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1.
Radiat Oncol ; 15(1): 253, 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138837

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ESCALOX trial was designed as a multicenter, randomized prospective dose escalation study for head and neck cancer. Therefore, feasibility of treatment planning via different treatment planning systems (TPS) and radiotherapy (RT) techniques is essential. We hypothesized the comparability of dose distributions for simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) volumes respecting the constraints by different TPS and RT techniques. METHODS: CT data sets of the first six patients (all male, mean age: 61.3 years) of the pre-study (up to 77 Gy) were used for comparison of IMRT, VMAT, and helical tomotherapy (HT). Oropharynx was the primary tumor location. Normalization of the three step SIB (77 Gy, 70 Gy, 56 Gy) was D95% = 77 Gy. Coverage (CVF), healthy tissue conformity index (HTCI), conformation number (CN), and dose homogeneity (HI) were compared for PTVs and conformation index (COIN) for parotids. RESULTS: All RT techniques achieved good coverage. For SIB77Gy, CVF was best for IMRT and VMAT, HT achieved highest CN followed by VMAT and IMRT. HT reached good HTCI value, and HI compared to both other techniques. For SIB70Gy, CVF was best by IMRT. HTCI favored HT, consequently CN as well. HI was slightly better for HT. For SIB56Gy, CVF resulted comparably. Conformity favors VMAT as seen by HTCI and CN. Dmean of ipsilateral and contralateral parotids favor HT. CONCLUSION: Different TPS for dose escalation reliably achieved high plan quality. Despite the very good results of HT planning for coverage, conformity, and homogeneity, the TPS also achieved acceptable results for IMRT and VMAT. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01212354, EudraCT-No.: 2010-021139-15. ARO: ARO 14-01.

2.
Strahlenther Onkol ; 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025097

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether bone mineral density (BMD) as measured in planning computed tomographies (CTs) by a new method is a risk factor for pelvic insufficiency fractures (PIF) after radio(chemo)therapy (R(C)T) for cervical cancer. METHODS: 62 patients with cervical cancer who received definitive or adjuvant radio(chemo)therapy between 2013 and 2017 were reviewed. The PIF were detected on follow-up magntic resonance imaging (MRI). The MRI of the PIF patients was registered to the planning CT and the PIF contoured. On the contralateral side of the fracture, a mirrored structure of the fracture was generated (mPIF). For the whole sacral bone, three lumbar vertebrae, the first and second sacral vertebrae, and the PIF, we analyzed the BMD (mg/cm3), V50Gy, Dmean, and Dmax. RESULTS: Out of 62 patients, 6 (9.7%) had a fracture. Two out of the 6 patients had a bilateral fracture with only one of them being symptomatic. PIF patients showed a significantly lower BMD in the sacral and the lumbar vertebrae (p < 0.05). The BMD of the contoured PIF, however, when comparing to the mPIF, did not reach significance (p < 0.49). The difference of the V50Gy of the sacrum in the PIF group compared to the other (OTH) patients, i.e. those without PIF, did not reach significance. CONCLUSION: The dose does not seem to have a relevant impact on the incidence of PIF in our patients. One of the predisposing factors for developing PIF after radiotherapy seems to be the low BMD. We presented an easy method to assess the BMD in planning CTs.

3.
Acta Oncol ; 59(10): 1201-1209, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619381

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to estimate the additional risk of side effects attributed to internal mammary node irradiation (IMNI) as part of regional lymph node irradiation (RNI) in breast cancer patients and to compare it with estimated overall survival (OS) benefit from IMNI. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Treatment plans (n = 80) with volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) were calculated for 20 patients (4 plans per patient) with left-sided breast cancer from the prospective GATTUM trial in free breathing (FB) and in deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH). We assessed doses to organs at risk ((OARs) lung, contralateral breast and heart) during RNI with and without additional IMNI. Based on the OAR doses, the additional absolute risks of 10-year cardiac mortality, pneumonitis, and secondary lung and breast cancer were estimated using normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) and risk models assuming different age and risk levels. RESULTS: IMNI notably increased the mean OAR doses. The mean heart dose increased upon IMNI by 0.2-3.4 Gy (median: 1.9 Gy) in FB and 0.0-1.5 Gy (median 0.4 Gy) in DIBH. However, the estimated absolute additional 10-year cardiac mortality caused by IMNI was <0.5% for all patients studied except 70-year-old high risk patients (0.2-2.4% in FB and 0.0-1.1% in DIBH). In comparison to this, the published oncological benefit of IMNI ranges between 3.3% and 4.7%. The estimated additional 10-year risk of secondary cancer of the lung or contralateral breast ranged from 0-1.5% and 0-2.8%, respectively, depending on age and risk levels. IMNI increased the pneumonitis risk in all groups (0-2.2%). CONCLUSION: According to our analyses, the published oncological benefit of IMNI outweighs the estimated risk of cardiac mortality even in case of (e.g., cardiac) risk factors during VMAT. The estimated risk of secondary cancer or pneumonitis attributed to IMNI is low. DIBH reduces the estimated additional risk of IMNI even further and should be strongly considered especially in patients with a high baseline risk.

