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1.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 1-9, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34756131

RESUMO

Pregnant persons are at increased risk of severe illness from COVID-19. The first COVID-19 vaccines in the U.S. were authorized for emergency use in December 2020 and pregnant persons were eligible and could get vaccinated despite scarce safety data in this population. To monitor the safety of COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy, four surveillance systems are used by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System is a national, passive system that captures reports of potential adverse events. V-safe is a novel, active system that uses text messaging and web-based surveys to provide health check-ins after vaccination; and enrolls eligible v-safe participants in the v-safe pregnancy registry. The Vaccine Safety Datalink is a collaboration between the CDC and nine integrated health care organizations which performs near-real time surveillance and traditional epidemiologic studies on pregnant vaccine recipients. The CDC is committed to timely and comprehensive monitoring of COVID-19 vaccine safety in pregnancy.

3.
Res Sq ; 2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34401872

RESUMO

Background There is continuing public concern about the safety of COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy. While there is no compelling biological reason to expect that mRNA COVID-19 vaccination (either preconception or during pregnancy) presents a risk to pregnancy, data are limited. It is, however, well documented that SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy is associated with severe illness and increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Among recognized pregnancies in high-income countries, 11-16% end in spontaneous abortion (SAB). Methods People enrolled in v-safe, a voluntary smartphone-based surveillance system, who received a COVID-19 vaccine preconception or during pregnancy were contacted by telephone to enroll in the v-safe pregnancy registry. V-safe pregnancy registry participants who received at least one dose of an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine preconception or prior to 20 weeks' gestation and who did not report a pregnancy loss before 6 completed weeks' gestation were included in this analysis to assess the cumulative risk of SAB using Life Table methods. Results Among 2,456 pregnant persons who received an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine preconception or prior to 20 weeks' gestation, the cumulative risk of SAB from 6-19 weeks' gestation was 14.1% (95% CI: 12.1, 16.1%). Using direct age standardization to the selected reference population, the age-standardized cumulative risk of SAB was 12.8% (95% CI: 10.8-14.8%). Conclusions When compared to the expected range of SABs in recognized pregnancies, these data suggest receipt of an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine preconception or during pregnancy is not associated with an increased risk of SAB. These findings add to accumulating evidence that mRNA COVID-19 vaccines during pregnancy are safe.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299701

RESUMO

CONTEXT: In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Centers for Disease Prevention and Control (CDC) clinicians provided real-time telephone consultation to healthcare providers, public health practitioners, and health department personnel. OBJECTIVE: To describe the demographic and public health characteristics of inquiries, trends, and correlation of inquiries with national COVID-19 case reports. We summarize the results of real-time CDC clinician consultation service provided during 11 March to 31 July 2020 to understand the impact and utility of this service by CDC for the COVID-19 pandemic emergency response and for future outbreak responses. DESIGN: Clinicians documented inquiries received including information about the call source, population for which guidance was sought, and a detailed description of the inquiry and resolution. Descriptive analyses were conducted, with a focus on characteristics of callers as well as public health and clinical content of inquiries. SETTING: Real-time telephone consultations with CDC Clinicians in Atlanta, GA. PARTICIPANTS: Health care providers and public health professionals who called CDC with COVID-19 related inquiries from throughout the United States. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Characteristics of inquiries including topic of inquiry, inquiry population, resolution, and demographic information. RESULTS: A total of 3154 COVID-19 related telephone inquiries were answered in real-time. More than half (62.0%) of inquiries came from frontline healthcare providers and clinical sites, followed by 14.1% from state and local health departments. The majority of inquiries focused on issues involving healthcare workers (27.7%) and interpretation or application of CDC's COVID-19 guidance (44%). CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in a substantial number of inquiries to CDC, with the large majority originating from the frontline clinical and public health workforce. Analysis of inquiries suggests that the ongoing focus on refining COVID-19 guidance documents is warranted, which facilitates bidirectional feedback between the public, medical professionals, and public health authorities.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Encaminhamento e Consulta , SARS-CoV-2 , Telefone , Estados Unidos
5.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(24): 895-899, 2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34138834

