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1.
Mult Scler ; : 1352458520912379, 2020 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32255388

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increased blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability, CNS inflammation and neuroaxonal damage are pathological hallmarks in early multiple sclerosis (MS). OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations of neurofilament light chain (NfL) levels with measures of BBB integrity and central nervous system (CNS) inflammation in MS during the first demyelinating event. METHODS: Blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were obtained from 142 MS (McDonald 2017) treatment-naive patients from the SET study (63% female; age: 29.7 ± 7.9 years) following the disease onset. NfL, albumin, immunoglobulin G (IgG), and immunoglobulin M (IgM) levels were measured in CSF and blood samples. Albumin quotient was computed as a marker of BBB integrity. Immune cell subset counts in CSF were measured using flow cytometry. MS risk factors, such as Human leukocyte antigen DRB1 locus gene (HLA DRB1)*1501, anti-Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antibodies, and 25-hydroxy vitamin D3, were also measured. RESULTS: Higher serum NfL (sNfL) levels were associated with higher albumin quotient (p < 0.001), CSF CD80+ (p = 0.012), and CD80+ CD19+ (p = 0.015) cell frequency. sNfL levels were also associated with contrast-enhancing and T2 lesions on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; all p ⩽ 0.001). Albumin quotient was not associated with any of the MS risk factors assessed. sNfL levels were associated with anti-EBV viral capsid antigen (VCA) IgG levels (p = 0.0026). CONCLUSION: sNfL levels during the first demyelinating event of MS are associated with greater impairment of BBB integrity, immune cell extravasation, and brain lesion activity on MRI.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32273481

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether serum neurofilament light chain (sNfL) levels are associated with recent MRI activity in patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS). METHODS: This observational study included 163 patients (405 samples) with early RRMS from the Study of Early interferon-beta1a (IFN-ß1a) Treatment (SET) cohort and 179 patients (664 samples) with more advanced RRMS from the Genome-Wide Association Study of Multiple Sclerosis (GeneMSA) cohort. Based on annual brain MRI, we assessed the ability of sNfL cutoffs to reflect the presence of combined unique active lesions, defined as new/enlarging lesion compared with MRI in the preceding year or contrast-enhancing lesion. The probability of active MRI lesions among patients with different sNfL levels was estimated with generalized estimating equations models. RESULTS: From the sNfL samples ≥90th percentile, 81.6% of the SET (OR = 3.4, 95% CI = 1.8-6.4) and 48.9% of the GeneMSA cohort samples (OR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.7-3.9) was associated with radiological disease activity on MRI. The sNfL level between the 10th and 30th percentile was reflective of negligible MRI activity: 1.4% (SET) and 6.5% (GeneMSA) of patients developed ≥3 active lesions, 5.8% (SET) and 6.5% (GeneMSA) developed ≥2 active lesions, and 34.8% (SET) and 11.8% (GeneMSA) showed ≥1 active lesion on brain MRI. The sNfL level <10th percentile was associated with even lower MRI activity. Similar results were found in a subgroup of clinically stable patients. CONCLUSIONS: Low sNfL levels (≤30th percentile) help identify patients with MS with very low probability of recent radiologic disease activity during the preceding year. This result suggests that in future, sNfL assessment may substitute the need for annual brain MRI monitoring in considerable number (23.1%-36.4%) of visits in clinically stable patients.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014849

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the repertoire of glycan-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies in treatment-naive patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). METHODS: A systems-level approach combined with glycan array technologies was used to determine specificities and binding reactivities of glycan-specific IgGs in treatment-naive patients with RRMS compared with patients with noninflammatory and other inflammatory neurologic diseases. RESULTS: We identified a unique signature of glycan-binding IgG in MS with high reactivities to the dietary xenoglycan N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) and the self-glycan N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac). Increased reactivities of serum IgG toward Neu5Gc and Neu5Ac were additionally observed in an independent, treatment-naive cohort of patients with RRMS. CONCLUSION: Patients with MS show increased IgG reactivities to structurally related xenogeneic and human neuraminic acids. The discovery of these glycan-specific epitopes as immune targets and potential biomarkers in MS merits further investigation.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024796

