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1.
Cancer Discov ; 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36048199

RESUMO

Accurate ancestry inference is critical for identifying genetic contributors of cancer disparities among populations. While methods to infer genetic ancestry have historically relied upon genome-wide markers, the adaptation to targeted clinical sequencing panels presents an opportunity to incorporate ancestry inference into routine diagnostic workflows. We show that global ancestral contributions and admixture of continental populations can be quantitatively inferred using markers captured by the MSK-IMPACT clinical panel. In a pan-cancer cohort of 45,157 patients, we observed differences by ancestry in the frequency of somatic alterations, recapitulating known and revealing novel associations. Despite comparable overall prevalence of driver alterations by ancestry group, the proportion of patients with clinically actionable alterations was lower for African (30%) compared to European (33%) ancestry. While this result is largely explained by population-specific cancer subtype differences, it reveals an inequity in the degree to which different populations are served by existing precision oncology interventions.

2.
Eur Urol ; 2022 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36115772

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tumor-only genomic profiling is an important tool in therapeutic management of men with prostate cancer. Since clinically actionable germline variants may be reflected in tumor profiling, it is critical to identify which variants have a higher risk of being germline in origin to better counsel patients and prioritize genetic testing. OBJECTIVE: To determine when variants found on tumor-only sequencing of prostate cancers should prompt confirmatory germline testing. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Men with prostate cancer who underwent both tumor and germline sequencing at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center from January 1, 2015 to January 31, 2020 were evaluated. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Tumor and germline profiles were analyzed for pathogenic and likely pathogenic ("pathogenic") variants in 60 moderate- or high-penetrance genes associated with cancer predisposition. The germline probability (germline/germline + somatic) of a variant was calculated for each gene. Clinical and pathologic factors were analyzed as potential modifiers of germline probability. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Of the 1883 patients identified, 1084 (58%) had a somatic or germline pathogenic variant in one of 60 cancer susceptibility genes, and of them, 240 (22%) had at least one germline variant. Overall, the most frequent variants were in TP53, PTEN, APC, BRCA2, RB1, ATM, and CHEK2. Variants in TP53, PTEN, or RB1 were identified in 746 (40%) patients and were exclusively somatic. Variants with the highest germline probabilities were in PALB2 (69%), MITF (62%), HOXB13 (60%), CHEK2 (55%), BRCA1 (55%), and BRCA2 (47%), and the overall germline probability of a variant in any DNA damage repair gene was 40%. Limitations were that most of the men included in the cohort had metastatic disease, and different thresholds for pathogenicity exist for somatic and germline variants. CONCLUSIONS: Of patients with pathogenic variants found on prostate tumor sequencing, 22% had clinically actionable germline variants, for which the germline probabilities varied widely by gene. Our results provide an evidenced-based clinical framework to prioritize referral to genetic counseling following tumor-only sequencing. PATIENT SUMMARY: Patients with advanced prostate cancer are recommended to have germline genetic testing. Genetic sequencing of a patient's prostate tumor may also identify certain gene variants that are inherited. We found that patients who had variants in certain genes, such as ones that function in DNA damage repair, identified in their prostate tumor sequencing, had a high risk for having an inherited cancer syndrome.

3.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO2200995, 2022 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35944238

RESUMO

Cancer predictive or diagnostic assays, offered as Laboratory-Developed Tests (LDTs), have been subject to regulatory authority and enforcement discretion by the US Food and Drug Administration. Many LDTs enter the market without US Food and Drug Administration or any regulatory review. The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services under the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments focuses on analytic performance, but has limited oversight of the quality or utility of LDTs, including whether patients have been harmed as a result of their use. Increasingly, LDTs for cancer risk or early detection have been marketed directly to consumers, with many LDT developers depicting these tests, requested by patients but ordered by personal or company-associated physicians, as procedures falling under the practice of medicine. This patchwork of regulation and enforcement uncertainty regarding LDTs and public concerns about accuracy of tests given emergency authorization during the COVID-19 pandemic led to the Verifying Accurate Leading-edge IVCT (in vitro clinical test) Development Act of 2021. This pending federal legislation represents an opportunity to harmonize regulatory policies and address growing concerns over quality, utility, and safety of LDTs for cancer genomics, including tests marketed directly to consumers. We review here questions regarding the potential benefits and harms of some cancer-related LDTs for cancer risk and presymptomatic molecular diagnosis, increasingly marketed to oncologists or directly to the worried well. We offer specific proposals to strengthen oversight of the accuracy and clinical utility of cancer genetic testing to ensure public safety.