RESUMO

COVID-19 vaccines are critical for ending the COVID-19 pandemic; however, current data about vaccination coverage and safety in pregnant women are limited. Pregnant women are at increased risk for severe illness and death from COVID-19 compared with nonpregnant women of reproductive age, and are at risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as preterm birth (1-4). Pregnant women are eligible for and can receive any of the three COVID-19 vaccines available in the United States via Emergency Use Authorization.* Data from Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD), a collaboration between CDC and multiple integrated health systems, were analyzed to assess receipt of ≥1 dose (first or second dose of the Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna vaccines or a single dose of the Janssen [Johnson & Johnson] vaccine) of any COVID-19 vaccine during pregnancy, receipt of first dose of a 2-dose COVID-19 vaccine (initiation), or completion of a 1- or 2-dose COVID-19 vaccination series. During December 14, 2020-May 8, 2021, a total of 135,968 pregnant women were identified, 22,197 (16.3%) of whom had received ≥1 dose of a vaccine during pregnancy. Among these 135,968 women, 7,154 (5.3%) had initiated and 15,043 (11.1%) had completed vaccination during pregnancy. Receipt of ≥1 dose of COVID-19 vaccine during pregnancy was highest among women aged 35-49 years (22.7%) and lowest among those aged 18-24 years (5.5%), and higher among non-Hispanic Asian (Asian) (24.7%) and non-Hispanic White (White) women (19.7%) than among Hispanic (11.9%) and non-Hispanic Black (Black) women (6.0%). Vaccination coverage increased among all racial and ethnic groups over the analytic period, likely because of increased eligibility for vaccination† and increased availability of vaccine over time. These findings indicate the need for improved outreach to and engagement with pregnant women, especially those from racial and ethnic minority groups who might be at higher risk for severe health outcomes because of COVID-19 (4). In addition, providing accurate and timely information about COVID-19 vaccination to health care providers, pregnant women, and women of reproductive age can improve vaccine confidence and coverage by ensuring optimal shared clinical decision-making.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Gestantes , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Gestantes/etnologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(Suppl 1): S24-S31, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33977298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence on risk for adverse outcomes from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among pregnant women is still emerging. We examined the association between COVID-19 at delivery and adverse pregnancy outcomes, maternal complications, and severe illness, and whether these associations differ by race/ethnicity, and describe discharge status by COVID-19 diagnosis and maternal complications. METHODS: Data from 703 hospitals in the Premier Healthcare Database during March-September 2020 were included. Adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) overall and stratified by race/ethnicity were estimated using Poisson regression with robust standard errors. Proportion not discharged home was calculated by maternal complications, stratified by COVID-19 diagnosis. RESULTS: Among 489 471 delivery hospitalizations, 6550 (1.3%) had a COVID-19 diagnosis. In adjusted models, COVID-19 was associated with increased risk for acute respiratory distress syndrome (aRR, 34.4), death (aRR, 17.0), sepsis (aRR, 13.6), mechanical ventilation (aRR, 12.7), shock (aRR, 5.1), intensive care unit admission (aRR, 3.6), acute renal failure (aRR, 3.5), thromboembolic disease (aRR, 2.7), adverse cardiac event/outcome (aRR, 2.2), and preterm labor with preterm delivery (aRR, 1.2). Risk for any maternal complications or for any severe illness did not significantly differ by race/ethnicity. Discharge status did not differ by COVID-19; however, among women with concurrent maternal complications, a greater proportion of those with (vs without) COVID-19 were not discharged home. CONCLUSIONS: These findings emphasize the importance of implementing recommended prevention strategies to reduce risk for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and further inform counseling and clinical care for pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Teste para COVID-19 , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Pandemias , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(Suppl 1): S17-S23, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34021332

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pregnant women with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are at increased risk for severe illness compared with nonpregnant women. Data to assess risk factors for illness severity among pregnant women with COVID-19 are limited. This study aimed to determine risk factors associated with COVID-19 illness severity among pregnant women with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. METHODS: Pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed by molecular testing were reported during 29 March 2020-5 March 2021 through the Surveillance for Emerging Threats to Mothers and Babies Network (SET-NET). Criteria for illness severity (asymptomatic, mild, moderate-to-severe, or critical) were adapted from National Institutes of Health and World Health Organization criteria. Crude and adjusted risk ratios for moderate-to-severe or critical COVID-19 illness were calculated for selected demographic and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: Among 7950 pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection, moderate-to-severe or critical COVID-19 illness was associated with age 25 years and older, healthcare occupation, prepregnancy obesity, chronic lung disease, chronic hypertension, and pregestational diabetes mellitus. Risk of moderate-to-severe or critical illness increased with the number of underlying medical or pregnancy-related conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Older age and having underlying medical conditions were associated with increased risk of moderate-to-severe or critical COVID-19 illness among pregnant women. This information might help pregnant women understand their risk for moderate-to-severe or critical COVID-19 illness and can inform targeted public health messaging.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Mães , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Gestantes , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2
8.
N Engl J Med ; 384(24): 2273-2282, 2021 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33882218