4.
Tumori ; : 300891620940024, 2020 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701045

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to detect a correlation between the preradiation tumor staging and the relative volumetric regression of the primary tumor through external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). METHODS: Clinical data of 32 patients with a mean age of 60±12 years treated with primary radiation therapy (RT) of cervical carcinoma were analyzed. Union Internationale Contre le Cancer (UICC) stages were T1 = 4 patients, T2 = 15 patients, T3 = 8 patients, T4 = 5 patients; N1 = 26 patients, N0 = 6 patients; and M0 = 25 patients, M1 = 7 patients. All patients received pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before RT as well as during RT. The cervical primary tumor was delineated as gross tumor volume (ptGTV) in T2-weighted MRI sequences. We compared ptGTV reduction by stage, lymph node status, metastatic status, and grading. RESULTS: Mean ptGTV reduction during RT was 61.4±28.9%. T1 tumors shrank by 88.2±13.4%, T2 by 67.6±28.7%, T3 by 50.8±23.6%, and T4 by 38.7±27.2%. The difference in tumor shrinkage was statistically significant between the lower T stages and the higher T stages (p < 0.05). There was no statistical difference in the mean ptGTV before treatment in the group with lymph node metastases (LNM) (54.1±47.7 cm3) as compared to the group without LNM (76.6±52.2 cm3). Nonetheless, ptGTV shrank significantly differently: by 68.9±25.7% (N1 patients) and by 29.0±17.7% (N0 patients). No significant differences in ptGTV shrinkage were observed in M0 versus M1 and G2 versus G3 tumors. CONCLUSION: There is a correlation between mean ptGTV reduction during EBRT and tumor stages. Tumors with higher T stages shrank less under radiation treatment, and the ptGTV of N1 patients responded better than that of N0 patients.

5.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 536, 2020 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adrenal gland metastases are a common diagnostic finding in various tumor diseases. Due to the increased use of imaging methods, they are diagnosed more frequently, especially in asymptomatic patients. SBRT has emerged as a new, alternative treatment option in the field of radiation oncology. In the past, it was often used for treating inoperable lung, liver, prostate, and brain tumors. Meanwhile, it is also an established keystone in the treatment of oligometastatic diseases. This retrospective study aims to evaluate the effect of low-dose SBRT in patients with adrenal metastases. METHODS: We analyzed a group of 31 patients with 34 adrenal gland lesions treated with low-dose SBRT between July 2006 and July 2019. Treatment-planning was performed through contrast-enhanced CT, followed by image-guided stereotactic radiotherapy using cone-beam CT. The applied cumulative median dose was 35 Gy; the median single dose was 7 Gy. We focused on local control (LC), progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), as well as acute and late toxicity. RESULTS: Seven adrenal gland metastases (20.6%) experienced local failure, 80.6% of the patients faced a distant progression. Fourteen patients were still alive. Median follow-up for all patients was 9.8 months and for patients alive 14.4 months. No treatment-related side-effects >grade 2 occurred. Of all, 48.4% suffered from acute gastrointestinal disorders; 32.3% reported acute fatigue, throbbing pain in the renal area, and mild adrenal insufficiency. Altogether, 19.4% of the patients faced late-toxicities, which were as follows: Grade 1: 12.9% gastrointestinal disorders, 3.2% fatigue, Grade 2: 9.7% fatigue, 6.5% headache, 3.2% loss of weight. The 1-year OS and probability of LF were 64 and 25.9%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Low-dose SBRT has proven as an effective and safe method with promising outcomes for treating adrenal metastases. There appeared no high-grade toxicities >grade 2, and 79.4% of treated metastases were progression-free. Thus, SBRT should be considered as a therapy option for adrenal metastases as an individual therapeutic concept in the interdisciplinary discussion as an alternative to surgical or systemic treatment.

