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1.
Genet Med ; 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578471

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Lamb-Shaffer syndrome (LAMSHF) is a neurodevelopmental disorder described in just over two dozen patients with heterozygous genetic alterations involving SOX5, a gene encoding a transcription factor regulating cell fate and differentiation in neurogenesis and other discrete developmental processes. The genetic alterations described so far are mainly microdeletions. The present study was aimed at increasing our understanding of LAMSHF, its clinical and genetic spectrum, and the pathophysiological mechanisms involved. METHODS: Clinical and genetic data were collected through GeneMatcher and clinical or genetic networks for 41 novel patients harboring various types of SOX5 alterations. Functional consequences of selected substitutions were investigated. RESULTS: Microdeletions and truncating variants occurred throughout SOX5. In contrast, most missense variants clustered in the pivotal SOX-specific high-mobility-group domain. The latter variants prevented SOX5 from binding DNA and promoting transactivation in vitro, whereas missense variants located outside the high-mobility-group domain did not. Clinical manifestations and severity varied among patients. No clear genotype-phenotype correlations were found, except that missense variants outside the high-mobility-group domain were generally better tolerated. CONCLUSIONS: This study extends the clinical and genetic spectrum associated with LAMSHF and consolidates evidence that SOX5 haploinsufficiency leads to variable degrees of intellectual disability, language delay, and other clinical features.

2.
Hum Mutat ; 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513310

RESUMO

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEE) refer to a heterogeneous group of devastating neurodevelopmental disorders. Variants in KCNB1 have been recently reported in patients with early-onset DEE. KCNB1 encodes the α subunit of the delayed rectifier voltage-dependent potassium channel Kv 2.1. We review the 37 previously reported patients carrying 29 distinct KCNB1 variants and significantly expand the mutational spectrum describing 18 novel variants from 27 unreported patients. Most variants occur de novo and mainly consist of missense variants located on the voltage sensor and the pore domain of Kv 2.1. We also report the first inherited variant (p.Arg583*). KCNB1-related encephalopathies encompass a wide spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders with predominant language difficulties and behavioral impairment. Eighty-five percent of patients developed epilepsies with variable syndromes and prognosis. Truncating variants in the C-terminal domain are associated with a less-severe epileptic phenotype. Overall, this report provides an up-to-date review of the mutational and clinical spectrum of KCNB1, strengthening its place as a causal gene in DEEs and emphasizing the need for further functional studies to unravel the underlying mechanisms.

3.
Med Hypotheses ; 133: 109403, 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557594

RESUMO

In the field of developmental origins of health and diseases among humans, classical epidemiology has limited power. We hypothesize that widely available "biological clocks" would introduce a new era in the history of health research. By contrasting chronological age and physiological age, "biological clocks" might become instrumental, without any delay, in exploring the possible long-term effects of a highly modified lifestyle during the "primal period". The aging process, life expectancy and health in general would be the main criteria. Today "DNA methylation GrimAge", based on estimations of plasma protein levels, may be considered to be the best predictor of lifespan and healthspan.

4.
Genet Med ; 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31363182

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Kabuki syndrome (KS) (OMIM 147920 and 300867) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by specific facial features, intellectual disability, and various malformations. Immunopathological manifestations seem prevalent and increase the morbimortality. To assess the frequency and severity of the manifestations, we measured the prevalence of immunopathological manifestations as well as genotype-phenotype correlations in KS individuals from a registry. METHODS: Data were for 177 KS individuals with KDM6A or KMT2D pathogenic variants. Questionnaires to clinicians were used to assess the presence of immunodeficiency and autoimmune diseases both on a clinical and biological basis. RESULTS: Overall, 44.1% (78/177) and 58.2% (46/79) of KS individuals exhibited infection susceptibility and hypogammaglobulinemia, respectively; 13.6% (24/177) had autoimmune disease (AID; 25.6% [11/43] in adults), 5.6% (10/177) with ≥2 AID manifestations. The most frequent AID manifestations were immune thrombocytopenic purpura (7.3% [13/177]) and autoimmune hemolytic anemia (4.0% [7/177]). Among nonhematological manifestations, vitiligo was frequent. Immune thrombocytopenic purpura was frequent with missense versus other types of variants (p = 0.027). CONCLUSION: The high prevalence of immunopathological manifestations in KS demonstrates the importance of systematic screening and efficient preventive management of these treatable and sometimes life-threatening conditions.