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many pregnant persons in the United States are receiving messenger RNA (mRNA) coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) vaccines, but data are limited on their safety in pregnancy. METHODS: From December 14, 2020, to February 28, 2021, we used data from the "v-safe after vaccination health checker" surveillance system, the v-safe pregnancy registry, and the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) to characterize the initial safety of mRNA Covid-19 vaccines in pregnant persons. RESULTS: A total of 35,691 v-safe participants 16 to 54 years of age identified as pregnant. Injection-site pain was reported more frequently among pregnant persons than among nonpregnant women, whereas headache, myalgia, chills, and fever were reported less frequently. Among 3958 participants enrolled in the v-safe pregnancy registry, 827 had a completed pregnancy, of which 115 (13.9%) resulted in a pregnancy loss and 712 (86.1%) resulted in a live birth (mostly among participants with vaccination in the third trimester). Adverse neonatal outcomes included preterm birth (in 9.4%) and small size for gestational age (in 3.2%); no neonatal deaths were reported. Although not directly comparable, calculated proportions of adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes in persons vaccinated against Covid-19 who had a completed pregnancy were similar to incidences reported in studies involving pregnant women that were conducted before the Covid-19 pandemic. Among 221 pregnancy-related adverse events reported to the VAERS, the most frequently reported event was spontaneous abortion (46 cases). CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary findings did not show obvious safety signals among pregnant persons who received mRNA Covid-19 vaccines. However, more longitudinal follow-up, including follow-up of large numbers of women vaccinated earlier in pregnancy, is necessary to inform maternal, pregnancy, and infant outcomes.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Sistemas de Notificação de Reações Adversas a Medicamentos , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Vigilância em Saúde Pública/métodos , Sistema de Registros , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Vacinas Sintéticas/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
9.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(44): 1635-1640, 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151917

RESUMO

Pregnant women with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are at increased risk for severe illness and might be at risk for preterm birth (1-3). The full impact of infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, in pregnancy is unknown. Public health jurisdictions report information, including pregnancy status, on confirmed and probable COVID-19 cases to CDC through the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System.* Through the Surveillance for Emerging Threats to Mothers and Babies Network (SET-NET), 16 jurisdictions collected supplementary information on pregnancy and infant outcomes among 5,252 women with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection reported during March 29-October 14, 2020. Among 3,912 live births with known gestational age, 12.9% were preterm (<37 weeks), higher than the reported 10.2% among the general U.S. population in 2019 (4). Among 610 infants (21.3%) with reported SARS-CoV-2 test results, perinatal infection was infrequent (2.6%) and occurred primarily among infants whose mother had SARS-CoV-2 infection identified within 1 week of delivery. Because the majority of pregnant women with COVID-19 reported thus far experienced infection in the third trimester, ongoing surveillance is needed to assess effects of infections in early pregnancy, as well the longer-term outcomes of exposed infants. These findings can inform neonatal testing recommendations, clinical practice, and public health action and can be used by health care providers to counsel pregnant women on the risks of SARS-CoV-2 infection, including preterm births. Pregnant women and their household members should follow recommended infection prevention measures, including wearing a mask, social distancing, and frequent handwashing when going out or interacting with others or if there is a person within the household who has had exposure to COVID-19.†.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Adulto , COVID-19 , Teste para COVID-19 , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/estatística & dados numéricos , Laboratórios , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(44): 1641-1647, 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151921

RESUMO

Studies suggest that pregnant women might be at increased risk for severe illness associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (1,2). This report provides updated information about symptomatic women of reproductive age (15-44 years) with laboratory-confirmed infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. During January 22-October 3, CDC received reports through national COVID-19 case surveillance or through the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS) of 1,300,938 women aged 15-44 years with laboratory results indicative of acute infection with SARS-CoV-2. Data on pregnancy status were available for 461,825 (35.5%) women with laboratory-confirmed infection, 409,462 (88.7%) of whom were symptomatic. Among symptomatic women, 23,434 (5.7%) were reported to be pregnant. After adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and underlying medical conditions, pregnant women were significantly more likely than were nonpregnant women to be admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) (10.5 versus 3.9 per 1,000 cases; adjusted risk ratio [aRR] = 3.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.6-3.4), receive invasive ventilation (2.9 versus 1.1 per 1,000 cases; aRR = 2.9; 95% CI = 2.2-3.8), receive extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) (0.7 versus 0.3 per 1,000 cases; aRR = 2.4; 95% CI = 1.5-4.0), and die (1.5 versus 1.2 per 1,000 cases; aRR = 1.7; 95% CI = 1.2-2.4). Stratifying these analyses by age and race/ethnicity highlighted disparities in risk by subgroup. Although the absolute risks for severe outcomes for women were low, pregnant women were at increased risk for severe COVID-19-associated illness. To reduce the risk for severe illness and death from COVID-19, pregnant women should be counseled about the importance of seeking prompt medical care if they have symptoms and measures to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection should be strongly emphasized for pregnant women and their families during all medical encounters, including prenatal care visits. Understanding COVID-19-associated risks among pregnant women is important for prevention counseling and clinical care and treatment.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Avaliação de Sintomas , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19 , Teste para COVID-19 , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Laboratórios , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
MMWR Surveill Summ ; 69(7): 1-29, 2020 11 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33237897