4.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO2200303, 2022 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35960887

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Evidence-based guidelines recommend cascade genetic counseling and testing for hereditary cancer syndromes, providing relatives the opportunity for early detection and prevention of cancer. The current standard is for patients to contact and encourage relatives (patient-mediated contact) to undergo counseling and testing. Direct relative contact by the medical team or testing laboratory has shown promise but is complicated by privacy laws and lack of infrastructure. We sought to compare outcomes associated with patient-mediated and direct relative contact for hereditary cancer cascade genetic counseling and testing in the first meta-analysis on this topic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines (PROSPERO No.: CRD42020134276). We searched key electronic databases to identify studies evaluating hereditary cancer cascade testing. Eligible trials were subjected to meta-analysis. RESULTS: Eighty-seven studies met inclusion criteria. Among relatives included in the meta-analysis, 48% (95% CI, 38 to 58) underwent cascade genetic counseling and 41% (95% CI, 34 to 48) cascade genetic testing. Compared with the patient-mediated approach, direct relative contact resulted in significantly higher uptake of genetic counseling for all relatives (63% [95% CI, 49 to 75] v 35% [95% CI, 24 to 48]) and genetic testing for first-degree relatives (62% [95% CI, 49 to 73] v 40% [95% CI, 32 to 48]). Methods of direct contact included telephone calls, letters, and e-mails; respective rates of genetic testing completion were 61% (95% CI, 51 to 70), 48% (95% CI, 37 to 59), and 48% (95% CI, 45 to 50). CONCLUSION: Most relatives at risk for hereditary cancer do not undergo cascade genetic counseling and testing, forgoing potentially life-saving medical interventions. Compared with patient-mediated contact, direct relative contact increased rates of cascade genetic counseling and testing, arguing for a shift in the care delivery paradigm, to be confirmed by randomized controlled trials.

5.
Cancer ; 2022 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36041233

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Germline risk assessment is increasing as part of cancer care; however, disparities in subsequent genetic counseling are unknown. METHODS: Pan-cancer patients were prospectively consented to tumor-normal sequencing via custom next generation sequencing panel (Memorial Sloan Kettering-Integrated Mutation Profiling of Actionable Cancer Targets) inclusive of germline analysis of ≥76 genes from January 2015 through December 2019 (97.5% research nonbillable) with protocol for genetics referral. Rates of pathogenic/likely pathogenic germline variants (PVs) and downstream counseling were compared across ancestry groups (mutually exclusive groups based on self-reported race/ethnicity and Ashkenazi Jewish [AJ] heritage) using nonparametric tests and multivariable logistic regression models. RESULTS: Among 15,775 patients (59.6%, non-Hispanic [NH]-White; 15.7%, AJ; 20.5%, non-White [6.9%, Asian; 6.8%, Black/African American (AA); 6.7%, Hispanic; 0.1%, Other], and 4.2%, unknown), 2663 (17%) had a PV. Non-White patients had a lower PV rate (n = 433, 13.4%) compared to NH-Whites (n = 1451, 15.4%) and AJ patients (n = 683, 27.6%), p < .01, with differences in mostly moderate and low/recessive/uncertain penetrance variants. Among 2239 patients with new PV, 1652 (73.8%) completed recommended genetic counseling. Non-White patients had lower rates of genetic counseling (67.7%) than NH-White (73.7%) and AJ patients (78.8%), p < .01, with lower rates occurring in Black/AA (63%) compared to NH-White patients, even after adjustment for confounders (odds ratio, 0.60; 95% confidence interval, 0.37-0.97; p = .036). Non-White, particularly Black/AA and Asian, probands had a trend toward lower rates and numbers of at-risk family members being seen for counseling/genetic testing. CONCLUSIONS: Despite minimizing barriers to genetic testing, non-White patients were less likely to receive recommended cancer genetics follow-up, with potential implications for oncologic care, cancer risk reduction, and at-risk family members. LAY SUMMARY: Genetic testing is becoming an important part of cancer care, and we wanted to see if genetics care was different between individuals of different backgrounds. We studied 15,775 diverse patients with cancer who had genetic testing using a test called MSK-IMPACT that was covered by research funding. Clinically important genetic findings were high in all groups. However, Black patients were less likely to get recommended counseling compared to White patients. Even after removing many roadblocks, non-White and especially Black patients were less likely to get recommended genetics care, which may affect their cancer treatments and families.

