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1.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 17(7): 2117-2124, 2021 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33517832

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: On August 25, 2019, the Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research notified the confirmation of a circulating-vaccine-derived poliovirus type-2 (cVDPV2) from the Agbogbloshie environmental surveillance (AES) site, in the Greater Accra Region. A field investigation of the outbreak was conducted to describe the results of epidemiological and laboratory investigations, and control efforts. METHODS: We conducted a descriptive investigation, records review, and active-case-search. Caregivers were interviewed on the vaccination status of their children; knowledge, attitude, and practices on polio prevention; water, sanitation and hygiene practices, and health-seeking behaviors. Stool from healthy children <5 y and sewage samples were taken for laboratory diagnosis. RESULTS: cVDPV2 genetically similar to the cVDPV2 diagnosed recently in the Northern Region of Ghana and Nigeria was identified. 2019 half-year coverage of OPV and IPV was 22%. Fully immunized children were 49% (29/59). Most health workers (70%) had a fair knowledge of polio and acute flaccid paralysis (AFP). Forty-six percent of care-givers admitted to using the large drain linked to the site where the cVDPV2 was isolated as their place of convenience and disposing of the fecal matter of their children. No AFP case was identified. Stool samples from 40 healthy children yielded non-polio enteroviruses while 75% (3/4) of the additional sewage samples yielded cVDPV2. CONCLUSION: cVDPV2 was isolated from the AES site. No AFP or poliovirus was identified from healthy children. There is a need to improve health workers' knowledge on AFP and to address the dire sanitation conditions in the Agbogbloshie market and its environs.


Assuntos
Poliomielite , Poliovirus , Criança , Monitoramento Ambiental , Gana , Humanos , Nigéria , Poliomielite/epidemiologia , Poliomielite/prevenção & controle , Vacina Antipólio Oral
3.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 15(9): 2050-2059, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265356

RESUMO

Introduction: Ghana recorded the last case of poliomyelitis caused by wild poliovirus in 2008 and the country was declared polio-free in 2015. Polio-neutralizing-antibody levels in the population of three geographically representative regions of Ghana was determined, to identify possible immunity gaps. Methods: Cross-sectional, hospital (1-70 years old) and school (primary, 1-15 years old)-based studies were undertaken in three regions in 2016. Individuals who visited the three teaching hospitals of the regions and were referred for haematology investigations were invited to participate in our study. Neutralizing-antibody titers to polio serotypes P1, P2, and P3 were assayed by WHO-standards. Antibody titers of ≥8 were considered protective. In the school lameness survey, clinical and epidemiological data were obtained from parents and their lamed children. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted on subject characteristics, to assess potential factors for failure to seroconvert. P-values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Neutralizing-antibodies against poliovirus types 1, 2 and 3 were detected in 86% (264/307), 84% (258/307) and 75% (230/307) of the samples, respectively. Overall, 60.1% (185/307) were seropositive for the three polio serotypes and 2.9% (9/307) were seronegative. Polio neutralizing-antibodies (P1and P2) decreased with age (p < .001). Low seroprevalence of polio-neutralizing-antibodies was significantly associated with low school attendance of mothers (p < .001). Prevalence of residual paralysis was <1.0/1,000 among the school children. Conclusion: Our study population is moderately protected against the three poliovirus serotypes. However, immunity appears to be lower with a higher age and low mother's education. This may suggest the need for young-adult booster-dose to minimize the risk of wild poliovirus infection.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Transtornos dos Movimentos/epidemiologia , Poliomielite/complicações , Poliomielite/imunologia , Poliovirus/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Geografia , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos dos Movimentos/virologia , Testes de Neutralização , Poliomielite/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Sorogrupo , Adulto Jovem
4.
Int J Infect Dis ; 81: 231-234, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30776545

