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1.
Acta Trop ; 201: 105179, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539525

RESUMO

Natural products have proven to be an immeasurable source of bioactive compounds. The exceptional biodiversity encountered in Amazonia, alongside a rich entomofauna and frequent interactions with various herbivores is the crucible of a promising chemodiversity. This prompted us to search for novel botanical insecticides in French Guiana. As this French overseas department faces severe issues linked to insects, notably the strong incidence of vector-borne infectious diseases, we decided to focus our research on products able to control the mosquito Aedes aegypti. We tested 452 extracts obtained from 85 species originating from 36 botanical families and collected in contrasted environments against an Ae. aegypti laboratory strain susceptible to all insecticides, and a natural population resistant to both pyrethroid and organophosphate insecticides collected in Cayenne for the most active of them. Eight species (Maytenus oblongata Reissek, Celastraceae; Costus erythrothyrsus Loes., Costaceae; Humiria balsamifera Aubl., Humiriaceae; Sextonia rubra (Mez) van der Werff, Lauraceae; Piper hispidum Sw., Piperaceae; Laetia procera (Poepp.) Eichl., Salicaceae; Matayba arborescens (Aubl.) Radlk., Sapindaceae; and Cupania scrobitulata Rich., Sapindaceae) led to extracts exhibiting more than 50% larval mortality after 48 h of exposition at 100 µg/mL against the natural population and were considered active. Selectivity and phytochemistry of these extracts were therefore investigated and discussed, and some active compounds highlighted. Multivariate analysis highlighted that solvents, plant tissues, plant family and location had a significant effect on mortality while light, available resources and vegetation type did not. Through this case study we highlighted that plant defensive chemistry mechanisms are crucial while searching for novel insecticidal products.

2.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31769403

RESUMO

To implement future malaria elimination strategies in French Guiana, a characterization of the infectious reservoir is recommended. A cross-sectional survey was conducted between October and December 2017 in the French Guianese municipality of St Georges de l'Oyapock, located along the Brazilian border. The prevalence of Plasmodium spp. was determined using a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Demographic, house locations, medical history, and biological data were analyzed. Factors associated with Plasmodium spp. carriage were analyzed using logistic regression, and the carriage localization was investigated through spatial cluster analysis. Of the 1,501 samples analyzed with PCR, positive results totaled 90 and 10 for Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum, respectively. The general PCR prevalence was 6.6% [5.3-7.9], among which 74% were asymptomatic. Only 13/1,549 were positive by RDT. In multivariate analysis, participants older than 15 years, living in a remote neighborhood, with a prior history of malaria, anemia, and thrombocytopenia were associated with an increased odds of Plasmodium spp. carriage. High-risk clusters of P. vivax carriage were detected in the most remote neighborhoods on the village outskirts and two small foci in the village center. We also detected a hot spot for both P. vivax and P. falciparum symptomatic carriers in the northwestern part of the village. The present study confirms a wide-scale presence of asymptomatic P. falciparum and P. vivax carriers in this area. Although they were more often located in remote areas, their geographic distribution was spatially heterogeneous and complex.

3.
Ecology ; 100(10): e02806, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257578

RESUMO

To decipher the long-term influences of pre-Columbian land occupations on contemporary forest structure, diversity, and functioning in Amazonia, most of the previous research focused on the alluvial plains of the major rivers of the Amazon basin. Terra firme, that is, nonflooded forests, particularly from the Guiana Shield, are yet to be explored. In this study, we aim to give new insights into the subtle traces of pre-Columbian influences on present-day forests given the archaeological context of terra firme forests of the Guiana Shield. Following archaeological prospects on 13 sites in French Guiana, we carried out forest inventories inside and outside archaeological sites and assessed the potential pre-Columbian use of the sampled tree species using an original ethnobotanical database of the Guiana Shield region. Aboveground biomass (320 and 380 T/ha, respectively), basal area (25-30 and 30-35 m2 /ha, respectively), and tree density (550 and 700 stem/ha, respectively) were all significantly lower on anthropized plots (As) than on nonanthropized plots (NAs). Ancient human presence shaped the species composition of the sampled forests with Arecaceae, Burseraceae, and Lauraceae significantly more frequent in As and Annonaceae and Lecythidaceae more frequent in NAs. Although alpha diversity was not different between As and NAs, the presence of pre-Columbian sites enhances significantly the forest beta diversity at the landscape level. Finally, trees with edible fruits are positively associated with pre-Columbian sites, whereas trees used for construction or for their bark are negatively associated with pre-Columbian sites. Half a millennium after their abandonment, former occupied places from the inner Guiana Shield still bear noticeable differences with nonanthropized places. Considering the lack of data concerning archaeology of terra firme Amazonian forests, our results suggest that pre-Columbian influences on the structure (lower current biomass), diversity (higher beta diversity), and composition (linked to the past human tree uses) of current Amazonian forests might be more important than previously thought.

