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1.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 19(1): 77-102, 2021 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406487

RESUMO

The NCCN Guidelines for Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Breast, Ovarian, and Pancreatic focus primarily on assessment of pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants associated with increased risk of breast, ovarian, and pancreatic cancer and recommended approaches to genetic testing/counseling and management strategies in individuals with these pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants. This manuscript focuses on cancer risk and risk management for BRCA-related breast/ovarian cancer syndrome and Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Carriers of a BRCA1/2 pathogenic or likely pathogenic variant have an excessive risk for both breast and ovarian cancer that warrants consideration of more intensive screening and preventive strategies. There is also evidence that risks of prostate cancer and pancreatic cancer are elevated in these carriers. Li-Fraumeni syndrome is a highly penetrant cancer syndrome associated with a high lifetime risk for cancer, including soft tissue sarcomas, osteosarcomas, premenopausal breast cancer, colon cancer, gastric cancer, adrenocortical carcinoma, and brain tumors.

2.
medRxiv ; 2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33269365

RESUMO

Acquired somatic mutations in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (clonal hematopoiesis or CH) are associated with advanced age, increased risk of cardiovascular and malignant diseases, and decreased overall survival. 1-4 These adverse sequelae may be mediated by altered inflammatory profiles observed in patients with CH. 2,5,6 A pro-inflammatory immunologic profile is also associated with worse outcomes of certain infections, including SARS-CoV-2 and its associated disease Covid-19. 7,8 Whether CH predisposes to severe Covid-19 or other infections is unknown. Among 515 individuals with Covid-19 from Memorial Sloan Kettering (MSK) and the Korean Clonal Hematopoiesis (KoCH) consortia, we found that CH was associated with severe Covid-19 outcomes (OR=1.9, 95%=1.2-2.9, p=0.01). We further explored the relationship between CH and risk of other infections in 14,211 solid tumor patients at MSK. CH was significantly associated with risk of Clostridium Difficile (HR=2.0, 95% CI: 1.2-3.3, p=6×10 -3 ) and Streptococcus/Enterococcus infections (HR=1.5, 95% CI=1.1-2.1, p=5×10 -3 ). These findings suggest a relationship between CH and risk of severe infections that warrants further investigation.

3.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 396, 2020 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33327948

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Higher adiposity increases the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), but whether this relationship varies by anatomical sub-site or by sex is unclear. Further, the metabolic alterations mediating the effects of adiposity on CRC are not fully understood. METHODS: We examined sex- and site-specific associations of adiposity with CRC risk and whether adiposity-associated metabolites explain the associations of adiposity with CRC. Genetic variants from genome-wide association studies of body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, unadjusted for BMI; N = 806,810), and 123 metabolites from targeted nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics (N = 24,925), were used as instruments. Sex-combined and sex-specific Mendelian randomization (MR) was conducted for BMI and WHR with CRC risk (58,221 cases and 67,694 controls in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium, Colorectal Cancer Transdisciplinary Study, and Colon Cancer Family Registry). Sex-combined MR was conducted for BMI and WHR with metabolites, for metabolites with CRC, and for BMI and WHR with CRC adjusted for metabolite classes in multivariable models. RESULTS: In sex-specific MR analyses, higher BMI (per 4.2 kg/m2) was associated with 1.23 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.08, 1.38) times higher CRC odds among men (inverse-variance-weighted (IVW) model); among women, higher BMI (per 5.2 kg/m2) was associated with 1.09 (95% CI = 0.97, 1.22) times higher CRC odds. WHR (per 0.07 higher) was more strongly associated with CRC risk among women (IVW OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.08, 1.43) than men (IVW OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.81, 1.36). BMI or WHR was associated with 104/123 metabolites at false discovery rate-corrected P ≤ 0.05; several metabolites were associated with CRC, but not in directions that were consistent with the mediation of positive adiposity-CRC relations. In multivariable MR analyses, associations of BMI and WHR with CRC were not attenuated following adjustment for representative metabolite classes, e.g., the univariable IVW OR for BMI with CRC was 1.12 (95% CI = 1.00, 1.26), and this became 1.11 (95% CI = 0.99, 1.26) when adjusting for cholesterol in low-density lipoprotein particles. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that higher BMI more greatly raises CRC risk among men, whereas higher WHR more greatly raises CRC risk among women. Adiposity was associated with numerous metabolic alterations, but none of these explained associations between adiposity and CRC. More detailed metabolomic measures are likely needed to clarify the mechanistic pathways.