5.
Appl Neuropsychol Adult ; : 1-12, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390893

RESUMO

Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS) is a rare genetic disorder (estimated incidence 1/30,000 to 100,000 live births). So far, only a few studies have focused on the cognitive profile of individuals with SRS, and these were conducted some time ago, concentrated on pediatric cohorts, and included patients who had been diagnosed using a variety of clinical diagnostic systems. There has yet to be any research on the intellectual functioning of adults with SRS. This study sought to establish the intelligence, strengths and weaknesses within intellectual profile of adults with SRS, compared with normative data. Ten individuals with 11p15 epimutation aged 18-39 years completed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition. Measures of interest included participants' intelligence (Full Scale Intelligence Quotient [FSIQ]) and four domains of cognitive functioning: verbal comprehension, perceptual reasoning, working memory and processing speed. Discrepancy scores were calculated, and descriptive statistical and linear correlations were used to investigate factors associated with IQ outcome. Clinical and medical information such as rehabilitation, and perceived difficulties in daily life were collected by interviews and questionnaires. Results showed that the mean FSIQ score was in the average range (M = 95.40, SD = 18.55) and they performed best on verbal comprehension. Frequent daily difficulties were reported by patients and/or their families: learning disabilities and low self-esteem were perceived by 60% of adults. Early intervention and multidisciplinary care from childhood to adulthood are important in SRS for care potential medical, cognitive and psychosocial problems. This is the first study to document the intellectual functioning of adults with SRS.

6.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 14(1): 180, 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A pattern of major and minor congenital anomalies, facial dysmorphic features, and neurodevelopmental difficulties, including cognitive and social impairments has been reported in some children exposed to sodium valproate (VPA) during pregnancy. Recognition of the increased risks of in utero exposure to VPA for congenital malformations, and for the neurodevelopmental effects in particular, has taken many years but these are now acknowledged following the publication of the outcomes of several prospective studies and registries. As with other teratogens, exposure to VPA can have variable effects, ranging from a characteristic pattern of major malformations and significant intellectual disability to the other end of the continuum, characterised by facial dysmorphism which is often difficult to discern and a more moderate effect on neurodevelopment and general health. It has become clear that some individuals with FVSD have complex needs requiring multidisciplinary care but information regarding management is currently lacking in the medical literature. METHODS: An expert group was convened by ERN-ITHACA, the European Reference Network for Congenital Malformations and Intellectual Disability comprised of professionals involved in the care of individuals with FVSD and with patient representation. Review of published and unpublished literature concerning management of FVSD was undertaken and the level of evidence from these sources graded. Management recommendations were made based on strength of evidence and consensus expert opinion, in the setting of an expert consensus meeting. These were then refined using an iterative process and wider consultation. RESULTS: Whilst there was strong evidence regarding the increase in risk for major congenital malformations and neurodevelopmental difficulties there was a lack of high level evidence in other areas and in particular in terms of optimal clinical management.. The expert consensus approach facilitated the formulation of management recommendations, based on literature evidence and best practice. The outcome of the review and group discussions leads us to propose the term Fetal Valproate Spectrum Disorder (FVSD) as we feel this better encompasses the broad range of effects seen following VPA exposure in utero. CONCLUSION: The expert consensus approach can be used to define the best available clinical guidance for the diagnosis and management of rare disorders such as FVSD. FVSD can have medical, developmental and neuropsychological impacts with life-long consequences and affected individuals benefit from the input of a number of different health professionals.

9.
Hum Genet ; 138(4): 363-374, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30838450

RESUMO

Neural tube defect disorders are developmental diseases that originate from an incomplete closure of the neural tube during embryogenesis. Despite high prevalence-1 out of 3000 live births-their etiology is not yet established and both environmental and genetic factors have been proposed, with a heritability rate of about 60%. Studies in mouse models as well as in human have further suggested a multifactorial pattern of inheritance for neural tube defect disorders. Here, we report results obtained from clinical diagnosis and NGS analysis of a cohort composed of 52 patients. Using a candidate gene panel approach, we identified variants in known genes of planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway, although with higher prevalence than previously reported. Our study also reveals variants in novel genes such as FREM2 and DISP1. Altogether, these results confirm the implication of the PCP genes and involve the FRAS/FREM2 complex and Sonic Hedgehog signaling as novel components in the appearance of NTDs.