RESUMO

PROBLEM/CONDITION: CDC conducts abortion surveillance to document the number and characteristics of women obtaining legal induced abortions and number of abortion-related deaths in the United States. PERIOD COVERED: 2018. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM: Each year, CDC requests abortion data from the central health agencies for 50 states, the District of Columbia, and New York City. For 2018, 49 reporting areas voluntarily provided aggregate abortion data to CDC. Of these, 48 reporting areas provided data each year during 2009-2018. Census and natality data were used to calculate abortion rates (number of abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years) and ratios (number of abortions per 1,000 live births), respectively. Abortion-related deaths from 2017 were assessed as part of CDC's Pregnancy Mortality Surveillance System (PMSS). RESULTS: A total of 619,591 abortions for 2018 were reported to CDC from 49 reporting areas. Among 48 reporting areas with data each year during 2009-2018, in 2018, a total of 614,820 abortions were reported, the abortion rate was 11.3 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years, and the abortion ratio was 189 abortions per 1,000 live births. From 2017 to 2018, the total number of abortions and abortion rate increased 1% (from 609,095 total abortions and from 11.2 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years, respectively), and the abortion ratio increased 2% (from 185 abortions per 1,000 live births). From 2009 to 2018, the total number of reported abortions, abortion rate, and abortion ratio decreased 22% (from 786,621), 24% (from 14.9 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years), and 16% (from 224 abortions per 1,000 live births), respectively. In 2018, women in their 20s accounted for more than half of abortions (57.7%). In 2018 and during 2009-2018, women aged 20-24 and 25-29 years accounted for the highest percentages of abortions; in 2018, they accounted for 28.3% and 29.4% of abortions, respectively, and had the highest abortion rates (19.1 and 18.5 per 1,000 women aged 20-24 and 25-29 years, respectively). By contrast, adolescents aged <15 years and women aged ≥40 years accounted for the lowest percentages of abortions (0.2% and 3.6%, respectively) and had the lowest abortion rates (0.4 and 2.6 per 1,000 women aged <15 and ≥40 years, respectively). However, abortion ratios in 2018 and throughout 2009-2018 were highest among adolescents (aged ≤19 years) and lowest among women aged 25-39 years. Abortion rates decreased from 2009 to 2018 for all women, regardless of age. The decrease in abortion rate was highest among adolescents compared with women in any other age group. From 2009 to 2013, the abortion rates decreased for all age groups and from 2014 to 2018, the abortion rates decreased for all age groups, except for women aged 30-34 years and those aged ≥40 years. In addition, from 2017 to 2018, abortion rates did not change or decreased among women aged ≤24 and ≥40 years; however, the abortion rate increased among women aged 25-39 years. Abortion ratios also decreased from 2009 to 2018 among all women, except adolescents aged <15 years. The decrease in abortion ratio was highest among women aged ≥40 years compared with women in any other age group. The abortion ratio decreased for all age groups from 2009 to 2013; however, from 2014 to 2018, abortion ratios only decreased for women aged ≥35 years. From 2017 to 2018, abortion ratios increased for all age groups, except women aged ≥40 years. In 2018, approximately three fourths (77.7%) of abortions were performed at ≤9 weeks' gestation, and nearly all (92.2%) were performed at ≤13 weeks' gestation. In 2018, and during 2009-2018, the percentage of abortions performed at >13 weeks' gestation remained consistently low (≤9.0%). In 2018, the highest proportion of abortions were performed by surgical abortion at ≤13 weeks' gestation (52.1%), followed by early medical abortion at ≤9 weeks' gestation (38.6%), surgical abortion at >13 weeks' gestation (7.8%), and medical abortion at >9 weeks' gestation (1.4%); all other methods were uncommon (<0.1%). Among those that were eligible (≤9 weeks' gestation), 50.0% of abortions were early medical abortions. In 2017, the most recent year for which PMSS data were reviewed for pregnancy-related deaths, two women were identified to have died as a result of complications from legal induced abortion. INTERPRETATION: Among the 48 areas that reported data continuously during 2009-2018, decreases were observed during 2009-2017 in the total number, rate, and ratio of reported abortions, and these decreases resulted in historic lows for this period for all three measures. These decreases were followed by 1%-2% increases across all measures from 2017 to 2018. PUBLIC HEALTH ACTION: The data in this report can help program planners and policymakers identify groups of women with the highest rates of abortion. Unintended pregnancy is a major contributor to induced abortion. Increasing access to and use of effective contraception can reduce unintended pregnancies and further reduce the number of abortions performed in the United States.