6.
Strahlenther Onkol ; 196(9): 771-778, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32488292

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Tangential field irradiation in breast cancer potentially treats residual tumor cells in the axilla after sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). In recent years, hypofractionated radiotherapy has gained importance and currently represents the recommended standard in adjuvant breast cancer treatment for many patients. So far, the impact of hypofractionation on the effect of incidental lymph node irradiation has not be addressed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Biological effective dose (BED) and tumor control probability (TCP) were estimated for four different hypofractionated radiation schemes (42.50 Gy in 16 fractions [Fx]; 40.05 Gy in 15 Fx; 27 Gy in 5 Fx; and 26 in 5 Fx) and compared to conventional fractionation (50 Gy in 25 Fx). For calculation of BED and TCP, a previously published radiobiological model with an α/ß ratio of 4 Gy was used. The theoretical BED and TCP for incidental irradiation between 0 and 100% of the prescribed dose were evaluated. Subsequently, we assessed BED and TCP in 431 axillary lymph node metastases. RESULTS: The extent of incidental lymph node irradiation and the fractionation scheme have a direct impact on BED and TCP. The estimated mean TCP in the axillary nodes ranged from 1.5 ± 6.4% to 57.5 ± 22.9%, depending on the patient's anatomy and the fractionation scheme. Hypofractionation led to a significant reduction of mean TCP of lymph node metastases for all schedules. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that hypofractionation might affect the effectiveness of incidental radiotherapy in the axilla. This is particularly relevant for patients with positive sentinel lymph nodes who receive SLNB only.

7.
J Appl Clin Med Phys ; 21(8): 6-14, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476247

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Throughout the last years, carbon-fibre-reinforced PEEK (CFP) pedicle screw systems were introduced to replace standard titanium alloy (Ti) implants for spinal instrumentation, promising improved radiotherapy (RT) treatment planning accuracy. We compared the dosimetric impact of both implants for intensity modulated proton (IMPT) and volumetric arc photon therapy (VMAT), with the focus on uncertainties in Hounsfield unit assignment of titanium alloy. METHODS: Retrospective planning was performed on CT data of five patients with Ti and five with CFP implants. Carbon-fibre-reinforced PEEK systems comprised radiolucent pedicle screws with thin titanium-coated regions and titanium tulips. For each patient, one IMPT and one VMAT plan were generated with a nominal relative stopping power (SP) (IMPT) and electron density (ρ) (VMAT) and recalculated onto the identical CT with increased and decreased SP or ρ by ±6% for the titanium components. RESULTS: Recalculated VMAT dose distributions hardly deviated from the nominal plans for both screw types. IMPT plans resulted in more heterogeneous target coverage, measured by the standard deviation σ inside the target, which increased on average by 7.6 ± 2.3% (Ti) vs 3.4 ± 1.2% (CFP). Larger SPs lead to lower target minimum doses, lower SPs to higher dose maxima, with a more pronounced effect for Ti screws. CONCLUSIONS: While VMAT plans showed no relevant difference in dosimetric quality between both screw types, IMPT plans demonstrated the benefit of CFP screws through a smaller dosimetric impact of CT-value uncertainties compared to Ti. Reducing metal components in implants will therefore improve dose calculation accuracy and lower the risk for tumor underdosage.

8.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 442, 2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32429940

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The present study aims to evaluate long-term side-effects and outcomes and confirm prognostic factors after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) of pulmonary lesions. This is the first work that combines the investigated data from patient charts and patient-reported outcome (PRO) up to 14 years after therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed 219 patients and 316 lung metastases treated between 2004 and 2019. The pulmonary lesions received a median dose and dose per fraction of 35 Gy (range: 14-60.5 Gy) and 8 Gy (range: 3-20 Gy) to the surrounding isodose. During the last 1.5 years of monitoring, we added PRO assessment to our follow-up routine. We sent an invitation to a web-based survey questionnaire to all living patients whose last visit was more than 6 months ago. RESULTS: Median OS was 27.6 months. Univariate analysis showed a significant influence on OS for KPS ≥90%, small gross tumor volume (GTV) and planning target volume (PTV), the absence of external metastases, ≤3 pulmonary metastases, and controlled primary tumor. The number of pulmonary metastases and age influenced local control (LC) significantly. During follow-up, physicians reported severe side-effects ≥ grade 3 in only 2.9% within the first 6 months and in 2.5% after 1 year. Acute symptomatic pneumonitis grade 2 was observed in 9.7%, as grade 3 in 0.5%. During PRO assessment, 39 patients were contacted, 38 patients participated, 14 participated twice during follow-up. Patients reported 15 cases of severe side effects (grade ≥ 3) according to PROCTCAE classification. Severe dyspnea (n = 6) was reported mostly. CONCLUSION: We could confirm excellent local control and low toxicity rates. PROs improve and complement follow-up care. They are an essential measure in addition to the physician-reported outcomes. Future research must be conducted regarding the correct interpretation of PRO data.