Assuntos
Polaridade Celular/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/patologia , Gravidez , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transcriptoma
10.
J Med Genet ; 56(8): 526-535, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30923172

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Balanced chromosomal rearrangements associated with abnormal phenotype are rare events, but may be challenging for genetic counselling, since molecular characterisation of breakpoints is not performed routinely. We used next-generation sequencing to characterise breakpoints of balanced chromosomal rearrangements at the molecular level in patients with intellectual disability and/or congenital anomalies. METHODS: Breakpoints were characterised by a paired-end low depth whole genome sequencing (WGS) strategy and validated by Sanger sequencing. Expression study of disrupted and neighbouring genes was performed by RT-qPCR from blood or lymphoblastoid cell line RNA. RESULTS: Among the 55 patients included (41 reciprocal translocations, 4 inversions, 2 insertions and 8 complex chromosomal rearrangements), we were able to detect 89% of chromosomal rearrangements (49/55). Molecular signatures at the breakpoints suggested that DNA breaks arose randomly and that there was no major influence of repeated elements. Non-homologous end-joining appeared as the main mechanism of repair (55% of rearrangements). A diagnosis could be established in 22/49 patients (44.8%), 15 by gene disruption (KANSL1, FOXP1, SPRED1, TLK2, MBD5, DMD, AUTS2, MEIS2, MEF2C, NRXN1, NFIX, SYNGAP1, GHR, ZMIZ1) and 7 by position effect (DLX5, MEF2C, BCL11B, SATB2, ZMIZ1). In addition, 16 new candidate genes were identified. Systematic gene expression studies further supported these results. We also showed the contribution of topologically associated domain maps to WGS data interpretation. CONCLUSION: Paired-end WGS is a valid strategy and may be used for structural variation characterisation in a clinical setting.

11.
Genet Med ; 21(9): 2059-2069, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30923367

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of different DEAF1 variants on the phenotype of patients with autosomal dominant and recessive inheritance patterns and on DEAF1 activity in vitro. METHODS: We assembled a cohort of 23 patients with de novo and biallelic DEAF1 variants, described the genotype-phenotype correlation, and investigated the differential effect of de novo and recessive variants on transcription assays using DEAF1 and Eif4g3 promoter luciferase constructs. RESULTS: The proportion of the most prevalent phenotypic features, including intellectual disability, speech delay, motor delay, autism, sleep disturbances, and a high pain threshold, were not significantly different in patients with biallelic and pathogenic de novo DEAF1 variants. However, microcephaly was exclusively observed in patients with recessive variants (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: We propose that different variants in the DEAF1 gene result in a phenotypic spectrum centered around neurodevelopmental delay. While a pathogenic de novo dominant variant would also incapacitate the product of the wild-type allele and result in a dominant-negative effect, a combination of two recessive variants would result in a partial loss of function. Because the clinical picture can be nonspecific, detailed phenotype information, segregation, and functional analysis are fundamental to determine the pathogenicity of novel variants and to improve the care of these patients.

12.
Genet Med ; 21(9): 2015-2024, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30739908

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Heritable thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections (hTAAD) are life-threatening complications of well-known syndromic diseases or underdiagnosed nonsyndromic heritable forms (nshTAAD). Both have an autosomal dominant transmission and are genetically heterogeneous. Our objective was to describe the relevance of molecular diagnosis in these patients and the contribution of each gene in nshTAAD. METHODS: Two hundred twenty-six consecutive nshTAAD probands, either young (<45 years) sporadic or familial cases were included. A next-generation sequencing capture panel comprising 23 known disease-causing genes was performed. RESULTS: Class 4 or 5 variants were identified in 18% of the nshTAAD probands, while class 3 variants were found in 10% of them. The yield in familial cases was greater than in sporadic cases. SMAD3 and FBN1 genes were the major disease-causing genes. Unexpectedly, no premature termination codon variant was identified in the FBN1 gene. Furthermore, we report for the first time that aortic dissection or surgery occurred significantly more often and earlier in probands with a class 4 or 5 pathogenic variant. CONCLUSION: This study indicates that genetic screening using NGS is efficient in young and familial nshTAAD. The presence of a pathogenic variant has a possible predictive value, which needs to be further investigated because it may influence care.