4.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 8729, 2019 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217530

RESUMO

Mankind is on the verge of a postantibiotic era. New concepts are needed in our battle to attenuate infectious diseases around the world and broad spectrum plant-inspired synergistic pharmaceutical preparations should find their place in the global fight against pathogenic microorganisms. To progress towards the discovery of potent antifungal agents against human pathologies, we embarked upon developing chemometric approach coupled with statistical design to unravel the origin of the anticandidal potential of a set of 66 essential oils (EOs). EOs were analyzed by GC-MS and tested against Candida albicans and C. parapsilosis (Minimal Inhibitory Concentration, MIC). An Orthogonal Partial Least Square (OPLS) analysis allowed us to identify six molecules presumably responsible for the anticandidal activity of the oils: (Z)-ligustilide, eugenol, eugenyl acetate, citral, thymol, and ß-citronellol. These compounds were combined following a full factorial experimental design approach in order to optimize the anticandidal activity and selectivity index (SI = IC50(MRC5 cells)/MIC) through reconstituted mixtures. (Z)-Ligustilide and citral were the most active compounds, while (Z)-ligustilide and eugenol were the two main factors that most contributed to the increase of the SI. These two terpenes can, therefore, be used to construct bioinspired synergistic anticandidal mixtures.

5.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 14(1): 28, 2018 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29690891

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Palikur Amerindians live in the eastern part of French Guiana which is undergoing deep-seated changes due to the geographical and economic opening of the region. So far, Palikur's traditional ecological knowledge is poorly documented, apart from medicinal plants. The aim of this study was to document ethnobotanical practices related to traditional construction in the region. METHODS: A combination of qualitative and quantitative methods was used. Thirty-nine Palikur men were interviewed in three localities (Saint-Georges de l'Oyapock, Regina and Trois-Palétuviers) between December 2013 and July 2014. Twenty-four inventories of wood species used in traditional buildings were conducted in the villages, as well as ethnobotanical walks in the neighboring forests, to complete data about usable species and to determine Linnaean names. RESULTS: After an ethnographic description of roundwood Palikur habitat, the in situ wood selection process of Palikur is precisely described. A total of 960 roundwood pieces were inventoried in situ according to Palikur taxonomy, of which 860 were beams and rafters, and 100 posts in 20 permanent and 4 temporary buildings. Twenty-seven folk species were identified. Sixty-three folk species used in construction were recorded during ethnobotanical walks. They correspond to 263 botanical species belonging to 25 families. Posts in permanent buildings were made of yawu (Minquartia guianensis) (51%) and wakap (Vouacapoua americana) (14%). Beams and rafters were made of wood from Annonaceae (79%) and Lecythidaceae (13%) families. The most frequently used species were kuukumwi priye (Oxandra asbeckii), kuukumwi seyne (Pseudoxandra cuspidata), and pukuu (Xylopia nitida and X. cayennensis). CONCLUSIONS: Although the Palikur's relationship with their habitat is undergoing significant changes, knowledge about construction wood is still very much alive in the Oyapock basin. Many people continue to construct traditional buildings alongside modern houses, using a wide array of species described here for the first time, along with the techniques used.


Assuntos
Materiais de Construção , Etnobotânica , Madeira , Biodiversidade , Cultura , Ecossistema , Guiana Francesa , Recursos em Saúde , Habitação , Conhecimento
6.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 203: 200-213, 2017 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28347829