9.
Strahlenther Onkol ; 196(4): 368-375, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32016496

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are different contouring guidelines for definition of the clinical target volume (CTV) for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) of anal cancer (AC). We conducted a planning comparison study to evaluate and compare the dose to relevant organs at risk (OARs) while using different CTV definitions. METHODS: Twelve patients with a primary diagnosis of anal cancer, who were treated with primary chemoradiation (CRT), were selected. We generated four guideline-specific CTVs and subsequently planned target volumes (PTVs) on the planning CT scan of each patient. An IMRT plan for volumetric arc therapy (VMAT) was set up for each PTV. Dose parameters of the planned target volume (PTV) and OARs were evaluated and compared, too. RESULTS: The mean volume of the four PTVs ranged from 2138 cc to 2433 cc. The target volumes contoured by the authors based on the recommendations of each group were similar in the pelvis, while they differed significantly in the inguinal region. There were no significant differences between the four target volumes with regard to the dose parameters of the cranially located OARs. Conversely, some dose parameters concerning the genitals and the skin varied significantly among the different guidelines. CONCLUSION: The four contouring guidelines differ significantly concerning the inguinal region. In order to avoid inguinal recurrence and to protect relevant OARs, further investigations are needed to generate uniform standards for definition of the elective clinical target volume in the inguinal region.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Ânus/radioterapia , Órgãos em Risco/efeitos da radiação , Radiometria , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias do Ânus/patologia , Quimiorradioterapia Adjuvante , Estudos de Coortes , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias
10.
Radiother Oncol ; 142: 195-201, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540747

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to estimate the dose distribution from randomized trials (MA.20, EORTC 22922-10925 (EORTC), AMAROS and the Z0011 trial) on lymph node (LN) irradiation on a large LN atlas. METHODS: 580 F18-FDG-PET/CT positive LN metastases of 235 patients were transferred rigidly and non-rigidly to three "template CTs" (standard, obese and slender patient). Further, the LN clinical target volumes (CTVs) were contoured according to the ESTRO-guidelines. Treatment plans were designed (each for the left and right side) for all patients based on the study protocols of the MA.20, EORTC, AMAROS and Z0011 trial. Subsequently, the dose distribution in the ESTRO-CTVs and in the 580 LNs were assessed. RESULTS: Our results reveal variable dose coverage (26.8 ±â€¯17.3 Gy-53.0 ±â€¯1.8 Gy) in the targeted LN areas (ESTRO-CTV and LN) in dependence of the treatment planning design and the patients' body shape. None of the treatment plan designs provided full dose coverage to the lymphatic drainage system. High tangent irradiation resulted in a similar dose distribution in L I and II compared to the AMAROS field design. CONCLUSION: Inclusion of the entire lymphatic system may not be necessary for all patients to reproduce the oncologic benefit shown in the randomized LN-irradiation trials. Inclusion of axillary level II and extension of the supraclavicular CTV can be considered in selected high-risk patients, based on dose recalculation of the MA.20 trial. Further, our results amplify earlier assumptions that irradiation may have accounted for the good results after SLND alone in the Z0011 trial.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Linfonodos/efeitos da radiação , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Adulto , Axila , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Humanos , Linfonodos/diagnóstico por imagem , Linfonodos/patologia , Metástase Linfática , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
11.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(12)2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783579

RESUMO

High-precision radiotherapy has been established as a valid and effective treatment option in patients with pituitary adenomas. We report on outcome after fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) in correlation with patient-reported outcomes (PROs). We analyzed 69 patients treated between 2000 and 2019. FSRT was delivered with a median total dose of 54 Gy (single fraction: 1.8 Gy). PRO questionnaires were sent to 28 patients. Median overall survival was 17.2 years; mean local control was 15.6 years (median not reached). Median follow-up was 5.8 years. Twenty (71%) patients participated in the PRO assessment. Physicians reported symptoms grade ≥3 in 6 cases (9%). Of all, 35 (51%) patients suffered from hypopituitarism at baseline, and during follow-up, new or progressive hypopituitarism was observed in 11 cases (16%). Patients reported 10 cases of severe side effects. Most of these symptoms were already graded as CTCAE (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events) grade 2 by a physician in a previous follow-up exam. PROs are an essential measure and only correlate to a certain extent with the physician-reported outcomes. For high-precision radiotherapy of pituitary adenomas, they confirm excellent overall outcomes and low toxicity. In the future, the integration of PROs paired with high-end treatment will further improve outcomes.