Assuntos
Aborto Legal/estatística & dados numéricos , Vigilância da População , Adolescente , Adulto , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Clin Infect Dis ; 70(70 Suppl 1): S30-S36, 2020 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32435806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Yersinia pestis continues to cause sporadic cases and outbreaks of plague worldwide and is considered a tier 1 bioterrorism select agent due to its potential for intentional use. Knowledge about the clinical manifestations of plague during pregnancy, specifically the maternal, fetal, and neonatal risks, is very limited. METHODS: We searched 12 literature databases, performed hand searches, and consulted plague experts to identify publications on plague during pregnancy. Articles were included if they reported a case of plague during pregnancy and at least 1 maternal or fetal outcome. RESULTS: Our search identified 6425 articles, of which 59 were eligible for inclusion and described 160 cases of plague among pregnant women. Most published cases occurred during the preantibiotic era. Among those treated with antimicrobials, the most commonly used were sulfonamides (75%) and streptomycin (54%). Among cases treated with antimicrobials, maternal mortality and fetal fatality were 29% and 62%, respectively; for untreated cases, maternal mortality and fetal fatality were 67% and 74%, respectively. Five cases demonstrated evidence of Y. pestis in fetal or neonatal tissues. CONCLUSIONS: Untreated Y. pestis infection during pregnancy is associated with a high risk of maternal mortality and pregnancy loss. Appropriate antimicrobial treatment can improve maternal survival, although even with antimicrobial treatment, there remains a high risk of pregnancy loss. Limited evidence suggests that maternal-fetal transmission of Y. pestis is possible, particularly in the absence of antimicrobial treatment. These results emphasize the need to treat or prophylax pregnant women with suspected plague with highly effective antimicrobials as quickly as possible.


Assuntos
Peste , Yersinia pestis , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bioterrorismo , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Peste/diagnóstico , Peste/tratamento farmacológico , Peste/epidemiologia , Gravidez
13.
Obstet Gynecol ; 135(5): 1185-1197, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282593

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between prenatal diagnostics (ultrasound examination and amniotic fluid Zika virus testing) and postnatal congenital Zika syndrome abnormalities. DATA SOURCES: Systematic searches were performed in 27 databases, including ClinicalTrials.gov, from inception to July 1, 2019, for articles with the keywords "Zika," "prenatal," "ultrasound," and "amniocentesis." METHODS OF STUDY SELECTION: A total of 3,049 unique records were identified. Two reviewers independently assessed titles, abstracts, and full texts for relevance; 84 articles met the inclusion criteria. These articles describe 402 mother-fetus or mother-neonate dyads; 385 were included in the review of prenatal ultrasound examination, and 56 in the review of amniocentesis (39 in both). TABULATION, INTEGRATION, AND RESULTS: Among 195 fetuses with congenital Zika syndrome findings on prenatal ultrasound examination, postnatal congenital Zika syndrome abnormalities were reported for 153 (78%; 95% CI 7-84%). High proportions of microcephaly (76%; 95% CI 69-82%) and brain abnormalities (78%; 95% CI 69-86%) were confirmed postnatally. Among 190 fetuses without congenital Zika syndrome findings on prenatal ultrasound examination, 17% (95% CI 12-24%) had congenital Zika syndrome abnormalities identified postnatally. Structural congenital Zika syndrome abnormalities were identified postnatally in approximately equal proportions among dyads with and without Zika virus RNA detected in an amniotic fluid specimen (68% and 67%; 95% CI 52-82% and 95% CI 38-88%). In six pregnancies, Zika virus RNA was detected in amniotic fluid but not in a subsequent amniocentesis specimen. CONCLUSION: Prenatal ultrasound examination frequently detects structural findings associated with Zika virus infection; however, not all abnormalities are detected, and some may represent transient findings. As with other congenital infections, prenatal detection may vary with timing of infection, timing of ultrasound examination, technical expertise, and severity of abnormalities. The detection of Zika virus RNA in amniotic fluid in the included studies did not predict the risk for congenital Zika syndrome abnormalities in these cases, and clearance of Zika virus RNA from amniotic fluid appears possible after maternal infection. Diagnostic testing for Zika virus infection remains a shared decision between patients and clinicians, and more data are needed to define clinical predictors that will inform these decisions. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO, CRD42018080959.


Assuntos
Amniocentese/métodos , Doenças Fetais/diagnóstico , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal/métodos , Infecção por Zika virus/diagnóstico , Zika virus , Adulto , Feminino , Doenças Fetais/virologia , Humanos , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem , Infecção por Zika virus/embriologia , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia
14.
MMWR Surveill Summ ; 68(11): 1-41, 2019 11 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31774741