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: French Guiana is a French overseas territory with a rich history of migration that has led to a highly intercultural society. Today, its population is one of the youngest in the French territory and is rapidly increasing. Despite a context of cultural revival seeking "tradition", a distanced baseline of local practices is still lacking. This work addresses some aspects of the cultural hybridizations in progress in urban areas. METHODS: Semi directed interviews were conducted with willing participants aged between 18 and 40. Interviews took place in French Guiana's two main urban centres: Cayenne and Saint Laurent du Maroni. People were interviewed about the last medicinal plant they used in the preceding year. Due to the high use of plant baths in French Guiana, a focus was made on baths. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Eighty-three people answered: 43 women and 40 men (mean age of 28.7 years old). In total, 226 remedies were counted in our study, 155 single plant remedies and 71 compound remedies leading to 316 use reports of plants from 16 cultural groups. A surprising number of 108 botanical species were recorded. Eighty-one recipes for baths were also collected. Despite this high citation rate, a rather low proportion of people declare a systematic and regular recourse upon local pharmacopoeia (46%; 38/83). Although many interviewees used plants, far from the majority used them on a regular basis. In practice, 50% of the species (54/108 spp.; 99/316 URs) are non-native but domesticated exotic species, imported from Asia, Europe, Africa or remote parts of America, either during colonization, the slave trade era, or more recently with the latest migrations. CONCLUSION: Although phytotherapy use is often thought to be related to countryside dwellers and older people, medicinal plants seem to play an important role in the lives of urban French Guianese youth. Research shows a large diversity of medicinal species used linked with the great cultural diversity of the Guianese cities. One characteristic of this population is the hybridization process leading to a perpetual renewal of practices, both in terms of species and practice.


Assuntos
Cosméticos/química , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Plantas Medicinais/química , Adolescente , Adulto , Banhos/métodos , Etnobotânica , Feminino , Guiana Francesa , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Farmacopeias como Assunto , Fitoterapia/métodos , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Nat Prod ; 80(2): 384-390, 2017 02 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28186749

RESUMO

Four new sesquiterpene alkaloids (1-4) with a ß-dihydroagrofuran skeleton and a new triterpenoid (5) were isolated from an ethyl acetate extract of Maytenus oblongata stems. Their structures were elucidated using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy as well as MS and ECD experiments. The M. oblongata stem EtOAc extract and the pure compounds isolated were tested for larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti under laboratory conditions, and compounds 2 and 3 were found to be active.


Assuntos
Aedes/efeitos dos fármacos , Alcaloides/isolamento & purificação , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Maytenus/química , Sesquiterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Alcaloides/química , Animais , Guiana Francesa , Estrutura Molecular , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular , Caules de Planta/química , Sesquiterpenos/química , Triterpenos/química
8.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 199: 211-230, 2017 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28131912

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis are neglected tropical diseases that occur in all intertropical regions of the world. Amazonian populations have developed an abundant knowledge of the disease and its remedies. Therefore, we undertook to review traditional antileishmanial plants in Amazonia and have developed new tools to analyze this somewhat dispersed information. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A literature review of traditional remedies for cutaneous/mucocutaneous leishmaniasis in the Amazon was conducted and the data obtained was used to calculate distribution indexes designed to highlight the most relevant uses in Amazonia. The cultural distribution index represents the distribution rate of a given taxon among different cultural groups and was calculated as the ratio of the number of groups using the taxon to the total number of groups cited. The geographical distribution index allowed us to quantify spatial distribution of a taxon's uses in Amazonia and was calculated geometrically by measuring the average distance between the points where uses have been reported and the barycenter of those points. The general distribution index was defined as an arithmetic combination of the previous two and provides information on both cultural and spatial criteria. RESULTS: 475 use reports, concerning 291 botanical species belonging to 83 families have been gathered depicted from 29 sources. Uses concern 34 cultural groups. While the use of some taxa appears to be Pan-Amazonian, some others are clearly restricted to small geographical regions. Particular attention has been paid to the recipes and beliefs surrounding treatments. Topical application of the remedies dominated the other means of administration and this deserves particular attention as the main treatments against Neotropical leishmaniasis are painful systemic injections. The data set was analyzed using the previously defined distribution indexes and the most relevant taxa were further discussed from a phytochemical and pharmacological point of view. CONCLUSIONS: The Amazonian biodiversity and cultural heritage host a fantastic amount of data whose systematic investigation should allow a better large-scale understanding of the dynamics of traditional therapies and the consequent discovery of therapeutic solutions for neglected diseases. Distribution indices are indeed powerful tools for emphasizing the most relevant treatments against a given disease and should be very useful in the meta-analysis of other regional pharmacopeia. This focus on renowned remedies that have not yet benefitted from extended laboratory studies, could stimulate future research on new treatments of natural origin for leishmaniasis.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Leishmaniose/tratamento farmacológico , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Fitoterapia/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Antiprotozoários/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Leishmaniose/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose/etnologia , Medicina Tradicional/tendências , Fitoterapia/tendências , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Plantas Medicinais , América do Sul/etnologia , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 187: 241-8, 2016 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27132714