12.
Cancer Commun (Lond) ; 39(1): 73, 2019 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706337

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: More than 25% of patients with solid cancers develop intracerebral metastases. Aside of surgery, radiation therapy (RT) is a mainstay in the treatment of intracerebral metastases. Postoperative fractionated stereotactic RT (FSRT) to the resection cavity of intracerebral metastases is a treatment of choice to reduce the risk of local recurrence. However, FSRT has to be delayed until a sufficient wound healing is attained; hence systemic therapy might be postponed. Neoadjuvant stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) might offer advantages over adjuvant FSRT in terms of better target delineation and an earlier start of systemic chemotherapy. Here, we conducted a study to find the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of neoadjuvant SRS for intracerebral metastases. METHODS: This is a single-center, phase I dose escalation study on neoadjuvant SRS for intracerebral metastases that will be conducted at the Klinikum rechts der Isar Hospital, Technical University of Munich. The rule-based traditional 3 + 3 design for this trial with 3 dose levels and 4 different cohorts depending on lesion size will be applied. The primary endpoint is the MTD for which no dose-limiting toxicities (DLT) occur. The adverse events of each participant will be evaluated according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 5.0 continuously during the study until the first follow-up visit (4-6 weeks after surgery). Secondary endpoints include local control rate, survival, immunological tumor characteristics, quality of life (QoL), CTCAE grade of late clinical, neurological, and neurocognitive toxicities. In addition to the intracerebral metastasis which is treated with neoadjuvant SRS and resection up to four additional intracerebral metastases can be treated with definitive SRS. Depending on the occurrence of DLT up to 72 patients will be enrolled. The recruitment phase will last for 24 months. DISCUSSION: Neoadjuvant SRS for intracerebral metastases offers potential advantages over postoperative SRS to the resection cavity, such as better target volume definition with subsequent higher efficiency of eliminating tumor cells, and lower damage to surrounding healthy tissue, and much-needed systemic chemotherapy could be initiated more rapidly. Trial registration The local ethical review committee of Technical University of Munich (199/18S) approved this study on September 05, 2018. This trial was registered on German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS00016613; https://www.drks.de/drks_web/navigate.do?navigationId=trial.HTML&TRIAL_ID=DRKS00016613) on January 29, 2019.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Radiocirurgia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundário , Ensaios Clínicos Fase I como Assunto , Humanos , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Terapia Neoadjuvante/efeitos adversos , Qualidade de Vida , Radiocirurgia/efeitos adversos
13.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 907, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31510973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oncoplastic surgery techniques lead to a rearrangement of the breast tissue and impede target definition during adjuvant radiotherapy (RT). The aim of this study was to assess local control rates after immediate oncoplastic surgery and adjuvant RT. METHODS: This study comprises 965 patients who underwent breast-conserving therapy and adjuvant RT between 01/2000 and 12/2005. 288 patients received immediate oncoplastic surgery (ONC) and 677 patients breast-conserving surgery only (NONC). All patients were treated with adjuvant external tangential-beam RT (total dose: 50/50.4 Gy; fraction dose 1.8/2.0 Gy). An additional boost dose of 10-16 Gy to the primary tumor bed was given in 900 cases (93.3%). Local control rates (LCR), Progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were assessed retrospectively after a median follow-up period of 67 (Q25-Q75: 51-84) months. RESULTS: No significant difference was found between ONC and NONC in regard to LCR (5-yr: ONC 96.8% vs. NONC 95.3%; p = 0.25). This held also true for PFS (5-yr: ONC 92.1% vs. NONC 89.3%; p = 0.09) and OS (5-yr: ONC 96.0% vs. NONC 94.8%; p = 0.53). On univariate analyses G2-3 (p = 0.04), a younger age (p = 0.01), T-stage (p < 0.01) lymph node involvement (p < 0.01) as well as triple negative tumors (p < 0.01) were identified as risk factors for local recurrence. In a propensity score stratified Cox-regression model no significant impact of oncoplastic surgery on local control rate was found (HR: 2.05, 95% CI [0.93; 4.51], p = 0.08). CONCLUSION: Immediate oncoplastic surgery seems not to affect the effectiveness of adjuvant whole breast RT on local control rates in breast cancer patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Mastectomia Segmentar , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Radioterapia Adjuvante , Cirurgia Plástica , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Radiat Oncol ; 14(1): 170, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533742