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the feasibility of applying next-generation sequencing (NGS) in medium-resource reference laboratories in Africa to enhance global disease surveillance. METHODS: A training program was developed to support implementation of NGS at Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research (NMIMR), University of Ghana. The program was divided into two training stages, first at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, GA, followed by on-site training at NMIMR for a larger cohort of scientists. RESULTS: Self-assessment scores for topics covered during the NGS training program were higher post-training relative to pre-training. During the NGS Training II session at NMIMR, six enterovirus isolates from acute flaccid paralysis cases in Ghana were successfully sequenced by trainees, including two echovirus 6, two echovirus 11 and one echovirus 13. Another genome was an uncommon type (EV-B84), which has not been reported in Africa since its initial discovery from a Côte d'Ivoire specimen in 2003. CONCLUSIONS: The success at NMIMR provides an example of how to approach transferring of NGS methods to international laboratories. There is great opportunity for collaboration between institutes that have genomics expertise to ensure effectiveness and long-term success of global NGS capacity building programs.


Assuntos
Infecções por Enterovirus/virologia , Enterovirus/isolamento & purificação , Laboratórios/organização & administração , Fortalecimento Institucional , Costa do Marfim , Enterovirus/classificação , Enterovirus/genética , Gana , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos
5.
PLoS One ; 13(9): e0203788, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30199549

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRI) is a leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Globally, human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is the most common pathogen of ALRI in infants and children. However, age-stratified HRSV disease burden data are largely absent from Africa, which is a key gap in informing an evidence-based recommendation for the introduction of an HRSV vaccine by the WHO. METHODS: This study investigated the presence of HRSV in respiratory specimens from 552 children <5 years old with ALRI from Accra, Ghana in 2006 and 2013-2014 by real-time PCR. Of HRSV-positive samples the second hypervariable region of the viral G protein gene was sequenced and analyzed for phylogeny, characteristic amino acid substitutions, and potential glycosylation patterns. Further, HRSV infections have been characterized by age, symptoms and timely occurrence. RESULTS: HRSV was observed in 23% (127/552) of the children with ALRI, with the highest incidence in infants younger than one year (33%, 97/295, p = 0.013). Within the observed seasonal circulation time of HRSV from June (mid-wet season) to December (beginning of the dry season) the incidence of ALRI due to HRSV was as high as 46% (125/273). HRSV disease was significantly associated with (broncho-) pneumonia, bronchiolitis, LRTI, and difficulty in breathing. Phylogenetic characterization of HRSV strains from Ghana identified the circulation of the currently worldwide prevailing genotypes ON1 and BA9, and shows evidence of an independent molecular evolution of ON1 and BA9 strains in Ghana resulting in potentially new subgenotypes within ON1 and BA9, provisionally named ON1.5, ON1.6, and BA9-IV. CONCLUSION: This study addresses important knowledge gaps in the forefront of introducing the HRSV vaccine by providing information on the molecular evolution and incidence of HRSV in Accra (Ghana, Africa).


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/epidemiologia , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/virologia , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/genética , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Pré-Escolar , DNA Viral/genética , Feminino , Genes Virais , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Epidemiologia Molecular , Filogenia , Estudos Prospectivos , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/classificação , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proteínas Virais de Fusão/genética
6.
Virol J ; 15(1): 143, 2018 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30223845