RESUMO

PROBLEM/CONDITION: Since 1969, CDC has conducted abortion surveillance to document the number and characteristics of women obtaining legal induced abortions in the United States. PERIOD COVERED: 2016. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM: Each year, CDC requests abortion data from the central health agencies of 52 reporting areas (the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and New York City). The reporting areas provide this information voluntarily. For 2016, data were received from 48 reporting areas. Abortion data provided by these 48 reporting areas for each year during 2007-2016 were used in trend analyses. Census and natality data were used to calculate abortion rates (number of abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years) and ratios (number of abortions per 1,000 live births), respectively. RESULTS: A total of 623,471 abortions for 2016 were reported to CDC from 48 reporting areas. Among these 48 reporting areas, the abortion rate for 2016 was 11.6 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years, and the abortion ratio was 186 abortions per 1,000 live births. From 2015 to 2016, the total number of reported abortions decreased 2% (from 636,902), the abortion rate decreased 2% (from 11.8 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years), and the abortion ratio decreased 1% (from 188 abortions per 1,000 live births). From 2007 to 2016, the total number of reported abortions decreased 24% (from 825,240), the abortion rate decreased 26% (from 15.6 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years), and the abortion ratio decreased 18% (from 226 abortions per 1,000 live births). In 2016, all three measures reached their lowest level for the entire period of analysis (2007-2016). In 2016 and throughout the period of analysis, women in their 20s accounted for the majority of abortions and had the highest abortion rates. In 2016, women aged 20-24 and 25-29 years accounted for 30.0% and 28.5% of all reported abortions, respectively, and had abortion rates of 19.1 and 17.8 abortions per 1,000 women aged 20-24 and 25-29 years, respectively. By contrast, women aged 30-34, 35-39, and ≥40 years accounted for 18.0%, 10.3%, and 3.5% of all reported abortions, respectively, and had abortion rates of 11.6, 6.9, and 2.5 abortions per 1,000 women aged 30-34, 35-39, and ≥40 years, respectively. From 2007 to 2016, the abortion rate decreased among women in all age groups. In 2016, adolescents aged <15 and 15-19 years accounted for 0.3% and 9.4% of all reported abortions, respectively, and had abortion rates of 0.4 and 6.2 abortions per 1,000 adolescents aged <15 and 15-19 years, respectively. From 2007 to 2016, the percentage of abortions accounted for by adolescents aged 15-19 years decreased 43%, and the abortion rate decreased 56%. This decrease in abortion rate was greater than the decreases for women in any older age group. In contrast to the percentage distribution of abortions and abortion rates by age, abortion ratios in 2016 and throughout the entire period of analysis were highest among adolescents and lowest among women aged 25-39 years. Abortion ratios decreased from 2007 to 2016 for women in all age groups. In 2016, almost two-thirds (65.5%) of abortions were performed at ≤8 weeks' gestation, and nearly all (91.0%) were performed at ≤13 weeks' gestation. Fewer abortions were performed between 14 and 20 weeks' gestation (7.7%) or at ≥21 weeks' gestation (1.2%). During 2007-2016, the percentage of abortions performed at >13 weeks' gestation remained consistently low (8.2%-9.0%). Among abortions performed at ≤13 weeks' gestation, the percentage distributions of abortions by gestational age were highest among those performed at ≤6 weeks' gestation (35.0%-38.4%). In 2016, 27.9% of all abortions were performed by early medical abortion (a nonsurgical abortion at ≤8 weeks' gestation), 59.9% were performed by surgical abortion at ≤13 weeks' gestation, 8.8% were performed by surgical abortion at >13 weeks' gestation, and 3.4% were performed by medical abortion at >8 weeks' gestation; all other methods were uncommon (0.1%). Among those that were eligible for early medical abortion on the basis of gestational age (i.e., performed at ≤8 weeks' gestation), 41.9% were completed by this method. In 2016, women with one or more previous live births accounted for 59.0% of abortions, and women with no previous live births accounted for 41.0%. Women with one or more previous induced abortions accounted for 43.1% of abortions, and women with no previous abortions accounted for 56.9%. Deaths of women associated with complications from abortion are assessed as part of CDC's Pregnancy Mortality Surveillance System. In 2015, the most recent year for which data were reviewed for abortion-related deaths, two women were identified to have died as a result of complications from legal induced abortion and for one additional death, it was unknown whether the abortion was induced or spontaneous. INTERPRETATION: Among the 48 areas that reported data every year during 2007-2016, decreases in the total number, rate, and ratio of reported abortions resulted in historic lows for the period of analysis for all three measures of abortion. PUBLIC HEALTH ACTION: The data in this report can help program planners and policymakers identify groups of women with the highest rates of abortion. Unintended pregnancy is the major contributor to induced abortion. Increasing access to and use of effective contraception can reduce unintended pregnancies and further reduce the number of abortions performed in the United States.