13.
Brain ; 2018 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30508070

RESUMO

Holoprosencephaly is a pathology of forebrain development characterized by high phenotypic heterogeneity. The disease presents with various clinical manifestations at the cerebral or facial levels. Several genes have been implicated in holoprosencephaly but its genetic basis remains unclear: different transmission patterns have been described including autosomal dominant, recessive and digenic inheritance. Conventional molecular testing approaches result in a very low diagnostic yield and most cases remain unsolved. In our study, we address the possibility that genetically unsolved cases of holoprosencephaly present an oligogenic origin and result from combined inherited mutations in several genes. Twenty-six unrelated families, for whom no genetic cause of holoprosencephaly could be identified in clinical settings [whole exome sequencing and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH)-array analyses], were reanalysed under the hypothesis of oligogenic inheritance. Standard variant analysis was improved with a gene prioritization strategy based on clinical ontologies and gene co-expression networks. Clinical phenotyping and exploration of cross-species similarities were further performed on a family-by-family basis. Statistical validation was performed on 248 ancestrally similar control trios provided by the Genome of the Netherlands project and on 574 ancestrally matched controls provided by the French Exome Project. Variants of clinical interest were identified in 180 genes significantly associated with key pathways of forebrain development including sonic hedgehog (SHH) and primary cilia. Oligogenic events were observed in 10 families and involved both known and novel holoprosencephaly genes including recurrently mutated FAT1, NDST1, COL2A1 and SCUBE2. The incidence of oligogenic combinations was significantly higher in holoprosencephaly patients compared to two control populations (P < 10-9). We also show that depending on the affected genes, patients present with particular clinical features. This study reports novel disease genes and supports oligogenicity as clinically relevant model in holoprosencephaly. It also highlights key roles of SHH signalling and primary cilia in forebrain development. We hypothesize that distinction between different clinical manifestations of holoprosencephaly lies in the degree of overall functional impact on SHH signalling. Finally, we underline that integrating clinical phenotyping in genetic studies is a powerful tool to specify the clinical relevance of certain mutations.

14.
Acta Neuropathol Commun ; 6(1): 109, 2018 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30340542

RESUMO

Extreme microcephaly and rhombencephalosynapsis represent unusual pathological conditions, each of which occurs in isolation or in association with various other cerebral and or extracerebral anomalies. Unlike microcephaly for which several disease-causing genes have been identified with different modes of inheritance, the molecular bases of rhombencephalosynapsis remain unknown and rhombencephalosynapsis presents mainly as a sporadic condition consistent with de novo dominant variations. We report for the first time the association of extreme microcephaly with almost no sulcation and rhombencephalosynapsis in a fœtus for which comparative patient-parent exome sequencing strategy revealed a heterozygous de novo missense variant in the ADGRL2 gene. ADGRL2 encodes latrophilin 2, an adhesion G-protein-coupled receptor whose exogenous ligand is α-latrotoxin. Adgrl2 immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization revealed expression in the telencephalon, mesencephalon and rhombencephalon of mouse and chicken embryos. In human brain embryos and fœtuses, Adgrl2 immunoreactivity was observed in the hemispheric and cerebellar germinal zones, the cortical plate, basal ganglia, pons and cerebellar cortex. Microfluorimetry experiments evaluating intracellular calcium release in response to α-latrotoxin binding showed significantly reduced cytosolic calcium release in the fœtus amniocytes vs amniocytes from age-matched control fœtuses and in HeLa cells transfected with mutant ADGRL2 cDNA vs wild-type construct. Embryonic lethality was also observed in constitutive Adgrl2-/- mice. In Adgrl2+/- mice, MRI studies revealed microcephaly and vermis hypoplasia. Cell adhesion and wound healing assays demonstrated that the variation increased cell adhesion properties and reduced cell motility. Furthermore, HeLa cells overexpressing mutant ADGRL2 displayed a highly developed cytoplasmic F-actin network related to cytoskeletal dynamic modulation. ADGRL2 is the first gene identified as being responsible for extreme microcephaly with rhombencephalosynapsis. Increased cell adhesion, reduced cell motility and cytoskeletal dynamic alterations induced by the variant therefore represent a new mechanism responsible for microcephaly.