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antiretrovirals have been available in Ghana since 2003 for HIV-1 positive pregnant women for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT). Suboptimal responses to treatment observed post-PMTCT interventions necessitated the need to investigate the profile of viral mutations generated. This study investigated HIV-1 drug resistance profiles in mothers in selected centres in Ghana on treatment with a history of prophylaxis. METHODS: Genotypic Drug Resistance Testing for HIV-1 was carried out. Subtyping was done by phylogenetic analysis and Stanford HIV Database programme was used for drug resistance analysis and interpretation. To compare the significance between the different groups and the emergence of drug resistance mutations, p values were used. RESULTS: Participants who had prophylaxis before treatment, those who had treatment without prophylaxis and those yet to initiate PMTCT showed 32% (8), 5% (3) and 15% (4) HIV-1 drug resistance associated mutations respectively. The differences were significant with p value < 0.05. Resistance Associated Mutations (RAMs) were seen in 14 participants (35%) to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). The most common NRTI mutation found was M184 V; K103 N and A98G were the most common NNRTI mutations seen. Thymidine Analogue Mutations (TAMs) such as M41 L, K70R and T215Y were found in all the groups; the most common of the TAMs found were M41 L and T215Y. Majority of the subtypes were CRF02_AG (82%). CONCLUSION: In Ghana initiation of uninterrupted treatment upon diagnosis, coupled with drug resistance testing, would produce a better treatment outcome for HIV-1 positive pregnant women.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Quimioprevenção/estatística & dados numéricos , Farmacorresistência Viral , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/prevenção & controle , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Genótipo , Gana , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , HIV-1/classificação , HIV-1/genética , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Mães , Filogenia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
BMC Res Notes ; 8: 14, 2015 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25612659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Military barracks in Ghana have backyard poultry populations but the methods used here involve low biosecurity measures and high risk zoonosis such as avian influenza A viruses or Newcastle disease. We assessed biosecurity measures intended to minimize the risk of influenza virus infection among troops and poultry keepers in military barracks. FINDINGS: We educated troops and used a questionnaire to collect information on animal populations and handling practices from 168 individuals within 203 households in military barracks. Cloacal and tracheal samples were taken from 892 healthy domestic and domesticated wild birds, 91 sick birds and 6 water samples for analysis using molecular techniques for the detection of influenza A virus. Of the 1090 participants educated and 168 that responded to a questionnaire, 818 (75%) and 129 (76.8%) respectively have heard of pandemic avian influenza and the risks associated with its infection. Even though no evidence of the presence of avian influenza infection was found in the 985 birds sampled, only 19.5% of responders indicated they disinfect their coops regularly and 28% wash their hands after handling their birds. Vaccination of birds and use of personal protective clothing while handling the birds were low putting the people at risk. CONCLUSION: Though some efforts have been made to improve biosecurity practices, interventions that help to protect the poultry flock from direct contact have to be practiced. Basic hygiene like washing of hands with soap and running water and regular cleaning of chicken coops are needed to prevent the spread of diseases among birds and between birds and humans.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/educação , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Influenza Aviária/prevenção & controle , Militares/educação , Medidas de Segurança/organização & administração , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Animais , Galinhas , Feminino , Gana , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A/fisiologia , Influenza Aviária/transmissão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Recursos Humanos
8.
Pan Afr Med J ; 18: 66, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25400833

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Human enteroviruses are common in children causing asymptomatic infections ranging from mild to severe illnesses. In Ghana, information on the prevalence of non-polio enterovirus causing acute flaccid paralysis is available but data on surveillance of these viruses in school children is scanty. Here, the prevalence of human enteroviruses among apparently healthy children in selected school in Accra was studied. METHODS: Stool samples from 273 apparently healthy children less than eight years of age in 9 selected nursery schools were collected between December 2010 and March 2011 and processed for human enteroviruses on L20B, RD and Hep-2 cell lines. Positive Isolates were characterized by microneutralisation assay with antisera pools from RIVM, the Netherlands according to standard methods recommended by WHO. RESULTS: Of the 273 samples processed, 66 (24.2%) non-polio enteroviruses were isolated. More growth was seen on Hep-2C (46%) only than RD (18%) only and on both cell lines (34%). No growth was seen on L20B even after blind passage. Excretion of non-polio enteroviruses was found in all the schools with majority in BD school. Serotyping of the isolates yielded predominantly Coxsackie B viruses followed by echoviruses 13 and 7. More than half of the isolates could not be typed by the antisera pools. CONCLUSION: The study detected 13 different serotypes of non-polio enteroviruses in circulation but no poliovirus was found. BD school was found to have the highest prevalence of NPEV. Complete identification through molecular methods is essential to establish the full range of NPEVs in circulation in these schools.