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether serum concentrations of the anti-inflammatory cytokine growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) differ in patients with highly active multiple sclerosis (MS) vs patients with stable MS and healthy controls (HCs). METHODS: GDF-15 concentrations were measured by ELISA in serum and CSF in a cross-sectional cohort of patients with MS, patients with other inflammatory neurologic diseases (OIND), patients with noninflammatory neurologic diseases (NIND), and healthy controls (HC). Serum GDF-15 concentrations were measured in a longitudinally sampled cohort of clinically and radiologically well-characterized patients with MS and corresponding controls. RESULTS: Cross-sectionally measured median serum GDF-15 concentrations were significantly higher in patients with OIND (n = 42) (600 pg/mL, interquartile range [IQR] = 320-907 pg/mL) compared with HCs (n = 29) (325 pg/mL, IQR = 275-419 pg/mL; p = 0.0007), patients with NIND (n = 46) (304 pg/mL, IQR = 245-493 pg/mL; p = 0.0002), or relapsing MS (n = 42) (356 pg/mL, IQR = 246-460 pg/mL; p = 0.0002). CSF and serum concentrations of GDF-15 were correlated (r = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.25-0.56, p < 0.0001). In a longitudinally sampled cohort of patients with MS (n = 48), deeply phenotyped with quantitative clinical and MRI assessments, mean GDF-15 concentrations were significantly higher in patients with a stable disease course (405 pg/mL, SD = 202) than in patients with intermittent MRI activity (333 pg/mL, SD = 116; p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Serum GDF-15 concentrations are increased in patients with MS with a stable disease course. These data suggest that GDF-15 may serve as a biomarker for disease stability in MS.

5.
Acta Neurol Scand ; 141(1): 77-80, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657006

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Low circulating vitamin D levels are associated with an increased risk of active MRI lesions and relapses in several cohorts with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Randomized controlled supplementation trials are, however, negative on their primary endpoints, while secondary MRI endpoints suggest anti-inflammatory effects. Circulating levels of neurofilament light chain (NfL) are a biomarker of disease activity in RRMS. We explored whether 48-week high-dose vitamin D3 supplements were associated with lower circulating NfL levels. MATERIALS & METHODS: Of N = 40 Dutch interferon beta-treated participants with RRMS of the SOLAR trial, plasma samples at baseline and 48-week follow-up were available. Of these participants, N = 24 were supplemented with 14 000 IU/d vitamin D3 and N = 16 with placebo. Twenty-five hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3 ) levels were measured with LC-MS/MS, and NfL levels were measured in duplicate with Simoa. RESULTS: Serum 25(OH)D3 levels at 48 weeks were increased in the vitamin D3 when compared to placebo group (median level 281 [IQR 205-330] vs 72 [39-88] nmol/L; P < .01). NfL levels at 48 weeks did not differ between the treatment groups (median level 25.4 [IQR 19.6-32.2] vs 25.3 [17.9-30.1] pg/mL; P = .74). Higher week 48 NfL level showed a trend toward association with a higher risk of combined unique active lesions on the week 48 MRI scan (OR 2.39 [95% CI 0.93-6.12] for each 10 pg/mL increase; P = .07). CONCLUSIONS: Supplementation of high-dose vitamin D3 for 48 weeks was not associated with lower NfL levels. This study does not support an effect of vitamin D3 on this biomarker of neuro-axonal injury.


Assuntos
Colecalciferol/uso terapêutico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/sangue , Proteínas de Neurofilamentos/sangue , Vitamina D/sangue , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Interferon beta-1a/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/tratamento farmacológico
6.
Neurology ; 93(15): e1439-e1451, 2019 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501228