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Psidium acutangulum Mart. ex DC is a small tree used by the Wayana Amerindians from the Upper-Maroni in French Guiana for the treatment of malaria. AIM OF THE STUDY: In a previous study, we highlighted the in vitro antiplasmodial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of the traditional decoction of P. acutangulum aerial parts. Our goal was then to investigate on the origin of the biological activity of the traditional remedy, and eventually characterize active constituents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Liquid-liquid extractions were performed on the decoction, and the antiplasmodial activity evaluated against chloroquine-resistant FcB1 ([(3)H]-hypoxanthine bioassay) and 7G8 (pLDH bioassay) P. falciparum strains, and on a chloroquine sensitive NF54 ([(3)H]-hypoxanthine bioassay) P. falciparum strain. The ethyl acetate fraction (D) was active and underwent bioguided fractionation. All the isolated compounds were tested on P. falciparum FcB1 strain. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity (IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, TNFα) of the ethyl acetate fraction and of an anti-Plasmodium active compound, was concurrently assessed on LPS-stimulated human PBMC and NO secretion inhibition was measured on LPS stimulated RAW murine macrophages. Cytotoxicity of the fractions and pure compounds was measured on VERO cells, L6 mammalian cells, PBMCs, and RAW cells. RESULTS: Fractionation of the ethyl acetate soluble fraction (IC50 ranging from 3.4 to <1µg/mL depending on the parasite strain) led to the isolation of six pure compounds: catechin and five glycosylated quercetin derivatives. These compounds have never been isolated from this plant species. Two of these compounds (wayanin and guaijaverin) were found to be moderately active against P. falciparum FcB1 in vitro (IC50 5.5 and 6.9µM respectively). We proposed the name wayanin during public meetings organized in June 2015 in the Upper-Maroni villages, in homage to the medicinal knowledge of the Wayana population. At 50µg/mL, the ethyl acetate fraction (D) significantly inhibited IL-1ß secretion (-46%) and NO production (-21%), as previously observed for the decoction. The effects of D and guiajaverin (4) on the secretion of other cytokines or NO production were not significant. CONCLUSIONS: The confirmed antiplasmodial activity of the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the decoction and of the isolated compounds support the previous results obtained on the P. acutangulum decoction. The antiplasmodial activity might be due to a mixture of moderately active non-toxic flavonoids. The anti-inflammatory activities were less marked for ethyl acetate fraction (D) than for the decoction.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Psidium , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Cercopithecus aethiops , Citocinas/metabolismo , Guiana Francesa , Frutas , Humanos , Índios Sul-Americanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta , Caules de Planta , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasmodium falciparum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Células RAW 264.7 , Ratos , Células Vero
10.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 178: 188-98, 2016 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26656535

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: This is the first intercultural report of antimalarial plants in this region. The aim of this study was to document the medicinal plants used against malaria by indigenous people in the Upper Rio Negro region and to review the literature on antimalarial activity and traditional use of the cited species. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participant observation, semi-structured interviews, and ethnobotanical walks were conducted with 89 informants in five indigenous communities between April 2010 and November 2013 to obtain information on the use of medicinal plants against malaria. We reviewed academic databases for papers published in scientific journals up to January 2014 in order to find works on ethnopharmacology, ethnobotany, and antimalarial activity of the species cited. RESULTS: Forty-six plant species belonging to 24 families are mentioned. Fabaceae (17.4%), Arecaceae (13.0%) and Euphorbiaceae (6.5%) account together for 36.9% of these species. Only seven plant species showed a relatively high consensus. Among the plant parts, barks (34.0%) and roots (28.0%) were the most widely used. Of the 46 species cited, 18 (39.1%) have already been studied for their antimalarial properties according to the literature, and 26 species (56.5%) have no laboratory essays on antimalarial activity. CONCLUSIONS: Local traditional knowledge of the use of antimalarials is still widespread in indigenous communities of the Upper Rio Negro, where 46 plants species used against malaria were recorded. Our studies highlight promising new plants for future studies: Glycidendron amazonicum, Heteropsis tenuispadix, Monopteryx uaucu, Phenakospermum guianensis, Pouteria ucuqui, Sagotia brachysepala and notably Aspidosperma schultesii, Ampelozizyphus amazonicus, Euterpe catinga, E. precatoria, Physalis angulata, Cocos nucifera and Swartzia argentea with high-use consensus. Experimental validation of these remedies may help in developing new drugs for malaria.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Idoso , Arecaceae/química , Brasil , Etnofarmacologia/métodos , Euphorbiaceae/química , Fabaceae/química , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional Africana/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plantas Medicinais/química , Características de Residência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
11.
Planta Med ; 81(17): 1604-8, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26393938