Assuntos
Aborto Legal/estatística & dados numéricos , Vigilância da População , Adolescente , Adulto , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 221(1): 43.e1-43.e11, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30885772

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Contraception use among postpartum women is important to prevent unintended pregnancies and optimize birth spacing. Long-acting reversible contraception, including intrauterine devices and implants, is highly effective, yet compared to less effective methods utilization rates are low. OBJECTIVES: We sought to estimate prevalence of long-acting reversible contraception use among postpartum women and examine factors associated with long-acting reversible contraception use among those using any reversible contraception. STUDY DESIGN: We analyzed 2012-2015 data from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, a population-based survey among women with recent live births. We included data from 37 sites that achieved the minimum overall response rate threshold for data release. We estimated the prevalence of long-acting reversible contraception use in our sample (n = 143,335). We examined maternal factors associated with long-acting reversible contraception use among women using reversible contraception (n = 97,013) using multivariable logistic regression (long-acting reversible contraception vs other type of reversible contraception) and multinomial regression (long-acting reversible contraception vs other hormonal contraception and long-acting reversible contraception vs other nonhormonal contraception). RESULTS: The prevalence of long-acting reversible contraception use overall was 15.3%. Among postpartum women using reversible contraception, 22.5% reported long-acting reversible contraception use, which varied by site, ranging from 11.2% in New Jersey to 37.6% in Alaska. Factors associated with postpartum long-acting reversible contraception use vs use of another reversible contraceptive method included age ≤24 years (adjusted odds ratio = 1.43; 95% confidence interval = 1.33-1.54) and ≥35 years (adjusted odds ratio = 0.87; 95% confidence interval = 0.80-0.96) vs 25-34 years; public insurance (adjusted odds ratio = 1.15; 95% confidence interval = 1.08-1.24) and no insurance (adjusted odds ratio = 0.73; 95% confidence interval = 0.55-0.96) vs private insurance at delivery; having a recent unintended pregnancy (adjusted odds ratio = 1.44; 95% confidence interval = 1.34-1.54) or being unsure about the recent pregnancy (adjusted odds ratio = 1.29; 95% confidence interval = 1.18-1.40) vs recent pregnancy intended; having ≥1 previous live birth (adjusted odds ratio = 1.40; 95% confidence interval = 1.31-1.48); and having a postpartum check-up after recent live birth (adjusted odds ratio = 2.70; 95% confidence interval = 2.35-3.11). Hispanic and non-Hispanic black postpartum women had a higher rate of long-acting reversible contraception use (26.6% and 23.4%, respectively) compared to non-Hispanic white women (21.5%), and there was significant race/ethnicity interaction with educational level. CONCLUSION: Nearly 1 in 6 (15.3%) postpartum women with a recent live birth and nearly 1 in 4 (22.5%) postpartum women using reversible contraception reported long-acting reversible contraception use. Our analysis suggests that factors such as age, race/ethnicity, education, insurance, parity, intendedness of recent pregnancy, and postpartum visit attendance may be associated with postpartum long-acting reversible contraception use. Ensuring all postpartum women have access to the full range of contraceptive methods, including long-acting reversible contraception, is important to prevent unintended pregnancy and optimize birth spacing. Contraceptive access may be improved by public health efforts and programs that address barriers in the postpartum period, including increasing awareness of the availability, effectiveness, and safety of long-acting reversible contraception (and other methods), as well as providing full reimbursement for contraceptive services and removal of administrative and logistical barriers.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Contracepção Reversível de Longo Prazo/estatística & dados numéricos , Período Pós-Parto , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Anticoncepcionais Femininos/administração & dosagem , Implantes de Medicamento/uso terapêutico , Escolaridade , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Dispositivos Intrauterinos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoas sem Cobertura de Seguro de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Gravidez não Planejada , Adulto Jovem
16.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 144(2): 225-231, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30467853

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the rate of stillbirth and neonatal death reporting and testing for Ebola virus during the 2014-2015 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in Sierra Leone. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed using information from the Sierra Leone National Ebola Laboratory database to identify stillbirths and neonatal deaths that had been tested for Ebola virus from July 2, 2014, to October 18, 2015. Outcomes included the percentage of all tested deaths attributable to stillbirths and neonatal deaths, the proportion of stillbirths and neonatal deaths attributable to Ebola virus, and the annualized rate of stillbirths and neonatal deaths. RESULTS: In total, 1726 stillbirths and 4708 neonatal deaths were tested for Ebola virus, representing 2.6% and 7.2% of the total deaths tested (n=65 585), respectively. Of these, 25 stillbirths and neonatal deaths tested positive, accounting for 0.3% of EVD cases. In 2015, the annualized total number of reported stillbirths was higher than expected (3079 vs 1634), whereas reported neonatal deaths were lower (6351 vs 7770). CONCLUSIONS: Stillbirth and neonatal death reporting and testing improved over time. Systematic recording of these indicators might be used alongside retrospective surveillance to respond to the adverse effects of EVD on maternal and child health and guide response efforts for subsequent outbreaks.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Morte Perinatal , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Serra Leoa/epidemiologia
17.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 67(31): 868-871, 2018 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30091965