6.
Genet Med ; 2022 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35997715

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Models used to predict the probability of an individual having a pathogenic homozygous or heterozygous variant in a mismatch repair gene, such as MMRpro, are widely used. Recently, MMRpro was updated with new colorectal cancer penetrance estimates. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the predictive performance of MMRpro and other models for individuals with a family history of colorectal cancer. METHODS: We performed a validation study of 4 models, Leiden, MMRpredict, PREMM5, and MMRpro, using 784 members of clinic-based families from the United States. Predicted probabilities were compared with germline testing results and evaluated for discrimination, calibration, and predictive accuracy. We analyzed several strategies to combine models and improve predictive performance. RESULTS: MMRpro with additional tumor information (MMRpro+) and PREMM5 outperformed the other models in discrimination and predictive accuracy. MMRpro+ was the best calibrated with an observed to expected ratio of 0.98 (95% CI = 0.89-1.08). The combination models showed improvement over PREMM5 and performed similar to MMRpro+. CONCLUSION: MMRpro+ and PREMM5 performed well in predicting the probability of having a pathogenic homozygous or heterozygous variant in a mismatch repair gene. They serve as useful clinical decision tools for identifying individuals who would benefit greatly from screening and prevention strategies.

7.
Genome Med ; 14(1): 92, 2022 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35971132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic testing (GT) for hereditary cancer predisposition is traditionally performed on selected genes based on established guidelines for each cancer type. Recently, expanded GT (eGT) using large hereditary cancer gene panels uncovered hereditary predisposition in a greater proportion of patients than previously anticipated. We sought to define the diagnostic yield of eGT and its clinical relevance in a broad cancer patient population over a 5-year period. METHODS: A total of 17,523 cancer patients with a broad range of solid tumors, who received eGT at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center between July 2015 to April 2020, were included in the study. The patients were unselected for current GT criteria such as cancer type, age of onset, and/or family history of disease. The diagnostic yield of eGT was determined for each cancer type. For 9187 patients with five common cancer types frequently interrogated for hereditary predisposition (breast, colorectal, ovarian, pancreatic, and prostate cancer), the rate of pathogenic/likely pathogenic (P/LP) variants in genes that have been associated with each cancer type was analyzed. The clinical implications of additional findings in genes not known to be associated with a patients' cancer type were investigated. RESULTS: 16.7% of patients in a broad cancer cohort had P/LP variants in hereditary cancer predisposition genes identified by eGT. The diagnostic yield of eGT in patients with breast, colorectal, ovarian, pancreatic, and prostate cancer was 17.5%, 15.3%, 24.2%, 19.4%, and 15.9%, respectively. Additionally, 8% of the patients with five common cancers had P/LP variants in genes not known to be associated with the patient's current cancer type, with 0.8% of them having such a variant that confers a high risk for another cancer type. Analysis of clinical and family histories revealed that 74% of patients with variants in genes not associated with their current cancer type but which conferred a high risk for another cancer did not meet the current GT criteria for the genes harboring these variants. One or more variants of uncertain significance were identified in 57% of the patients. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to targeted testing approaches, eGT can increase the yield of detection of hereditary cancer predisposition in patients with a range of tumors, allowing opportunities for enhanced surveillance and intervention. The benefits of performing eGT should be weighed against the added number of VUSs identified with this approach.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Neoplasias da Próstata , Estudos de Coortes , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Masculino
8.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2022 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35833951

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Identification of inherited germline variants can guide personalized cancer screening, prevention, and treatment. Pathogenic and likely pathogenic (P/LP) germline variants in cancer predisposition genes are frequent among patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma, but their prevalence and significance in patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), the most common form of urothelial carcinoma, is understudied. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Germline analysis was conducted on paired tumor/normal sequencing results from two distinct cohorts of patients initially diagnosed with NMIBC. Associations between clinicopathologic features and clinical outcomes with the presence of P/LP germline variants in ≥76 hereditary cancer predisposition genes were analyzed. RESULTS: A similar frequency of P/LP germline variants were seen in our two NMIBC cohorts (12% [12/99] vs. 8.7% [10/115], p=0.4). In the combined analysis, P/LP germline variants were found only in patients with high-grade NMIBC (22/163), but none of the 46 patients with low-grade NMIBC (13.5% vs. 0%, p=0.005). Fifteen (9.2%) patients with high-grade NMIBC had P/LP variants in DNA damage response (DDR) genes, most within the nucleotide excision repair (ERCC2/3) and homologous recombination repair (BRCA1, NBN, RAD50) pathways. Contrary to prior reports in NMIBC patients not receiving BCG, P/LP germline variants were not associated with worse recurrence-free or progression-free survival in patients treated with BCG. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support offering germline counseling and testing for all patients with high-grade bladder cancer, regardless of the initial tumor stage. Therapeutic strategies that target impaired DNA repair may benefit patients with high-grade NMIBC.