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the species Symphonia globulifera, a source of polycyclic polyprenylated acyl phloroglucinols such as guttiferone A, which is known to exhibit a variety of biological activities including noticeable antileishmanial properties. Our goal was the identification and the quantification of guttiferone A in different renewable parts of S. globulifera and its preparative isolation. To the best of our knowledge, there is no data concerning its mechanism of action. Consequently, it is particularly interesting to isolate it in gram quantities in order to establish structure activity relationship studies. After performing high-performance liquid chromatography profiles detecting the presence of guttiferone A and proceeding to its quantification, a centrifugal partition chromatography methodology using a two-phase solvent system of cyclohexane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (20 :  1 :  20 : 1, v/v/v/v) was applied to each extract. In conclusion, a centrifugal partition chromatography system has been developed to ensure a fast, reliable, and scalable way to isolate, with a high level of purity, guttiferone A from five renewable parts of S. globulifera. Moreover, this methodology can be extended to the isolation of other polycyclic polyprenylated acyl phloroglucinols such as guttiferones B, C, and D.


Assuntos
Benzofenonas/isolamento & purificação , Centrifugação com Gradiente de Concentração/métodos , Clusiaceae/química , Benzofenonas/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Estrutura Molecular
12.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 166: 279-85, 2015 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25792015

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Field investigations highlighted the use of Psidium acutangulum Mart. ex DC (syn. P. persoonii McVaugh), a small tree used by the Wayana Amerindians in Twenke-Taluhwen and Antecume-Pata, French Guiana, for the treatment of malaria, and administered either orally in the form of a decoction or applied externally over the whole body. This use appears limited to the Wayana cultural group in French Guiana and has never been reported anywhere else. Our goal was to evaluate the antimalarial and anti-inflammatory activities of a P. acutangulum decoction to explain the good reputation of this remedy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Interviews with the Wayana inhabitants of Twenke-Taluhwen and Antecume-Pata were conducted within the TRAMAZ project according to the TRAMIL methodology, which is based on a quantitative and qualitative analysis of medicinal plant uses. A decoction of dried aerial parts of P. acutangulum was prepared in consistency with the Wayana recipe. In vitro antiplasmodial assays were performed on chloroquine-resistant FcB1 ([(3)H]-hypoxanthine bioassay) and 7G8 (pLDH bioassay) P. falciparum strains and on chloroquine sensitive NF54 ([(3)H]-hypoxanthine bioassay) P. falciparum strain. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity (IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, TNFα) was evaluated on LPS-stimulated human PBMC and NO secretion inhibition was measured on LPS stimulated RAW murine macrophages. Cytotoxicity of the decoction was measured on L6 mammalian cells, PBMCs, and RAW cells. A preliminary evaluation of the in vivo antimalarial activity of the decoction, administered orally twice daily, was assessed by the classical four-day suppressive test against P. berghei NK65 in mice. RESULTS: The decoction displayed a good antiplasmodial activity in vitro against the three tested strains, regardless to the bioassay used, with IC50 values of 3.3µg/mL and 10.3µg/mL against P. falciparum FcB1 and NF54, respectively and 19.0µg/mL against P. falciparum 7G8. It also exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in vitro in a dose dependent manner. At a concentration of 50µg/mL, the decoction inhibited the secretion of the following pro-inflammatory cytokines: TNFα (-18%), IL-1ß (-58%), IL-6 (-32%), IL-8 (-21%). It also exhibited a mild NO secretion inhibition (-13%) at the same concentration. The decoction was non-cytotoxic against L6 cells (IC50>100µg/mL), RAW cells and PBMC. In vivo, 150µL of the decoction given orally twice a day (equivalent to 350mg/kg/day of dried extract) inhibited 39.7% average parasite growth, with more than 50% of inhibition in three mice over five. The absence of response for the two remaining mice, however, induced a strong standard deviation. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlighted the in vitro antiplasmodial activity of the decoction of P. acutangulum aerial parts, used by Wayana Amerindians from the Upper-Maroni in French Guiana in case of malaria. Its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential, which may help to explain its use against this disease, was demonstrated using models of artificially stimulated cells.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Myrtaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Psidium/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Antiprotozoários/química , Linhagem Celular , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Etnofarmacologia/métodos , Guiana Francesa , Humanos , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Malária Falciparum/tratamento farmacológico , Malária Falciparum/metabolismo , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
13.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(1): 106-13, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25742270