4.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199489

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence and clinical characteristics of small bowel adenocarcinomas (SBAs) in the setting of LS have not been well-studied. We characterized SBA according to DNA mismatch repair and/or microsatellite instability (MMR/MSI) and germline mutation status and compared clinical outcomes. METHODS: A single-institution review identified 100 SBAs. Tumors were evaluated for MSI via MSIsensor and/or corresponding MMR protein expression via immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. Germline DNA was analyzed for mutations in known cancer-predisposition genes, including MMR (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2, EPCAM). Clinical variables were correlated with MMR/MSI status. RESULTS: 26% (26/100; 95% CI: 18.4-35.4) of SBAs exhibited MMR deficiency (MMR-D). LS prevalence was 10% overall and 38.5% among MMR-D SBAs. Median age at SBA diagnosis was similar in non-LS MMR-D vs MMR-proficient (MMR-P) SBAs (65 vs 61, p= 0.75), but significantly younger in LS (47.5 vs 61; p=0.03). The prevalence of synchronous/metachronous cancers was 9% (6/67) in MMR-P vs 34.6% (9/26) in MMR-D SBA, with 66.7% (6/9) of these in LS (p=0.0002). In the MMR-P group, 52.2% (35/67) of patients presented with metastatic disease, compared to 23.1% (6/26) in the MMR-D group (p=0.008). In MMR-P stage I/II patients, 88.2% (15/17) recurred, compared to 18.2% (2/11) in the MMR-D group (p=0.0002). CONCLUSIONS: When compared to MMR-P SBA, MMR-D SBA is associated with earlier-stage disease and lower recurrence rates, similar to observations in colorectal cancer. With a 38.5% prevalence in MMR-D SBA, germline LS testing in MMR-D SBA is warranted.

5.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199492

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Nucleotide excision repair (NER) gene alterations constitute potential cancer therapeutic targets. We explore the prevalence of NER gene alterations across cancers and putative therapeutic strategies targeting these vulnerabilities. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We interrogated our institutional dataset with mutational data from more than 40,000 patients with cancer to assess the frequency of putative deleterious alterations in four key NER genes. Gene-edited isogenic pairs of wildtype and mutant ERCC2 or ERCC3 cell lines were created and used to assess response to several candidate drugs. RESULTS: We found that putative damaging germline and somatic alterations in NER genes are present with frequencies up to 10% across multiple cancer types. Both in vitro and in vivo studies showed significantly enhanced sensitivity to the sesquiterpene irofulven in cells harboring specific clinically observed heterozygous mutations in ERCC2 or ERCC3. Sensitivity of NER mutants to irofulven was greater than to a current standard of care agent, cisplatin. Hypomorphic ERCC2/3 mutant cells have impaired ability to repair irofulven induced DNA damage. Transcriptomic profiling of tumor tissues suggested co-dependencies between DNA repair pathways, indicating a potential benefit of combination therapies, which were confirmed by in vitro studies. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide novel insights into a synthetic lethal relationship between clinically observed NER gene deficiencies and sensitivity to irofulven and its potential synergistic combination with other drugs.

6.
Nat Genet ; 52(11): 1219-1226, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33106634

RESUMO

Acquired mutations are pervasive across normal tissues. However, understanding of the processes that drive transformation of certain clones to cancer is limited. Here we study this phenomenon in the context of clonal hematopoiesis (CH) and the development of therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (tMNs). We find that mutations are selected differentially based on exposures. Mutations in ASXL1 are enriched in current or former smokers, whereas cancer therapy with radiation, platinum and topoisomerase II inhibitors preferentially selects for mutations in DNA damage response genes (TP53, PPM1D, CHEK2). Sequential sampling provides definitive evidence that DNA damage response clones outcompete other clones when exposed to certain therapies. Among cases in which CH was previously detected, the CH mutation was present at tMN diagnosis. We identify the molecular characteristics of CH that increase risk of tMN. The increasing implementation of clinical sequencing at diagnosis provides an opportunity to identify patients at risk of tMN for prevention strategies.

7.
J Thorac Oncol ; 15(12): 1871-1879, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866655

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in the world, and lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is its most prevalent subtype. Symptoms are often found in advanced disease in which treatment options are limited. Identifying genetic risk factors will enable better identification of high-risk individuals. METHODS: To identify LUAD risk genes, we performed a case-control association study for gene-level burden of rare, deleterious variants (RDVs) in germline whole-exome sequencing data of 1083 patients with LUAD and 7650 controls, split into discovery and validation cohorts. Of these, we performed whole-exome sequencing on 97 patients and acquired the rest from multiple public databases. We annotated all rare variants for pathogenicity conservatively, using the guidelines of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and ClinVar curation, and investigated gene-level RDV burden using penalized logistic regression. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: We discovered and replicated the finding that the burden of germline ATM RDVs was significantly higher in patients with LUAD versus controls (combined cohort OR = 4.6; p = 1.7e-04; 95% confidence interval = 2.2-9.5; 1.21% of cases; 0.24% of controls). Germline ATM RDVs were also enriched in an independent clinical cohort of 1594 patients from the MSK-IMPACT study (0.63%). In addition, we observed that an Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) founder ATM variant, rs56009889, was statistically significantly more frequent in AJ cases versus AJ controls in our cohort (combined AJ cohort OR = 2.7, p = 6.9e-03, 95% confidence interval = 1.3-5.3). CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that ATM is a moderate-penetrance LUAD risk gene and that LUAD may be a part of the ATM-related cancer syndrome spectrum. Individuals with ATM RDVs are at an elevated LUAD risk and can benefit from increased surveillance (particularly computed tomography scanning), early detection, and chemoprevention programs, improving prognosis.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32954205