9.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 31(7): 1466-1472, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35511739

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A previous genome-wide association study identified several loci with genetic variants associated with prostate cancer survival time in two cohorts from Sweden. Whether these variants have an effect in other populations or if their effect is homogenous across the course of disease is unknown. METHODS: These variants were genotyped in a cohort of 1,298 patients. Samples were linked with age, PSA level, Gleason score, cancer stage at surgery, and times from surgery to biochemical recurrence to death from prostate cancer. SNPs rs2702185 and rs73055188 were tested for association with prostate cancer-specific survival time using a multivariate Cox proportional hazard model. SNP rs2702185 was further tested for association with time to biochemical recurrence and time from biochemical recurrence to death with a multi-state model. RESULTS: SNP rs2702185 at SMG7 was associated with prostate cancer-specific survival time, specifically the time from biochemical recurrence to prostate cancer death (HR, 2.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-4.5; P = 0.0014). Nine variants were in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with rs2702185; one, rs10737246, was found to be most likely to be functional based on LD patterns and overlap with open chromatin. Patterns of open chromatin and correlation with gene expression suggest that this SNP may affect expression of SMG7 in T cells. CONCLUSIONS: The SNP rs2702185 at the SMG7 locus is associated with time from biochemical recurrence to prostate cancer death, and its LD partner rs10737246 is predicted to be functional. IMPACT: These results suggest that future association studies of prostate cancer survival should consider various intervals over the course of disease.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte , Neoplasias da Próstata , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Cromatina , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/mortalidade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Antígeno Prostático Específico , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade
10.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 31(7): 1450-1459, 2022 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35477182

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The genetic factors that modulate risk for developing lung cancer have not been fully defined. Here, we sought to determine the prevalence and clinical significance of germline pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants (PV) in patients with advanced lung cancer. METHODS: We studied clinical and tumor characteristics of germline PV in 5,118 patients who underwent prospective genomic profiling using paired tumor-normal tissue samples in 468 cancer genes. RESULTS: Germline PV in high/moderate-penetrance genes were observed in 222 (4.3%) patients; of these, 193 patients had PV in DNA damage repair (DDR) pathway genes including BRCA2 (n = 54), CHEK2 (n = 30), and ATM (n = 26) that showed high rate of biallelic inactivation in tumors. BRCA2 heterozygotes with lung adenocarcinoma were more likely to be never smokers and had improved survival compared with noncarriers. Fourteen patients with germline PV in lung cancer predisposing genes (TP53, EGFR, BAP1, and MEN1) were diagnosed at younger age compared with noncarriers, and of tumor suppressors, 75% demonstrated biallelic inactivation in tumors. A significantly higher proportion of germline PV in high/moderate-penetrance genes were detected in high-risk patients who had either a family history of any cancer, multiple primary tumors, or early age at diagnosis compared with unselected patients (10.5% vs. 4.1%; P = 1.7e-04). CONCLUSIONS: These data underscore the biological and clinical importance of germline mutations in highly penetrant DDR genes as a risk factor for lung cancer. IMPACT: The family members of lung cancer patients harboring PV in cancer predisposing genes should be referred for genetic counseling and may benefit from proactive surveillance.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Células Germinativas , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Estudos Prospectivos
11.
Genet Med ; 24(6): 1187-1195, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35346574