RESUMO

This study examined whether the antidermatophytic activity of essential oils (EOs) can be used as an indicator for the discovery of active natural products against Leishmania amazonensis. The aerial parts of seven plants were hydrodistilled. Using broth microdilution techniques, the obtained EOs were tested against three strains of dermatophytes (Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum gypseum and Microsporum canis). To compare the EOs antifungal and antiparasitic effects, the EOs activities against axenic amastigotes of L. amazonensis were concurrently evaluated. For the most promising EOs, their antileishmanial activities against parasites infecting peritoneal macrophages of BALB/c mice were measured. The most interesting antifungal candidates were the EOs from Cymbopogon citratus, Otacanthus azureus and Protium heptaphyllum, whereas O. azureus, Piper hispidum and P. heptaphyllum EOs exhibited the lowest 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values against axenic amastigotes, thus revealing a certain correspondence between both activities. The P. hispidum EO was identified as the most promising product in the results from the infected macrophages model (IC50: 4.7 µg/mL, safety index: 8). The most abundant compounds found in this EO were sesquiterpenes, notably curzerene and furanodiene. Eventually, the evaluation of the antidermatophytic activity of EOs appears to be an efficient method for identifying new potential drugs for the treatment of L. amazonensis.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Leishmania/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Animais , Cultura Axênica , Burseraceae/metabolismo , Cymbopogon/metabolismo , Substituição de Medicamentos , Furanos/administração & dosagem , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 2 Anéis/administração & dosagem , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Macrófagos Peritoneais/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos Peritoneais/parasitologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Microsporum/efeitos dos fármacos , Piper/metabolismo , Plantago/metabolismo , Sesquiterpenos/administração & dosagem , Trichophyton/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(1): 106-113, 03/02/2015. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-741610

RESUMO

This study examined whether the antidermatophytic activity of essential oils (EOs) can be used as an indicator for the discovery of active natural products against Leishmania amazonensis. The aerial parts of seven plants were hydrodistilled. Using broth microdilution techniques, the obtained EOs were tested against three strains of dermatophytes (Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum gypseum and Microsporum canis). To compare the EOs antifungal and antiparasitic effects, the EOs activities against axenic amastigotes of L. amazonensis were concurrently evaluated. For the most promising EOs, their antileishmanial activities against parasites infecting peritoneal macrophages of BALB/c mice were measured. The most interesting antifungal candidates were the EOs from Cymbopogon citratus, Otacanthus azureus and Protium heptaphyllum, whereas O. azureus, Piper hispidum and P. heptaphyllum EOs exhibited the lowest 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values against axenic amastigotes, thus revealing a certain correspondence between both activities. The P. hispidum EO was identified as the most promising product in the results from the infected macrophages model (IC50: 4.7 µg/mL, safety index: 8). The most abundant compounds found in this EO were sesquiterpenes, notably curzerene and furanodiene. Eventually, the evaluation of the antidermatophytic activity of EOs appears to be an efficient method for identifying new potential drugs for the treatment of L. amazonensis.


Assuntos
Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Ductos Biliares Intra-Hepáticos , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/tratamento farmacológico , Colangiocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Desoxicitidina/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Embolização Terapêutica , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Terapia Combinada , Desoxicitidina/efeitos adversos , Qualidade de Vida , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Phytochemistry ; 108: 102-8, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25301665

RESUMO

In the last few years, several phytochemical studies have been undertaken on the tropical tree Symphonia globulifera leading to the isolation and characterisation of several compounds exhibiting antiparasitic activities against Plasmodium falciparum, Trypanosoma brucei and Leishmania donovani. The comparative LC-MS based metabolite profiling study conducted on the tree led to the identification of compounds originating from specific tissues. The results showed that renewable organs/tissues can be used as the starting material for the production of polycyclic poly-prenylated-acylphloroglucinols, therefore reducing impacts on biodiversity. This study also underlined the lack of knowledge on the secondary metabolites produced by S. globulifera since only a small number of the total detected features were putatively identified using the database of known compounds for the species.