RESUMO

Zika virus infection can occur as a result of mosquitoborne or sexual transmission of the virus. Infection during pregnancy is a cause of fetal brain abnormalities and other serious birth defects (1,2). CDC has updated the interim guidance for men with possible Zika virus exposure who 1) are planning to conceive with their partner, or 2) want to prevent sexual transmission of Zika virus at any time (3). CDC now recommends that men with possible Zika virus exposure who are planning to conceive with their partner wait for at least 3 months after symptom onset (if symptomatic) or their last possible Zika virus exposure (if asymptomatic) before engaging in unprotected sex. CDC now also recommends that for couples who are not trying to conceive, men can consider using condoms or abstaining from sex for at least 3 months after symptom onset (if symptomatic) or their last possible Zika virus exposure (if asymptomatic) to minimize their risk for sexual transmission of Zika virus. All other guidance for Zika virus remains unchanged. The definition of possible Zika virus exposure remains unchanged and includes travel to or residence in an area with risk for Zika virus transmission (https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/page/world-map-areas-with-zika) or sex without a condom with a partner who traveled to or lives in an area with risk for Zika virus transmission. CDC will continue to update recommendations as new information becomes available.


Assuntos
Aconselhamento Diretivo , Cuidado Pré-Concepcional , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Doenças Virais Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Infecção por Zika virus/prevenção & controle , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Viagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , Infecção por Zika virus/transmissão
18.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 16(1): 42, 2018 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29789001

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As countries continue to improve their family planning (FP) programmes, they may draw on WHO's evidence-based FP guidance and tools (i.e. materials) that support the provision of quality FP services. METHODS: To better understand the use and perceived impact of the materials and ways to strengthen their use by countries, we conducted qualitative interviews with WHO regional advisors, and with stakeholders in Ethiopia and Senegal who use WHO materials. RESULTS: WHO uses a multi-faceted strategy to directly and indirectly disseminate materials to country-level decision-makers. The materials are used to develop national family planning guidelines, protocols and training curricula. Participants reported that they trust the WHO materials because they are evidence based, and that they adapt materials to the country context (e.g. remove content on methods not available in the country). The main barrier to the use of national materials is resource constraints. CONCLUSIONS: Although the system and processes for dissemination work, improvements might contribute to increased use of the materials. For example, providers may benefit from additional guidance on how to counsel women with characteristics or medical conditions where contraceptive method eligibility criteria do not clearly rule in or rule out a method.


Assuntos
Atitude , Anticoncepção , Atenção à Saúde/métodos , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/métodos , Recursos em Saúde , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Tomada de Decisões , Países em Desenvolvimento , Etiópia , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Feminino , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Formulação de Políticas , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Senegal , Participação dos Interessados , Confiança , Organização Mundial da Saúde
19.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 142(1): 71-77, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29569244

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe maternal and perinatal outcomes among pregnant women with suspected Ebola virus disease (EVD) in Sierra Leone. METHODS: Observational investigation of maternal and perinatal outcomes among pregnant women with suspected EVD from five districts in Sierra Leone from June to December 2014. Suspected cases were ill pregnant women with symptoms suggestive of EVD or relevant exposures who were tested for EVD. Case frequencies and odds ratios were calculated to compare patient characteristics and outcomes by EVD status. RESULTS: There were 192 suspected cases: 67 (34.9%) EVD-positive, 118 (61.5%) EVD-negative, and 7 (3.6%) EVD status unknown. Women with EVD had increased odds of death (OR 10.22; 95% CI, 4.87-21.46) and spontaneous abortion (OR 4.93; 95% CI, 1.79-13.55) compared with those without EVD. Women without EVD had a high frequency of death (30.2%) and stillbirths (65.9%). One of 14 neonates born following EVD-negative and five of six neonates born following EVD-positive pregnancies died. CONCLUSION: EVD-positive and EVD-negative women with suspected EVD had poor outcomes, highlighting the need for increased attention and resources focused on maternal and perinatal health during an urgent public health response. Capturing pregnancy status in nationwide surveillance of EVD can help improve understanding of disease burden and design effective interventions.


Assuntos
Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Serra Leoa/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Infect Dis ; 216(suppl_10): S875-S883, 2017 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29267909

RESUMO

For >60 years, Zika virus (ZIKV) has been recognized as an arthropod-borne virus with Aedes species mosquitoes as the primary vector. However in the past 10 years, multiple alternative routes of ZIKV transmission have been identified. We review the available data on vector and non-vector-borne modes of transmission and interventions undertaken, to date, to reduce the risk of human infection through these routes. Although much has been learned during the outbreak in the Americas on the underlying mechanisms and pathogenesis of non-vector-borne ZIKV infections, significant gaps remain in our understanding of the relative incidence of, and risk from, these modes compared to mosquito transmission. Additional research is urgently needed on the risk, pathogenesis, and effectiveness of measures to mitigate non-vector-borne ZIKV transmission.


Assuntos
Aedes/virologia , Surtos de Doenças , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Infecção por Zika virus/transmissão , Zika virus/fisiologia , América , Animais , Humanos , Incidência , Risco , Zika virus/patogenicidade , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia
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