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pathogenesis of brain metastases/meningeal cancer and the emotional and neurological outcomes are not yet well understood. The hypothesis of our study is that patients with leptomeningeal cancer show volumetric differences in brain substructures compared to patients with cerebral metastases. METHODS: Three groups consisting of female breast cancer patients prior to brain radiotherapy were compared. Leptomeningeal cancer patients (LMC Group), oligometastatic patients (1-3 brain metastases) prior to radiosurgery (OMRS Group) and patients prior to whole brain radiation (WB Group) were included. All patients had MRI imaging before treatment. T1 MRI sequences were segmented using automatic segmentation. For each patient, 14 bilateral and 11 central/median subcortical structures were tested. Overall 1127 structures were analyzed and compared between groups using age matched two-sided t-tests. RESULTS: The average age of patients in the OMRS group was 60.8 years (± 14.7), 65.3 (± 10.3) in the LMC group and 62.6 (± 10.2) in the WB group. LMC patients showed a significantly larger fourth ventricle compared to OMRS (p = 0.001) and WB (p = 0.003). The central corpus callosum appeared smaller in the LMC group (LMC vs OMRS p = 0.01; LMC vs WB p = 0.026). The right amygdala in the WB group appeared larger compared with the OMRS (p = 0.035). CONCLUSIONS: Differences in the size of brain substructures of the three groups were found. The results appear promising and should be taken into account for further prospective studies also involving healthy controls. The volumetrically determined size of the fourth ventricle might be a helpful diagnostic marker in the future.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundário , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Carcinomatose Meníngea/secundário , Idoso , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Encefálicas/cirurgia , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Carcinomatose Meníngea/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinomatose Meníngea/cirurgia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Técnicas de Rastreamento Neuroanatômico , Prognóstico , Radiocirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Acta Oncol ; 58(12): 1714-1719, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368403

RESUMO

Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate whether an early beginning of the adjuvant stereotactic radiotherapy after macroscopic complete resection of 1-3 brain metastases is essential or whether longer intervals between surgery and radiotherapy are feasible.Material and methods: Sixty-six patients with 69 resection cavities treated with HFSRT after macroscopic complete resection of 1-3 brain metastases between 2009 and 2016 in our institution were included in this study. Overall survival, local recurrence and locoregional recurrence were evaluated depending on the time interval from surgery to the start of radiation therapy.Results: Patients that started radiotherapy within 21 days from surgery had a significantly decreased OS compared to patients treated after a longer interval from surgery (p < .01). There was no significant difference between patients treated ≥ 34 and 22-33 days from surgery (p = .210). In the univariate analysis, local control was superior for patients starting treatment 22-33 days from surgery compared to a later start (p = .049). This effect did not prevail in a multivariate model. There was no significant difference between patients treated within 21 days and patients treated more than 33 days after surgery (p = .203). Locoregional control was not influenced by RT timing (p = .508).Conclusion: A short delay in the start of radiotherapy does not seem to negatively impact the outcome in patients with resected brain metastases. We even observed an unexpected reduction in OS in patients treated within 21 days from surgery. Further studies are needed to define the optimal timing of postoperative radiotherapy to the resection cavity.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/cirurgia , Radiocirurgia , Tempo para o Tratamento , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise de Variância , Neoplasias Encefálicas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundário , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Radiocirurgia/mortalidade , Radioterapia Adjuvante , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
16.
Radiat Oncol ; 14(1): 135, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370876

RESUMO

PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE(S): Along with breast-conserving surgery (BCS), adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) of patients with early breast cancer plays a crucial role in the oncologic treatment concept. Conventionally, irradiation is carried out with the aid of tangentially arranged fields. However, more modern and more complex radiation techniques such as IMRT (intensity-modulated radio therapy) are used more frequently, as they improve dose conformity and homogeneity and, in some cases, achieve better protection of adjacent risk factors. The use of this technique has implications for the incidental- and thus unintended- irradiation of adjacent loco regional lymph drainage in axillary lymph node levels I-III and internal mammary lymph nodes (IMLNs). A comparison of a homogeneous "real-life" patient collective, treated with helical tomotherapy (TT), patients treated with 3D conformal RT conventional tangentially arranged fields (3DCRT) and deep inspiration breath hold (3DCRT-DIBH), was conducted. MATERIALS/METHODS: This study included 90 treatment plans after BCS, irradiated in our clinic from January 2012 to August 2016 with TT (n = 30) and 3D-CRT (n = 30), 3DCRT DIBH (n = 30). PTVs were contoured at different time points by different radiation oncologists (> 7). TT was performed with a total dose of 50.4 Gy and a single dose of 1.8 Gy with a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) to the tumor cavity (TT group). Patients irradiated with 3DCRT/3DCRT DIBH received 50 Gy à 2 Gy and a sequential boost. Contouring of lymph drainage routes was performed retrospectively according to RTOG guidelines. RESULTS: Average doses (DMean) in axillary lymph node Level I/Level II/Level III were 31.6 Gy/8.43 Gy/2.38 Gy for TT, 24.0 Gy/11.2 Gy/3.97 Gy for 3DCRT and 24.7 Gy/13.3 Gy/5.59 Gy for 3DCRT-DIBH patients. Internal mammary lymph nodes (IMLNs) Dmean were 27.8 Gy (TT), 13.5 Gy (3DCRT), and 18.7 Gy (3DCRT-DIBH). Comparing TT to 3DCRT-DIBH dose varied significantly in all axillary lymph node levels and the IMLNs. Comparing TT to 3DCRT significant dose difference in Level I and IMLNs was observed. CONCLUSION: Dose applied to locoregional lymph drainage pathways varies comparing tomotherapy plans to conventional tangentially arranged fields. Studies are warranted whether dose variations influence loco-regional spread and must have implications for target volume definition guidelines.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Linfonodos/efeitos da radiação , Órgãos em Risco/efeitos da radiação , Lesões por Radiação/prevenção & controle , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Radioterapia Adjuvante/normas , Radioterapia Conformacional/normas , Suspensão da Respiração , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Radioterapia Conformacional/métodos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Radiat Oncol ; 14(1): 97, 2019 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174561