Assuntos
Clusiaceae/química , Floresta Úmida , Benzofenonas/química , Bases de Dados Factuais , Flores/química , Guiana Francesa , Metabolômica , Estrutura Molecular , Casca de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/química , Trypanosoma brucei brucei/efeitos dos fármacos , Xantonas/química
16.
Phytochemistry ; 96: 370-7, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24189345

RESUMO

Because of the symbiotic nature of endophytes, this survey aims to investigate the probability of discovering antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic activities in leaf endophytic microbes. We isolated 138 cultivable microbes (121 fungi, 3 bacteria and 14 unidentified or unknown microbes) from 24 plant species, a significant relative proportion of which exhibited antifungal and cytotoxic potential against Candida albicans ATCC 10213 and the human cell lines KB (uterine cervical carcinoma), MDA-MB-435 (melanoma), and MRC5 (normal human lung fibroblasts). Three active fungal extracts were fractionated, resulting in the isolation of eight compounds. Seven had been described in the literature including the following: acremonisol A, semicochliodinol A, cochliodinol, griseofulvin, pyrenocin A, novae zelandin A and alterperylenol. A previously unreported compound named pyrrocidine C was isolated from Lewia infectoria SNB-GTC2402 and identified by spectroscopic analysis. As in pyrrocidines A and B, this compound is a cis-substituted decahydrofluorene with a quaternary carbon at C-5 and opposite stereochemistry at C-8 corresponding to C-6 of pyrrocidines A and B.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Endófitos/química , Fluorenos/isolamento & purificação , Fluorenos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Anti-Infecciosos , Antineoplásicos/química , Ascomicetos , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Fluorenos/química , Humanos , Células KB , Folhas de Planta , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 146(1): 127-53, 2013 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23266276

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Up until now, the plant pharmacopoeia of the Chayahuita, an ethnic group from the Peruvian Amazon, has been poorly defined. This paper details the uses of medicinal plants within this community, as recorded in two villages of the Paranapura basin, Soledad and Atahualpa de Conchiyacu. This study aimed to describe the basis of the Chayahuita traditional medical system, to document part of the medicinal plant corpus, and to compare it with data from other Amazonian ethnic groups. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Methodology was based (i) on field prospection with 26 informants (ethnobotanical walks methodology), (ii) semi-structured interviews including 93 people (49 men and 44 women) focused on the most recent health problem experienced and on the therapeutic options chosen, (iii) individual or group thematic discussions relating to disease and treatments, (iv) 6-months of participants' observations between May 2007 and May 2008. At the end of the project in May 2008 a workshop was organized to cross-check the data with the help of 12 of the most interested informants. RESULTS: Six hundred and seventeen voucher specimens were collected, corresponding to 303 different species, from which 274 (belonging to 83 families) are documented here. Altogether 492 recipes were recorded, corresponding to a global figure of 541 therapeutic uses and a total of 664 use reports. The main therapeutic uses are related to dermatological problems (103 uses; 19%), gastro-intestinal complaints (69 uses; 13%) and malaria/fevers (52 uses; 10%). Diseases are analysed according to Chayahuita concepts, and for each disease the species having a high frequency of citation are listed, and the most frequently used remedies are described. Whenever possible, comparisons with other Amazonian groups have been drawn. CONCLUSION: Chayahuita nosology and medical ethnobotany appear to draw their inspiration from a common panamazonian root. Despite the fact that a certain number of medicinal plants are shared with other nearby groups, there seem to be specific uses for some species, thus highlighting the originality of the Chayahuita pharmacopoeia. Presently there is a certain disinterest in the most traditional area of the Chayahuita medical ways, and the role of the penutu (shaman) seems to be less highly-valued than in the past. Nonetheless, the use of medicinal plants in phytotherapeutic treatment is very much a living, shared knowledge.