Assuntos
Infecções por Enterovirus/epidemiologia , Enterovirus/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/virologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Doenças Assintomáticas , Linhagem Celular , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Coxsackievirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coxsackievirus/virologia , Efeito Citopatogênico Viral , Países em Desenvolvimento , Enterovirus/classificação , Enterovirus/imunologia , Enterovirus Humano B/imunologia , Enterovirus Humano B/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Enterovirus/virologia , Feminino , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Vacina Antipólio Oral , Áreas de Pobreza , Prevalência , Amostragem , Sorotipagem , Vacinação , Cultura de Vírus
9.
Pan Afr Med J ; 18: 232, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25426190

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Convulsions associated with fever and acute onset of unknown aetiology with case fatalities have become a long observed medical condition at the Child Health Department of the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital. Children admitted to the department with seizures of undetermined origin and fever has been a source of diagnostic confusion. Studies from the Asia Pacific region suggest a link with non-polio enteroviruses. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between non-polio enterovirus and acute encephalopathy causing neurological morbidity in children. METHODS: One hundred and fifty cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), throat swab and serum samples were collected from participants at the Child Health Department of the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital for virus isolation and characterization. Samples were cultured on cells and positive culture assayed by microneutralisation. Direct PCR as well as multiplex PCR were used to detect other viral agents present. RESULTS: Enterovirus isolation rate was approximately 0.67%. Intratypic differentiation by molecular characterization identified a poliovirus from vaccine origin. Further screening by real-time RT-PCR identified the virus as normal Sabin and not vaccine-derive poliovirus. No arbovirus was however detected. CONCLUSION: Non-polio enteroviruses and chikugunya virus were found not to be the etiologic agent responsible for the convulsion with neurologic morbidity observed in the Ghanaian children. Investigation for other viral agents is recommended.


Assuntos
Encefalite Viral/virologia , Poliomielite/diagnóstico , Poliovirus/isolamento & purificação , Convulsões/virologia , Pré-Escolar , DNA Viral/genética , Feminino , Febre/virologia , Gana/epidemiologia , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Poliomielite/epidemiologia , Poliovirus/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
10.
BMC Public Health ; 14: 687, 2014 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24996415

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ghana recorded the last case of indigenous wild poliovirus in 1999 but suffered two more outbreaks in 2003 and 2008. Following the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, transmission was interrupted through high routine immunisation coverage with live-attenuated oral polio vaccine (OPV), effective acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance and supplementary immunisation activities (SIA). This article describes the results of a five-year surveillance of AFP in polio-free Ghana, evaluate the surveillance indicators and identify areas that need improvement. METHODS: We investigated 1345 cases of AFP from children aged less than 15 years reported to the Disease Surveillance Department from January 2009 to December 2013. Data on demographic characteristics, vaccination history, clinical presentation and virological investigation on stool specimens collected during investigation were analysed. RESULTS: Of the specimens analysed, 56% were from males and 76.3% were from children less than 5 years of age. Twenty-four percent of the children received up to 3 doses of OPV, 57% received at least 4 doses while the status of 19% was unknown. Core AFP surveillance indicators were partly met for non-polio AFP rate while the WHO target for stool adequacy and timeliness was exceeded over the period of study. All the cases were classified virologically, however no wild polio was found. Sixty-day follow-up was conducted for 56.3% of cases and 8.6% cases classified as compactible with polio. CONCLUSION: Both laboratory and epidemiological surveillance for AFP were efficient and many WHO targets were met. However, due to the risk of poliovirus importation prior to global eradication, longterm surveillance is required to provide a high degree of confidence in prevention of poliovirus infection in Ghana. Thus, efforts should be made to strengthen regional performance and to follow-up on all AFP cases in order to establish proper diagnoses for the causes of the AFP leading to proper care.


Assuntos
Paraplegia/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Poliomielite/diagnóstico , Poliomielite/epidemiologia , Vacina Antipólio Oral/administração & dosagem , Organização Mundial da Saúde
11.
Pan Afr Med J ; 19: 128, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25745535