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to characterize MSH6/PMS2-associated mismatch repair-deficient (MMR-D)/microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) tumors, given revised guidelines suggesting more modest phenotypes. METHODS: Patients who consented to Institutional Review Board-approved protocols of tumor/germline sequencing or Lynch syndrome registry at a single institution from February 2005 to January 2021 with germline, heterozygous MSH6/PMS2 pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants were identified. Clinical data were abstracted and correlated with MMR/microsatellite instability status using nonparametric tests. RESULTS: We identified 243 patients (133 sequencing, 110 registry) with germline MSH6/PMS2 pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants; 186 (77%) had >1 cancer. Of 261 pooled tumors, colorectal cancer (CRC) and endometrial cancer (EC) comprised 55% and 43% of cancers in MSH6 and PMS2, respectively; 192 tumors underwent molecular assessments and 122 (64%) were MMR-D/MSI-H (77 in MSH6, 45 in PMS2). MMR-D/MSI-H cancers included CRC (n = 56), EC (n = 35), small bowel cancer (n = 6), ovarian cancer (n = 6), urothelial cancer (n = 5), pancreas/biliary cancer (n = 4), gastric/esophageal cancer (n = 3), nonmelanoma skin tumors (n = 3), prostate cancer (n = 2), breast cancer (n = 1), and central nervous system/brain cancer (n = 1). Among MMR-D/MSI-H CRC and EC, median age of diagnosis was 51.5 (range = 27-80) and 55 (range = 39-74) years, respectively; 9 of 56 (16%) MMR-D/MSI-H CRCs were diagnosed at age <35 years. CONCLUSION: MSH6/PMS2 heterozygotes remain at risk for a broad spectrum of cancers, with 16% of MMR-D/MSI-H CRCs presenting before upper threshold of initiation of colonoscopy per guidelines.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA , Neoplasias do Endométrio , Idade de Início , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/metabolismo , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Endométrio/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Neoplasias do Endométrio/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/genética , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/metabolismo , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética
12.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 31(2): 362-371, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer survivors are developing more subsequent tumors. We sought to characterize patients with multiple (≥2) primary cancers (MPC) to assess associations and genetic mechanisms. METHODS: Patients were prospectively consented (01/2013-02/2019) to tumor-normal sequencing via a custom targeted panel (MSK-IMPACT). A subset consented to return of results of ≥76 cancer predisposition genes. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) 2004 rules for defining MPC were applied. Tumor pairs were created to assess relationships between cancers. Age-adjusted, sex-specific, standardized incidence ratios (SIR) for first to second cancer event combinations were calculated using SEER rates, adjusting for confounders and time of ascertainment. Associations were made with germline and somatic variants. RESULTS: Of 24,241 patients, 4,340 had MPC (18%); 20% were synchronous. Most (80%) had two primaries; however, 4% had ≥4 cancers. SIR analysis found lymphoma-lung, lymphoma-uterine, breast-brain, and melanoma-lung pairs in women and prostate-mesothelioma, prostate-sarcoma, melanoma-stomach, and prostate-brain pairs in men in excess of expected after accounting for synchronous tumors, known inherited cancer syndromes, and environmental exposures. Of 1,580 (36%) patients who received germline results, 324 (21%) had 361 pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants (PV), 159 (44%) in high penetrance genes. Of tumor samples analyzed, 55% exhibited loss of heterozygosity at the germline variant. In those with negative germline findings, melanoma, prostate, and breast cancers were common. CONCLUSIONS: We identified tumor pairs without known predisposing mutations that merit confirmation and will require novel strategies to elucidate genetic mechanisms of shared susceptibilities. IMPACT: If verified, patients with MPC with novel phenotypes may benefit from targeted cancer surveillance.


Assuntos
Melanoma , Neoplasias Primárias Múltiplas , Segunda Neoplasia Primária , Neoplasias da Próstata , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/epidemiologia , Melanoma/genética , Neoplasias Primárias Múltiplas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Primárias Múltiplas/genética , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/epidemiologia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética
13.
Eur Urol ; 81(3): 243-250, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34863587

