically and mathematically consistent coupled diffusion and deformation framework. A new algorithm for numerical approximation of the proposed model using mixed finite elements is presented. The results of numerical experiments indicate that the proposed theory captures critical features of avascular tumor growth in the various microenvironment of living tissue, in agreement with the experimental studies in the literature.

4.
Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng ; 320: 261-286, 2017 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29158608

RESUMO

Most biological systems encountered in living organisms involve highly complex heterogeneous multi-component structures that exhibit different physical, chemical, and biological behavior at different spatial and temporal scales. The development of predictive mathematical and computational models of multiscale events in such systems is a major challenge in contemporary computational biomechanics, particularly the development of models of growing tumors in humans. The aim of this study is to develop a general framework for tumor growth prediction by considering major biological events at tissue, cellular, and subcellular scales. The key to developing such multiscale models is how to bridge spatial and temporal scales that range from 10-3 to 103 mm in space and from 10-6 to 107 s in time. In this paper, a fully coupled space-time multiscale framework for modeling tumor growth is developed. The framework consists of a tissue scale model, a model of cellular activities, and a subcellular transduction signaling pathway model. The tissue, cellular, and subcellular models in this framework are solved using partial differential equations for tissue growth, agent-based model for cellular events, and ordinary differential equations for signaling transduction pathway as a network at subcellular scale. The model is calibrated using experimental observations. Moreover, this model is biologically-driven from a signaling pathway, volumetrically-consistent between cellular and tissue scale in terms of tumor volume evolution in time, and a biophysically-sound tissue model that satisfies all conservation laws. The results show that the model is capable of predicting major characteristics of tumor growth such as the morphological instability, growth patterns of different cell phenotypes, compact regions of the higher cell density at the tumor region, and the reduction of growth rate due to drug delivery. The predicted treatment outcomes show a reduction in proliferation at different rates in response to different drug dosages. Moreover, the results of several 3D applications to tumor growth and the evolution of cellular and subcellular events are presented.

5.
J Math Biol ; 67(6-7): 1457-85, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23053536

RESUMO

The idea that one can possibly develop computational models that predict the emergence, growth, or decline of tumors in living tissue is enormously intriguing as such predictions could revolutionize medicine and bring a new paradigm into the treatment and prevention of a class of the deadliest maladies affecting humankind. But at the heart of this subject is the notion of predictability itself, the ambiguity involved in selecting and implementing effective models, and the acquisition of relevant data, all factors that contribute to the difficulty of predicting such complex events as tumor growth with quantifiable uncertainty. In this work, we attempt to lay out a framework, based on Bayesian probability, for systematically addressing the questions of Validation, the process of investigating the accuracy with which a mathematical model is able to reproduce particular physical events, and Uncertainty quantification, developing measures of the degree of confidence with which a computer model predicts particular quantities of interest. For illustrative purposes, we exercise the process using virtual data for models of tumor growth based on diffuse-interface theories of mixtures utilizing virtual data.


Assuntos
Teorema de Bayes , Modelos Biológicos , Modelos Estatísticos , Neoplasias/patologia , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos de Validação como Assunto
6.
Int J Numer Method Biomed Eng ; 28(1): 3-24, 2012 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25830204

RESUMO

In this paper, we develop a thermodynamically consistent four-species model of tumor growth on the basis of the continuum theory of mixtures. Unique to this model is the incorporation of nutrient within the mixture as opposed to being modeled with an auxiliary reaction-diffusion equation. The formulation involves systems of highly nonlinear partial differential equations of surface effects through diffuse-interface models. A mixed finite element spatial discretization is developed and implemented to provide numerical results demonstrating the range of solutions this model can produce. A time-stepping algorithm is then presented for this system, which is shown to be first order accurate and energy gradient stable. The results of an array of numerical experiments are presented, which demonstrate a wide range of solutions produced by various choices of model parameters.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/patologia , Algoritmos , Animais , Simulação por Computador , Difusão , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Modelos Teóricos , Termodinâmica
7.
IEEE Trans Biomed Eng ; 57(5): 1024-30, 2010 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20142153

RESUMO

The treatment times of laser induced thermal therapies (LITT) guided by computational prediction are determined by the convergence behavior of partial differential equation (PDE)-constrained optimization problems. In this paper, we investigate the convergence behavior of a bioheat transfer constrained calibration problem to assess the feasibility of applying to real-time patient specific data. The calibration techniques utilize multiplanar thermal images obtained from the nondestructive in vivo heating of canine prostate. The calibration techniques attempt to adaptively recover the biothermal heterogeneities within the tissue on a patient-specific level and results in a formidable PDE constrained optimization problem to be solved in real time. A comprehensive calibration study is performed with both homogeneous and spatially heterogeneous biothermal model parameters with and without constitutive nonlinearities. Initial results presented here indicate that the calibration problems involving the inverse solution of thousands of model parameters can converge to a solution within three minutes and decrease the [see text for symbol](L) (2) (2) ((0, T; L) (2) ((Omega))) norm of the difference between computational prediction and the measured temperature values to a patient-specific regime.


Assuntos
Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Hipertermia Induzida/métodos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Terapia com Luz de Baixa Intensidade/métodos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Modelos Biológicos , Terapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Animais , Temperatura Corporal/efeitos da radiação , Simulação por Computador , Sistemas Computacionais , Transferência de Energia/fisiologia , Humanos
8.
Eng Comput ; 25(1): 3-13, 2009.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20648233

RESUMO

Laser surgery, or laser-induced thermal therapy, is a minimally invasive alternative or adjuvant to surgical resection in treating tumors embedded in vital organs with poorly defined boundaries. Its use, however, is limited due to the lack of precise control of heating and slow rate of thermal diffusion in the tissue. Nanoparticles, such as nanoshells, can act as intense heat absorbers when they are injected into tumors. These nanoshells can enhance thermal energy deposition into target regions to improve the ability for destroying larger cancerous tissue volumes with lower thermal doses. The goal of this paper is to present an integrated computer model using a so-called nested-block optimization algorithm to simulate laser surgery and provide transient temperature field predictions. In particular, this algorithm aims to capture changes in optical and thermal properties due to nanoshell inclusion and tissue property variation during laser surgery. Numerical results show that this model is able to characterize variation of tissue properties for laser surgical procedures and predict transient temperature fields comparable to those measured by in vivo magnetic resonance temperature imaging techniques. Note that the computational approach presented in the study is quite general and can be applied to other types of nanoparticle inclusions.

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