Assuntos
Fitoterapia , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Plantas Medicinais , Adulto , Etnobotânica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional , Peru , Estruturas Vegetais
18.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 137(3): 1228-39, 2011 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21816216

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a neglected disease with a high incidence in French Guiana, mainly in the middle and upper Oyapock basin, where Amerindian and some Brazilian people live. The main goals of this work were (i) to assess the knowledge about leishmaniasis in the different populations of the middle and upper Oyapock basin, (ii) to study the therapeutic strategies adopted by people affected by leishmaniasis and (iii) to document the use of phytotherapeutic remedies for leishmaniasis. Knowledge, attitudes and practices (K.A.P.) related to this disease and its treatments have been studied according to cultural group and geographical settlement. Within the Wayãpi group, the evolution of the knowledge of phytoremedies over the last 20 years has been characterised by literature-based comparisons. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 144 questionnaires were administered in all the villages of the upper Oyapock and Camopi basins. Correspondence analyses were used for multivariate analysis. Plant species were identified at the Cayenne Herbarium (CAY). RESULTS: The biomedical concept of leishmaniasis correlates well with the Teko and Wayãpi concepts of kalasapa and kalasapau. Although the vector of this disease was not correctly identified, the most commonly cited aetiology (74.5%) was vector-borne, and related epidemiological schemes correlate well with the one encountered in French Guiana. Theoretically and practically, health centres were the most commonly used resource for diagnostic in instances of leishmaniasis infection (65.9%), independently of the patient's cultural group, along with the use of pharmaceutical drugs (85.3%). Pharmaceuticals were commonly utilised despite the frequent (51.5%) use of phytotherapeutic remedies, alone or in combination with drugs. The most cited medicinal plant species for the treatment of leishmaniasis included Eleutherine bulbosa (Mill.) Urb. (Iridaceae, cited 14 times), Euterpe oleracea Mart. (Arecaceae, 9), Cecropia obtusa Trecul (Cecropiaceae, 8), Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae, 7), Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn. (Bombacaceae, 6) and Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae, 6). Multiple correspondence analyses demonstrated that the species used in leishmaniasis remedies are more prone to vary by the user's place of residence than by their cultural origin, which indicates that exchange of knowledge about leishmaniasis remedies has occurred across different cultural groups. Literature-based comparisons between the remedies for leishmaniasis used by the Wayãpi during the 1980s showed a striking evolution, both in terms of diversity of species and number of plants used. The large number of species shared with other Guianese groups argues for intercultural exchange and may explain the majority (57.1%) of the newly used species highlighted in our study. CONCLUSIONS: Leishmaniasis is a well-known disease in the studied area. Phytotherapeutic treatments are still in use, although they are not the main source of remedies, and should undergo pharmacological studies to evaluate their potential therapeutic value.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Índios Sul-Americanos , Leishmaniose Cutânea/tratamento farmacológico , Medicina Tradicional , Fitoterapia , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Características Culturais , Etnofarmacologia , Feminino , Guiana Francesa , Humanos , Leishmaniose Cutânea/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Cutânea/etnologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/transmissão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Nat Prod ; 73(11): 1884-90, 2010 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20954722

RESUMO

Three new caffeic acid esters (1-3), four new lignans (4-7), and the known compounds (7'S)-parabenzlactone (8), dihydrocubebin (9), and justiflorinol (10) have been isolated from leaves of Piper sanguineispicum. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods, including 1D and 2D NMR, HRCIMS, CD experiments, and chemical methods. Compounds 1-10 were assessed for their antileishmanial potential against axenic amastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis. Caffeic acid esters 1 and 3 exhibited the best antileishmanial activity (IC(50) 2.0 and 1.8 µM, respectively) with moderate cytotoxicity on murine macrophages.


Assuntos
Ácidos Cafeicos/isolamento & purificação , Citotoxinas/isolamento & purificação , Leishmania/efeitos dos fármacos , Lignanas/isolamento & purificação , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Piper/química , Animais , Ácidos Cafeicos/química , Ácidos Cafeicos/farmacologia , Cercopithecus aethiops , Citotoxinas/química , Citotoxinas/farmacologia , Dioxolanos/química , Dioxolanos/isolamento & purificação , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Ésteres , Feminino , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Lignanas/química , Lignanas/farmacologia , Camundongos , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular , Peru , Folhas de Planta/química , Células Vero
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