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inherited germline TP53 pathogenic and likely pathogenic variants (gTP53) cause autosomal dominant multicancer predisposition including Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS). However, there is no known association of prostate cancer with gTP53. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether gTP53 predisposes to prostate cancer. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This multi-institutional retrospective study characterizes prostate cancer incidence in a cohort of LFS males and gTP53 prevalence in a prostate cancer cohort. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: We evaluated the spectrum of gTP53 variants and clinical features associated with prostate cancer. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: We identified 31 prostate cancer cases among 163 adult LFS males, including 26 of 54 aged ≥50 yr. Among 117 LFS males without prostate cancer at the time of genetic testing, six were diagnosed with prostate cancer over a median (interquartile range [IQR]) of 3.0 (1.3-7.2) yr of follow-up, a 25-fold increased risk (95% confidence interval [CI] 9.2-55; p < 0.0001). We identified gTP53 in 38 of 6850 males (0.6%) in the prostate cancer cohort, a relative risk 9.1-fold higher than that of population controls (95% CI 6.2-14; p < 0.0001; gnomAD). We observed hotspots at the sites of attenuated variants not associated with classic LFS. Two-thirds of available gTP53 prostate tumors had somatic inactivation of the second TP53 allele. Among gTP53 prostate cancer cases in this study, the median age at diagnosis was 56 (IQR: 51-62) yr, 44% had Gleason ≥8 tumors, and 29% had advanced disease at diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Complementary analyses of prostate cancer incidence in LFS males and gTP53 prevalence in prostate cancer cohorts suggest that gTP53 predisposes to aggressive prostate cancer. Prostate cancer should be considered as part of LFS screening protocols and TP53 considered in germline prostate cancer susceptibility testing. PATIENT SUMMARY: Inherited pathogenic variants in the TP53 gene are likely to predispose men to aggressive prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Li-Fraumeni , Neoplasias da Próstata , Adulto , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Síndrome de Li-Fraumeni/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Li-Fraumeni/genética , Síndrome de Li-Fraumeni/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
14.
J Gen Intern Med ; 37(8): 1862-1869, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34173196

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Engaging primary care providers (PCPs) in BRCA1/2 testing and results disclosure would increase testing access. The BRCA Founder OutReach (BFOR) study is a prospective study of BRCA1/2 founder mutation screening among individuals of Ashkenazi Jewish descent that sought to involve participants' PCPs in results disclosure. We used quantitative and qualitative methods to evaluate PCPs' perspectives, knowledge, and experience disclosing results in BFOR. METHODS: Among PCPs nominated by BFOR participants to disclose BRCA1/2 results, we assessed the proportion agreeing to disclose. To examine PCP's perspectives, knowledge, and willingness to disclose results, we surveyed 501 nominated PCPs. To examine PCPs' experiences disclosing results in BFOR, we surveyed 101 PCPs and conducted 10 semi-structured interviews. RESULTS: In the BFOR study overall, PCPs agreed to disclose their patient's results 40.5% of the time. Two hundred thirty-four PCPs (46.7%) responded to the initial survey. Responding PCPs were more likely to agree to disclose patients' results than non-responders (57.3% vs. 28.6%, p<0.001). Among all respondents, most felt very (19.7%) or somewhat (39.1%) qualified to share results. Among PCPs declining to disclose, insufficient knowledge was the most common reason. In multivariable logistic regression, feeling qualified was the only variable significantly associated with agreeing to disclose results (OR 6.53, 95% CI 3.31, 12.88). In post-disclosure surveys (response rate=55%), PCPs reported largely positive experiences. Interview findings suggested that although PCPs valued the study-provided educational materials, they desired better integration of results and decision support into workflows. CONCLUSION: Barriers exist to incorporating BRCA1/2 testing into primary care. Most PCPs declined to disclose their patients' BFOR results, although survey respondents were motivated and had positive disclosure experiences. PCP training and integrated decision support could be beneficial. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03351803), November 24, 2017.


Assuntos
Médicos de Atenção Primária , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
JCO Oncol Pract ; 18(4): e462-e471, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34652959

RESUMO

PURPOSE: With onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, telehealth became the primary modality for health care appointments. This study examined patient experiences with and preferences for telehealth at a cancer genetic counseling clinic throughout the first 6 months of the pandemic (March-August 2020). METHODS: An anonymous survey assessed patient demographics; usage and prior experience with technology; emotional responses, technical experiences, and satisfaction with the telehealth appointment (via the Genetic Counseling Satisfaction Scale and Visit-Specific Satisfaction Questionnaire); preference for future telehealth; and recommendation of telehealth to others. RESULTS: Among 380 respondents, most were highly satisfied with the telehealth appointment (with 65.6% and 66.4% of participants completing the Genetic Counseling Satisfaction Scale and Visit-Specific Satisfaction Questionnaire, respectively). Multivariable analyses indicated several notable findings. Adjusting for relevant covariates, participants with less education felt significantly more concerned about telehealth than those with highest educational attainment. Participants age 40-69 years were generally more comfortable, relieved, and grateful that their appointment was scheduled as telehealth than were those older than 70 years. Women were marginally more relieved and grateful for telehealth appointments than men. As the pandemic progressed, significantly more participants were highly satisfied with their telehealth appointment and participants trended toward having greater preferences for future telehealth use. Most participants (78.6%) would recommend telehealth to others, although 50.8% preferred future in-person appointments. CONCLUSION: As the pandemic progressed, patients expressed increasing preferences for and satisfaction with telehealth. Service delivery models that incorporate individual patient preferences should be developed with special consideration to factors such as age, sex, and education level.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Neoplasias , Telemedicina , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Aconselhamento Genético , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Pandemias , Preferência do Paciente , SARS-CoV-2
16.
JCO Oncol Pract ; 18(3): 201-209, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582274