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate intrathecal immunoglobulin M (IgM) production, as compared to previously established risk factors, as risk factor for conversion from clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) to multiple sclerosis (MS) and to explore the association of intrathecal IgM production with onset age and radiologic and CSF findings in CIS/early MS. METHODS: Comprehensive CSF data, including oligoclonal immunoglobulin G (IgG) bands (OCB) and calculated intrathecal IgM and IgG production, were collected in a prospective study of 150 patients with CIS/early MS with regular clinical and MRI assessments. RESULTS: Intrathecal IgM production >0% occurred in 23.2% (33/142) of patients, who were on average 5 years younger at disease onset (p = 0.013) and more frequently had infratentorial lesions (18/32, 56.3%) than patients without intrathecal IgM production (33/104, 31.7%, p = 0.021). In multivariable Cox regression analyses, intrathecal IgM production in patients with a CIS (n = 93, median clinical and MRI follow-up 24 and 21 months) was strongly associated with conversion to MS according to the McDonald 2010 criteria (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval] 3.05 [1.45-6.44], p = 0.003) after adjustment for age (0.96 [0.93-1.00], p = 0.059), OCB (0.92 [0.33-2.61], p = 0.879), intrathecal IgG production (0.98 [0.48-1.99], p = 0.947), and radiologic evidence of dissemination in space (2.63 [1.11-6.22], p = 0.028). CONCLUSION: Intrathecal IgM production is a strong independent risk factor for early conversion to MS and may thus represent a clinically meaningful marker for predicting future disease activity in patients with a CIS.


Assuntos
Doenças Desmielinizantes/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina M/metabolismo , Esclerose Múltipla/metabolismo , Esclerose Múltipla/patologia , Adulto , Idade de Início , Idoso , Doenças Desmielinizantes/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Bandas Oligoclonais/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
7.
J Neuroimmunol ; 285: 156-60, 2015 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26198934

RESUMO

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. A characteristic feature of MS is an intrathecal synthesis of immunoglobulin (Ig)G. In 90 patients with clinically isolated syndromes/early relapsing-remitting MS, serum antibodies to Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen-1, but not to EBV viral capsid antigen, rubella, or varicella zoster virus, were higher (p=0.03) in those with than those without a calculated intrathecal IgG synthesis >0% and correlated with the percentage (r=0.27, p=0.009) and concentration (r=0.27, p=0.012) of intrathecally produced IgG. These findings suggest a link between EBV infection and the events leading to intrathecal IgG synthesis in patients with MS.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Antígenos Nucleares do Vírus Epstein-Barr/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/sangue , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/diagnóstico , Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Antígenos Virais/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteínas do Capsídeo/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/biossíntese , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/virologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Medula Espinal/virologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Neurosurgery ; 68(5): 1388-97; discussion 1397-8, 2011 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21311370

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms employing endosaccular coiling can be associated with aneurysm perforation, coil herniation or incomplete obliteration fueling the interest to investigate novel endovascular techniques. We aimed to test a novel embolization material in experimental aneurysms in vitro and in vivo whereby intra-arterially administered magnetic microparticles (MMPs) are navigated into the lumen of vascular aneurysms with assistance from an external magnetic field. METHODS: MMPs are core-shell particles suspended in saline that have a shell made of a polymeric material and a core made of magnetite (Fe3O4). They have a diameter of 1.4 µm. During MMP administration via a microcatheter, a magnetic field was applied externally to direct the particles with the use of a solid-state neodymium magnet. Experiments were performed in a perfused silicone vessel and aneurysm model to evaluate application techniques and fluid dynamics and in the elastase aneurysm model in rabbits to evaluate in vivo compatibility, including multiorgan histological examinations and long-term stability of aneurysm embolization. RESULTS: It was possible to steer and hold the MMPs within the aneurismal cavity where they occluded the lumen progressively. After removal of the external magnetic field, the results remained stable in vivo for the remainder of the observational period (30 minutes); after a 12-week observational period, recanalization of the aneurysm occurred. CONCLUSION: MMPs can be magnetically directed into aneurysms, allowing short-term obliteration. Although the method has yet to show reliable long-term stability, these experiments provide proof of concept, encouraging further investigation of intravascular magnetic compounds.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Endovasculares/métodos , Aneurisma Intracraniano/terapia , Terapia de Campo Magnético/métodos , Microesferas , Animais , Injeções Intra-Arteriais , Aneurisma Intracraniano/patologia , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/administração & dosagem , Coelhos , Resultado do Tratamento
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