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the major cause of acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRI) in young children. RSV strains have been divided into 2 major antigenic groups (A and B), which are further divided into several genotypes, but very little is known about its circulating genotypes in Ghana. This study characterized RSV genotypes detected in children with ALRI in Accra between February and November 2006. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPA) were obtained from children diagnosed with ALRI between February and November 2006. The NPA were screened for RSV using a nested multiplex reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method for genotyping RSV. Viral RNA was extracted from the NPA using guanidinium isothiocyanate method and purified with an RNAID commercial kit. Care-givers gave their consent prior to specimen collection. Administered questionnaires captured information on patient demographic and clinical history. RESULTS: A total of 53 children were enrolled in the study with a male to female ratio of 3:1. Of the 53 NPA analyzed, 60.4% (32/53) were positive for RSV. Subsequent genotypic analysis showed that 72% (23/32) of the 60.4% RSV infections were RSV B only and 28% (9/32) were co-infections of both RSV A and B. Children between the ages of 2 - 12 months were the most affected age group per an RSV infection rate of 37.5% (12/32). No significant difference was detected in the recovery rate of ALRI (98.1%) and RSV (96.9%) positive patients from the infection. One patient died resulting in a mortality rate of 3.1%. Bronchopneumonia (20 out of 32 cases) was the major diagnosis on admission. RSV infection was seasonal dependent, described by 2 peaks in October and April-May. CONCLUSION: Both RSV A and RSV B genotypes co-circulated during the study period with RSV B predominating. RSV may possibly be the main pathogen of lower respiratory tract illness during epidemics in the wet seasons. Genotyping by the multiplex RT-PCR is one of the first attempts at molecular diagnosis of RSV infection in Ghana.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/virologia , Vírus Sinciciais Respiratórios/genética , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Genótipo , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Prevalência , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Saúde da População Urbana
12.
BMC Public Health ; 12: 957, 2012 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23137234

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Influenza A viruses that cause highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) also infect humans. In many developing countries such as Ghana, poultry and humans live in close proximity in both the general and military populations, increasing risk for the spread of HPAI from birds to humans. Respiratory infections such as influenza are especially prone to rapid spread among military populations living in close quarters such as barracks making this a key population for targeted avian influenza surveillance and public health education. METHOD: Twelve military barracks situated in the coastal, tropical rain forest and northern savannah belts of the country were visited and the troops and their families educated on pandemic avian influenza. Attendants at each site was obtained from the attendance sheet provided for registration. The seminars focused on zoonotic diseases, influenza surveillance, pathogenesis of avian influenza, prevention of emerging infections and biosecurity. To help direct public health policies, a questionnaire was used to collect information on animal populations and handling practices from 102 households in the military barracks. Cloacal and tracheal samples were taken from 680 domestic and domesticated wild birds and analysed for influenza A using molecular methods for virus detection. RESULTS: Of the 1028 participants that took part in the seminars, 668 (65%) showed good knowledge of pandemic avian influenza and the risks associated with its infection. Even though no evidence of the presence of avian influenza (AI) infection was found in the 680 domestic and wild birds sampled, biosecurity in the households surveyed was very poor. CONCLUSION: Active surveillance revealed that there was no AI circulation in the military barracks in April 2011. Though participants demonstrated good knowledge of pandemic avian influenza, biosecurity practices were minimal. Sustained educational programs are needed to further strengthen avian influenza surveillance and prevention in military barracks.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Vírus da Influenza A , Influenza Aviária/prevenção & controle , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Instalações Militares , Militares/educação , Animais , Aves , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Militares/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Vigilância da População , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
13.
J Infect Dis ; 206 Suppl 1: S108-13, 2012 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23169955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The global annual attack rate for influenza is estimated to be 10%-20% in children, although limited information exists for Africa. In 2007, Ghana initiated influenza surveillance by routine monitoring of acute respiratory illness to obtain data on circulating strains. We describe influenza surveillance in children <11 years old who had influenza-like illness (ILI) from January 2008 to December 2010. METHODS: Oropharyngeal swabs from pediatric outpatients with ILI attending any of 22 health facilities across the country were submitted. We tested swabs for influenza virus using molecular assays, virus isolation, and hemagglutination assays. RESULTS: Of the 2810 swabs, 636 (23%) were positive for influenza virus. The percentage of positives by gender was similar. The proportion of ILI cases positive for influenza increased with age from 11% (31/275) in infants (aged 0-1 years) to 31% (377/1219) among children aged 5-10 years (P < .001). The majority of cases were influenza A (90%), of which 60% were influenza A(H1N1)pdm09. In all 3 years, influenza activity appeared slightly higher during May through July. CONCLUSIONS: During the 3 years of influenza surveillance in Ghana, children aged <11 years bore a high burden of influenza-associated ILI.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Orthomyxoviridae/isolamento & purificação , África , Antígenos Virais/análise , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Genótipo , Gana/epidemiologia , Testes de Inibição da Hemaglutinação , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Orofaringe/virologia , Orthomyxoviridae/genética , Orthomyxoviridae/imunologia , Prevalência , RNA Viral/genética , Cultura de Vírus
14.
Pan Afr Med J ; 12: 74, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23077695