RESUMO

Pathogenic germline variants underlie up to 20% of ovarian cancer (OC) and are associated with varying degrees of risk for OC. For mutations in high-penetrance genes such as BRCA1/2, the role of risk-reducing bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) in cancer prevention is well-established and improves mortality. However, in moderate-penetrance genes where the degree of risk for OC is less precisely defined, the role of RRSO is more controversial. Although national guidelines have evolved to incorporate gene-specific recommendations, studies demonstrate significant variations in practice. Given this, our multidisciplinary group has reviewed the available literature on risk estimates for genes associated with OC, incorporated levels of evidence, and set thresholds for consideration of RRSO. We found that the benefit of RRSO is well-established for pathogenic variants in BRCA1/2 as well as BRIP1 and RAD51C/D where the risk of OC is elevated beyond our threshold for RRSO. In PALB2, RRSO is particularly controversial as newer studies consistently demonstrate an increased risk of OC that is dependent on family history, making uniform recommendations challenging. Additionally, new guidelines for Lynch syndrome provide gene-specific risks, questioning the role of RRSO, and even hysterectomy, for MSH6 and PMS2 mutation carriers. Given these uncertainties, shared decision making should be used around RRSO with discussion of individual risk factors, family history, and adverse effects of surgery and premature menopause. Herein, we provide a clinical guide and counseling points.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ovarianas , Salpingo-Ooforectomia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Mutação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Ovarianas/cirurgia , Fatores de Risco
17.
Cancer Discov ; 12(4): 949-957, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34949653

RESUMO

Mosaic mutations in normal tissues can occur early in embryogenesis and be associated with hereditary cancer syndromes when affecting cancer susceptibility genes (CSG). Their contribution to apparently sporadic cancers is currently unknown. Analysis of paired tumor/blood sequencing data of 35,310 patients with cancer revealed 36 pathogenic mosaic variants affecting CSGs, most of which were not detected by prior clinical genetic testing. These CSG mosaic variants were consistently detected at varying variant allelic fractions in microdissected normal tissues (n = 48) from distinct embryonic lineages in all individuals tested, indicating their early embryonic origin, likely prior to gastrulation, and likely asymmetrical propagation. Tumor-specific biallelic inactivation of the CSG affected by a mosaic variant was observed in 91.7% (33/36) of cases, and tumors displayed the hallmark pathologic and/or genomic features of inactivation of the respective CSGs, establishing a causal link between CSG mosaic variants arising in early embryogenesis and the development of apparently sporadic cancers. SIGNIFICANCE: Here, we demonstrate that mosaic variants in CSGs arising in early embryogenesis contribute to the oncogenesis of seemingly sporadic cancers. These variants can be systematically detected through the analysis of tumor/normal sequencing data, and their detection may affect therapeutic decisions as well as prophylactic measures for patients and their offspring. See related commentary by Liggett and Sankaran, p. 889. This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 873.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Alelos , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Mutação , Neoplasias/genética
18.
Genet Med ; 24(3): 564-575, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34906490