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the correlations between the levels of blood glucose (BG) and the dose of radiation therapy (RT) to the central gustatory system (GS) in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients. METHODS: Thirty-seven GBM patients with regular blood glucose measurements were investigated retrospectively. 59.5% were female and 40.5% male with a median age of 64.3 years (range 27.4-85.6). Diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) history, BG levels and dexamethasone (DEXA) medication were assessed. The analyzed central gustatory structures were: solitary tract and nucleus, ventral posteromedial nucleus of the thalamus, sensory tongue area of the postcentral gyrus, anterior part of the insula, frontal operculum, amygdala, hypothalamus. These structures were delineated on magnetic resonance tomographies (MRIs) registered to planning-CTs. All GS doses were transformed in equivalent doses in 2 Gy fraction (EQD2). RESULTS: Twenty one patients (56.8%) had at least one BG values over 200 mg/dl during RT. There was a difference between average BG in DM2: 192.8 mg/dl (±24.4) and non-DM2 patients: 145.7 mg/dl (±39.5; p = 0.01) but no significant difference in daily DEXA medication - DM2 patients: 7.9 mg/d (±1.9) vs. non-DM2: 9.3 mg/dl (±5.7; p = 0.29). The EQD2 Dmean to the total GS was 36.0Gy (±8.6 Gy). There was a tendency for a higher increase in maximum BG values with more radiation dose to the total GS (b = 1.9, R2 = 0.103, p = 0.06). CONCLUSION: BG levels in GBM patients are in direct correlation to the dose of RT applied to the central GS. GBM patients that undergo RT should thus be closely monitored for changes in BG levels during and after the radiation.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Feminino , Glioblastoma/patologia , Glioblastoma/radioterapia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Radiat Oncol ; 14(1): 109, 2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215458

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to compare dose-volume histogram (DVH) with dose-mass histogram (DMH) parameters for treatment of left-sided breast cancer in deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) and free breathing (FB). Additionally, lung expansion and anatomical factors were analyzed and correlated to dose differences. METHODS: For 31 patients 3D conformal radiation therapy plans were retrospectively calculated on FB and DIBH CTs in the treatment planning system. The calculated doses, structures and CT data were transferred into MATLAB and DVHs and DMHs were calculated. Mean doses (Dmean), volumes and masses receiving certain doses (Vx, Mx) were determined for the left lung and the heart. Additionally, expansion of the left lung was evaluated using deformable image registration. Differences in DVH and DMH dose parameters between FB and DIBH were statistically analyzed and correlated to lung expansion and anatomical factors. RESULTS: DIBH reduced Dmean (DVH) and relative V20 (V20 [%]) of the left lung in all patients, on average by - 19 ± 9% (mean ± standard deviation) and - 24 ± 10%. Dmean (DMH) and M20 [%] were also significantly reduced (- 12 ± 11%, - 16 ± 13%), however 4 patients had higher DMH values in DIBH than in FB. Linear regression showed good correlations between DVH and DMH parameters, e.g. a dosimetric benefit smaller than 8.4% for Dmean (DVH) in DIBH indicated more irradiated lung mass in DIBH than in FB. The mean expansion of the left lung between FB and DIBH was 1.5 ± 2.4 mm (left), 16.0 ± 4.0 mm (anterior) and 12.2 ± 4.6 mm (caudal). No significant correlations were found between expansions and differences in Dmean for the left lung. The heart dose in DIBH was reduced in all patients by 53% (Dmean) and this dosimetric benefit correlated to lung expansion in anterior. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of left-sided breast cancer in DIBH reduced dose to the heart and in most cases the lung dose, relative irradiated lung volume and lung mass. A mass related dosimetric benefit in DIBH can be achieved as long as the volume related benefit is about ≥8-9%. The lung expansion (breathing pattern) showed no impact on lung dose, but on heart dose. A stronger chest breathing (anterior expansion) for DIBH seems to be more beneficial than abdominal breathing.