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Surveillance of acute flaccid surveillance (AFP) has been used world-wide to monitor the control and eradication of circulating wild polioviruses. The Polio Laboratory since its accreditation in 1996 has supported the Disease Surveillance Department for AFP surveillance. This study aims to isolate and characterize human enteroviruses from patients with AFP in Ghana. METHOD: Stool suspension was prepared from 308 samples received in 2009 from the surveillance activities throughout the country and inoculated on both RD and L20B cell lines. Isolates that showed growth on L20B were selected for real-time RT-PCR using degenerate and non-degenerate primers and probes. RD isolates were however characterized by microneutralisation technique with antisera pools from RIVM, The Netherlands and viruses that were untypable subjected to neutralization assay using antibodies specific for E71. RESULTS: Of the 308 samples processed, 17 (5.5%) grew on both L20B and RD cells while 32 (10.4%) grew on RD only. All 28 isolates from L20B were characterized by rRT-PCR as Sabin-like polioviruses. No wild poliovirus or VDPV was found. However from the microneutralisation assay, six different enteroviruses were characterized. Among these, Coxsackie B viruses were most predominant followed by Echovirus. Three children from whom non-polio enteroviruses were isolated had residual paralysis while one child with VAPP found. The non-polio enteroviruses circulated throughout the country with the majority (20.7%) from Ashanti region. CONCLUSION: This study showed the absence of wild or vaccine-derived poliovirus circulation in the country. However, the detection of three non-polio enteroviruses and one Sabin-like poliovirus with residual paralysis call for continuous surveillance even in the post polio eradication era.


Assuntos
Infecções por Enterovirus/epidemiologia , Enterovirus/isolamento & purificação , Paralisia/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População/métodos , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Criança , Infecções por Enterovirus/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Paralisia/virologia , Poliovirus/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
15.
J Infect Dis ; 206(7): 1111-20, 2012 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22829642

RESUMO

Described in detail is the molecular epidemiology of wild-type 1 poliovirus circulation in Ghana between 1995-2008, following the implementation of a surveillance system for cases of acute flaccid paralysis and poliovirus infection. Molecular phylogenetic analysis combined with a detailed evaluation of epidemiological indicators revealed that the geographical and temporal circulation of wild-type poliovirus in Ghana was determined by the quality of the implementation of global eradication strategies. The transmission of "indigenous" wild-type 1 poliovirus was eliminated in 1999. However, a drastic reduction in national immunization campaigns resulted in the importation in 2003 and 2008 of wild-type 1 poliovirus from neighboring countries. Both outbreaks were promptly interrupted following resumption of immunization activities. The results detailed here provide scientific evidence that supports the feasibility of polio eradication in Central West Africa, one of the remaining endemic areas for the disease, provided that comprehensive immunization campaigns and sensitive surveillance systems are in place.


Assuntos
Poliomielite/transmissão , Poliovirus/genética , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Erradicação de Doenças , Surtos de Doenças , Doenças Endêmicas/história , Fezes/virologia , Gana/epidemiologia , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Vacinação em Massa , Epidemiologia Molecular , Tipagem Molecular , Paraplegia/epidemiologia , Paraplegia/história , Paraplegia/virologia , Filogenia , Poliomielite/epidemiologia , Poliomielite/prevenção & controle , Poliomielite/virologia , Poliovirus/isolamento & purificação , Vacina Antipólio de Vírus Inativado/administração & dosagem , Recombinação Genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA
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