15.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2018 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30291340

RESUMO

Deletions on chromosome 15q14 are a known chromosomal cause of cleft palate, typically co-occurring with intellectual disability, facial dysmorphism, and congenital heart defects. The identification of patients with loss-of-function variants in MEIS2, a gene within this deletion, suggests that these features are attributed to haploinsufficiency of MEIS2. To further delineate the phenotypic spectrum of the MEIS2-related syndrome, we collected 23 previously unreported patients with either a de novo sequence variant in MEIS2 (9 patients), or a 15q14 microdeletion affecting MEIS2 (14 patients). All but one de novo MEIS2 variant were identified by whole-exome sequencing. One variant was found by targeted sequencing of MEIS2 in a girl with a clinical suspicion of this syndrome. In addition to the triad of palatal defects, heart defects, and developmental delay, heterozygous loss of MEIS2 results in recurrent facial features, including thin and arched eyebrows, short alae nasi, and thin vermillion. Genotype-phenotype comparison between patients with 15q14 deletions and patients with sequence variants or intragenic deletions within MEIS2, showed a higher prevalence of moderate-to-severe intellectual disability in the former group, advocating for an independent locus for psychomotor development neighboring MEIS2.

16.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2018 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30262920

RESUMO

LHX3 is an LIM domain transcription factor involved in the early steps of pituitary ontogenesis. We report here functional studies of three allelic variants, including the first heterozygous variant of LHX3 NM_178138.5(LHX3):c.587T>C (p.(Leu196Pro)) that may be responsible for a milder phenotype of hypopituitarism. Our functional studies showed that NM_178138.5(LHX3):c.587T>C (p.(Leu196Pro)) was not able to activate target promoters in vitro, as it did not bind DNA, and likely affected LHX3 function via a mechanism of haplo-insufficiency. Our study demonstrates the possibility that patients with a heterozygous variant of LHX3 may have pituitary deficiencies, with a milder phenotype than patients with homozygous variants. It is thus of vital to propose an optimal follow-up of such patients, who, until now, were considered as not being at risk of presenting pituitary deficiency. The second variant NM_178138.5(LHX3):c.622C>G (p.(Arg208Gly)), present in a homozygous state, displayed decreased transactivating ability without loss of binding capacity in vitro, concordant with in silico analysis; it should thus be considered to affect LHX3 function. In contrast, the NM_178138.5(LHX3):c.929G>C (p.(Arg310Pro)) variant, in a heterozygous state, also predicted as deleterious in silico, proved functionally active in vitro, and should thus still be classified as a variant of unknown significance. Our study emphasizes the need for functional studies due to the limits of software-based predictions of new variants, and the possible association of a pituitary phenotype to heterozygous LHX3 variants.

17.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 10439, 2018 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29992973

RESUMO

ZIC2 mutation is known to cause holoprosencephaly (HPE). A subset of ZIC2 HPE probands harbour cardiovascular and visceral anomalies suggestive of laterality defects. 3D-imaging of novel mouse Zic2 mutants uncovers, in addition to HPE, laterality defects in lungs, heart, vasculature and viscera. A strong bias towards right isomerism indicates a failure to establish left identity in the lateral plate mesoderm (LPM), a phenotype that cannot be explained simply by the defective ciliogenesis previously noted in Zic2 mutants. Gene expression analysis showed that the left-determining NODAL-dependent signalling cascade fails to be activated in the LPM, and that the expression of Nodal at the node, which normally triggers this event, is itself defective in these embryos. Analysis of ChiP-seq data, in vitro transcriptional assays and mutagenesis reveals a requirement for a low-affinity ZIC2 binding site for the activation of the Nodal enhancer HBE, which is normally active in node precursor cells. These data show that ZIC2 is required for correct Nodal expression at the node and suggest a model in which ZIC2 acts at different levels to establish LR asymmetry, promoting both the production of the signal that induces left side identity and the morphogenesis of the cilia that bias its distribution.