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate uptake and follow-up using internet-assisted population genetic testing (GT) for BRCA1/2 Ashkenazi Jewish founder pathogenic variants (AJPVs). METHODS: Across 4 cities in the United States, from December 2017 to March 2020, individuals aged ≥25 years with ≥1 Ashkenazi Jewish grandparent were offered enrollment. Participants consented and enrolled online with chatbot and video education, underwent BRCA1/2 AJPV GT, and chose to receive results from their primary care provider (PCP) or study staff. Surveys were conducted at baseline, at 12 weeks, and annually for 5 years. RESULTS: A total of 5193 participants enrolled and 4109 (79.1%) were tested (median age = 54, female = 77.1%). Upon enrollment, 35.1% of participants selected a PCP to disclose results, and 40.5% of PCPs agreed. Of those tested, 138 (3.4%) were AJPV heterozygotes of whom 21 (15.2%) had no significant family history of cancer, whereas 86 (62.3%) had a known familial pathogenic variant. At 12 weeks, 85.5% of participants with AJPVs planned increased cancer screening; only 3.7% with negative results and a significant family history reported further testing. CONCLUSION: Although continued follow-up is needed, internet-enabled outreach can expand access to targeted GT using a medical model. Observed challenges for population genetic screening efforts include recruitment barriers, improving PCP engagement, and increasing uptake of additional testing when indicated.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Adulto , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Humanos , Internet , Judeus/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Estados Unidos
19.
Nat Genet ; 53(11): 1577-1585, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34741162

RESUMO

Human cancers arise from environmental, heritable and somatic factors, but how these mechanisms interact in tumorigenesis is poorly understood. Studying 17,152 prospectively sequenced patients with cancer, we identified pathogenic germline variants in cancer predisposition genes, and assessed their zygosity and co-occurring somatic alterations in the concomitant tumors. Two major routes to tumorigenesis were apparent. In carriers of pathogenic germline variants in high-penetrance genes (5.1% overall), lineage-dependent patterns of biallelic inactivation led to tumors exhibiting mechanism-specific somatic phenotypes and fewer additional somatic oncogenic drivers. Nevertheless, 27% of cancers in these patients, and most tumors in patients with pathogenic germline variants in lower-penetrance genes, lacked particular hallmarks of tumorigenesis associated with the germline allele. The dependence of tumors on pathogenic germline variants is variable and often dictated by both penetrance and lineage, a finding with implications for clinical management.


Assuntos
Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Neoplasias/genética , Carcinogênese/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Fenótipo
20.
Eur Urol Oncol ; 4(6): 993-1000, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34654685

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite guidelines recommending genetic counseling for patients with early-onset renal cell carcinoma (RCC), studies interrogating the spectrum of germline mutations and clinical associations in patients with early-onset RCC are lacking. OBJECTIVE: To define the germline genetic spectrum and clinical associations for patients with early-onset RCC diagnosed at age ≤46 yr who underwent genetic testing. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We retrospectively identified patients with early-onset RCC who underwent germline testing at our institution from February 2003 to June 2020. OUTCOME MEASUREMENT AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The frequency and spectrum of pathogenic/likely pathogenic (P/LP) variants were determined. Clinical characteristics associated with mutation status were analyzed using two-sample comparison (Fisher's exact or χ2 test). RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Of 232 patients with early-onset RCC, 50% had non-clear-cell histology, including unclassified RCC (12.1%), chromophobe RCC (9.7%), FH-deficient RCC (7.0%), papillary RCC (6.6%), and translocation-associated RCC (4.3%). Overall, 43.5% had metastatic disease. Germline P/LP variants were identified in 41 patients (17.7%), of which 21 (9.1%) were in an RCC-associated gene and 20 (8.6%) in a non-RCC-associated gene, including 17 (7.3%) in DNA damage repair genes such as BRCA1/2, ATM, and CHEK2. Factors associated with RCC P/LP variants include bilateral/multifocal renal tumors, non-clear-cell histology, and additional extrarenal primary malignancies. In patients with only a solitary clear-cell RCC, the prevalence of P/LP variants in RCC-associated and non-RCC-associated genes was 0% and 9.9%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with early-onset RCC had high frequencies of germline P/LP variants in genes associated with both hereditary RCC and other cancer predispositions. Germline RCC panel testing has the highest yield when patients have clinical phenotypes suggestive of underlying RCC gene mutations. Patients with early-onset RCC should undergo comprehensive assessment of personal and family history to guide appropriate genetic testing. PATIENT SUMMARY: In this study of 232 patients with early-onset kidney cancer who underwent genetic testing, we found a high prevalence of mutations in genes that increase the risk of cancer in both kidneys and other organs for patients and their at-risk family members. Our study suggests that patients with early-onset kidney cancer should undergo comprehensive genetic risk assessment.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais , Neoplasias Renais , Carcinoma de Células Renais/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Testes Genéticos , Células Germinativas , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Renais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos
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