Assuntos
Suspensão da Respiração , Pulmão/efeitos da radiação , Tratamentos com Preservação do Órgão/estatística & dados numéricos , Órgãos em Risco/efeitos da radiação , Interpretação de Imagem Radiográfica Assistida por Computador/métodos , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Neoplasias Unilaterais da Mama/radioterapia , Feminino , Coração/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Prognóstico , Lesões por Radiação/prevenção & controle , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Radioterapia Conformacional/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Neoplasias Unilaterais da Mama/patologia
19.
Radiother Oncol ; 138: 30-37, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31136960

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) is applied in neurosurgical routine to detect motor-eloquent brain areas for safe resection of high-grade gliomas (HGGs). However, in radiation therapy (RT) planning, the primary motor cortex is not respected yet in target volume delineation. This study evaluates the implementation of nTMS motor mapping in RT planning in patients harboring motor-eloquent HGGs with the aim of reducing dose applications to the motor cortex. METHODS: nTMS motor maps of 30 patients diagnosed with motor-eloquent HGGs were fused with RT planning imaging and volumetric modulated RT plans were optimized using nTMS motor maps as an organ at risk (OAR). Doses to nTMS motor maps were evaluated using dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters. RESULTS: Mean dose (Dmean) to the nTMS motor maps was 42.3 Gy (3.7-61.1 Gy) and was significantly reduced by 14.3% to 37.0 Gy (3.6-55.8 Gy, p < 0.05) when constraining the dose to nTMS motor areas to 45 Gy. Areas within the planning target volume (PTV) were not spared (overlap). Yet, the dose to PTV was not compromised. Even with an additional dose escalation (70 Gy) to the tumor area, nTMS motor maps can be spared by 4.6 ±â€¯3.5 Gy (12.8%, p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: nTMS motor maps can be easily implemented in standard RT planning and applied for target contouring in RT of HGGs. Doses to motor-eloquent areas can be significantly reduced when considering nTMS motor maps without affecting treatment doses to the PTV. Thus, nTMS could be used as a valuable tool in RT planning.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Glioma/radioterapia , Córtex Motor/fisiologia , Neuronavegação , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Neoplasias Encefálicas/cirurgia , Feminino , Glioma/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Radioterapia Adjuvante
20.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 103(3): 574-582, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30118822

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to localize locoregional lymph node metastases using positron emission tomography with fluorine 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) data sets in a large cohort of patients and to evaluate the existing Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) clinical target volume (CTV) and the European Society for Radiation Therapy & Oncology (ESTRO) CTV contouring guidelines. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A total of 235 patients with 580 FDG/PET-CT positive locoregional lymph node metastases were included in our analysis. The patients were divided into 4 groups according to their course of disease (primary vs recurrent breast cancer) and the presence or absence of distant metastasis at the time of the FDG-PET/CT staging (distant metastasis vs no distant metastasis). All imaging data were imported into the planning system, and each lymph node was manually contoured. A patient with "standard anatomy" was chosen as a template, and all contoured structures were registered rigidly and nonrigidly to this patient. A comprehensive 3-dimensional atlas was created, including all identified lymph node metastases. The incidences of lymph node metastases were analyzed and are presented with color coding in the atlas. Lymph node levels (axillary, internal mammary, supraclavicular) were contoured according to RTOG and ESTRO guidelines and evaluated. RESULTS: The mean volume of the lymph nodes was 1.7 ± 2.6 cm3 with an average diameter of 1.3 ± 0.7 cm. Most lymph nodes were in level I (n = 316; 54.5%) followed by the supraclavicular region (n = 80; 13.8%), level II (n = 57; 9.8%), level III (n = 58; 10.0%), and the internal mammary region (n = 55; 9.5%). The covered lymph node volume was 69.8% ± 35.5% (69.1% ± 36.3%) for primary breast cancer and 57.6% ± 38.9% (51.1% ± 39.1%) for recurrent breast cancer using the RTOG (ESTRO) guidelines. The internal mammary region and supraclavicular region were affected more often in recurrent breast cancer compared with primary breast cancer. The occurrence of lymph node metastases outside the RTOG and ESTRO margins in patients with and without distant metastases was similar. The largest geometric deviations between RTOG/ESTRO CTV contours and lymph node occurrence were measured in the supraclavicular region, the internal mammary region, and level II. CONCLUSIONS: The provided lymph node atlas illustrates where lymph node metastases occur in different clinical situations and presents areas at high risk (ie "hot spots" of lymph node metastases).


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Linfonodos/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Radioterapia (Especialidade)/métodos , Mama/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Humanos , Metástase Linfática/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Radioterapia/métodos
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