18.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(11): 1611-1622, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30006632

RESUMO

Acrodysostosis (MIM 101800) is a dominantly inherited condition associating (1) skeletal features (short stature, facial dysostosis, and brachydactyly with cone-shaped epiphyses), (2) resistance to hormones and (3) possible intellectual disability. Acroscyphodysplasia (MIM 250215) is characterized by growth retardation, brachydactyly, and knee epiphyses embedded in cup-shaped metaphyses. We and others have identified PDE4D or PRKAR1A variants in acrodysostosis; PDE4D variants have been reported in three cases of acroscyphodysplasia. Our study aimed at reviewing the clinical and molecular findings in a cohort of 27 acrodysostosis and 5 acroscyphodysplasia cases. Among the acrodysostosis cases, we identified 9 heterozygous de novo PRKAR1A variants and 11 heterozygous PDE4D variants. The 7 patients without variants presented with symptoms of acrodysostosis (brachydactyly and cone-shaped epiphyses), but none had the characteristic facial dysostosis. In the acroscyphodysplasia cases, we identified 2 PDE4D variants. For 2 of the 3 negative cases, medical records revealed early severe infection, which has been described in some reports of acroscyphodysplasia. Subdividing our series of acrodysostosis based on the disease-causing gene, we confirmed genotype-phenotype correlations. Hormone resistance was consistently observed in patients carrying PRKAR1A variants, whereas no hormone resistance was observed in 9 patients with PDE4D variants. All patients with PDE4D variants shared characteristic facial features (midface hypoplasia with nasal hypoplasia) and some degree of intellectual disability. Our findings of PDE4D variants in two cases of acroscyphodysplasia support that PDE4D may be responsible for this severe skeletal dysplasia. We eventually emphasize the importance of some specific assessments in the long-term follow up, including cardiovascular and thromboembolic risk factors.

19.
Hum Genet ; 2018 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29974297

RESUMO

Two distinct syndromes arise from pathogenic variants in the X-linked gene BCOR (BCL-6 corepressor): oculofaciocardiodental (OFCD) syndrome, which affects females, and a severe microphthalmia ('Lenz'-type) syndrome affecting males. OFCD is an X-linked dominant syndrome caused by a variety of BCOR null mutations. As it manifests only in females, it is presumed to be lethal in males. The severe male X-linked recessive microphthalmia syndrome ('Lenz') usually includes developmental delay in addition to the eye findings and is caused by hypomorphic BCOR variants, mainly by a specific missense variant c.254C > T, p.(Pro85Leu). Here, we detail 16 new cases (11 females with 4 additional, genetically confirmed, affected female relatives; 5 male cases each with unaffected carrier mothers). We describe new variants and broaden the phenotypic description for OFCD to include neuropathy, muscle hypotonia, pituitary underdevelopment, brain atrophy, lipoma and the first description of childhood lymphoma in an OFCD case. Our male X-linked recessive cases show significant new phenotypes: developmental delay (without eye anomalies) in two affected half-brothers with a novel BCOR variant, and one male with high myopia, megalophthalmos, posterior embryotoxon, developmental delay, and heart and bony anomalies with a previously undescribed BCOR splice site variant. Our female OFCD cases and their affected female relatives showed variable features, but consistently had early onset cataracts. We show that a mosaic carrier mother manifested early cataract and dental anomalies. All female carriers of the male X-linked recessive cases for whom genetic confirmation was available showed skewed X-inactivation and were unaffected. In view of the extended phenotype, we suggest a new term of X-linked BCOR-related syndrome.

20.
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet ; 178(2): 258-269, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29785796

RESUMO

Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is a complex genetic disorder of the developing forebrain characterized by high phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity. HPE was initially defined as an autosomal dominant disease, but recent research has shown that its mode of transmission is more complex. The past decade has witnessed rapid development of novel genetic technologies and significant progresses in clinical studies of HPE. In this review, we recapitulate genetic epidemiological studies of the largest European HPE cohort and summarize the novel genetic discoveries of HPE based on recently developed diagnostic methods. Our main purpose is to present different inheritance patterns that exist for HPE with a particular emphasis on oligogenic inheritance and its implications in genetic counseling.

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