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Women with breast cancer have a 4%-16% lifetime risk of a second primary cancer. Whether mutations in genes other than BRCA1/2 are enriched in patients with breast and another primary cancer over those with a single breast cancer (S-BC) is unknown. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We identified pathogenic germline mutations in 17 cancer susceptibility genes in patients with BRCA1/2-negative breast cancer in 2 different cohorts: cohort 1, high-risk breast cancer program (multiple primary breast cancer [MP-BC], n = 551; S-BC, n = 449) and cohort 2, familial breast cancer research study (MP-BC, n = 340; S-BC, n = 1,464). Mutation rates in these 2 cohorts were compared with a control data set (Exome Aggregation Consortium [ExAC]). RESULTS: Overall, pathogenic mutation rates for autosomal, dominantly inherited genes were higher in patients with MP-BC versus S-BC in both cohorts (8.5% v 4.9% [P = .02] and 7.1% v 4.2% [P = .03]). There were differences in individual gene mutation rates between cohorts. In both cohorts, younger age at first breast cancer was associated with higher mutation rates; the age of non-breast cancers was unrelated to mutation rate. TP53 and MSH6 mutations were significantly enriched in patients with MP-BC but not S-BC, whereas ATM and PALB2 mutations were significantly enriched in both groups compared with ExAC. CONCLUSION: Mutation rates are at least 7% in all patients with BRCA1/2 mutation-negative MP-BC, regardless of age at diagnosis of breast cancer, with mutation rates up to 25% in patients with a first breast cancer diagnosed at age < 30 years. Our results suggest that all patients with breast cancer with a second primary cancer, regardless of age of onset, should undergo multigene panel testing.

9.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 20(1): 210, 2020 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807084

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence is needed regarding effective incentive strategies to increase clinician survey response rates. Cash cards are increasingly used as survey incentives; they are appealing because of their convenience and because in some cases their value can be reclaimed by investigators if not used. However, their effectiveness in clinician surveys is not known. In this study within the BRCA Founder OutReach (BFOR) study, a clinical trial of population-based BRCA1/2 mutation screening, we compared the use of upfront cash cards requiring email activation versus checks as clinician survey incentives. METHODS: Participants receiving BRCA1/2 testing in the BFOR study could elect to receive their results from their primary care provider (PCP, named by the patient) or from a geneticist associated with the study. In order to understand PCPs' knowledge, attitudes, experiences and willingness to disclose results we mailed paper surveys to the first 501 primary care providers (PCPs) in New York, Boston, Los Angeles and Philadelphia who were nominated by study participants to disclose their BRCA1/2 mutation results obtained through the study. We used alternating assignment stratified by city to assign the first 303 clinicians to receive a $50 up-front incentive as a cash card (N = 155) or check (N = 148). The cash card required PCPs to send an activation email in order to be used. We compared response rates by incentive type, adjusting for PCP characteristics and study site. RESULTS: In unadjusted analyses, PCPs who received checks were more likely to respond to the survey than those who received cash cards (54.1% versus 41.9%, p = 0.046); this remained true when we adjusted for provider characteristics (OR for checks 1.61, 95% CI 1.01, 2.59). No other clinician characteristics had a statistically significant association with response rates in adjusted analyses. When we included an interaction term for incentive type and city, the favorable impact of checks on response rates was evident only in Los Angeles and Philadelphia. CONCLUSIONS: An up-front cash card incentive requiring email activation may be less effective in eliciting clinician responses than up-front checks. However, the benefit of checks for clinician response rates may depend on clinicians' geographic location. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT03351803 ), November 24, 2017.

10.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(3): 432-444, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758450

RESUMO

Accurate colorectal cancer (CRC) risk prediction models are critical for identifying individuals at low and high risk of developing CRC, as they can then be offered targeted screening and interventions to address their risks of developing disease (if they are in a high-risk group) and avoid unnecessary screening and interventions (if they are in a low-risk group). As it is likely that thousands of genetic variants contribute to CRC risk, it is clinically important to investigate whether these genetic variants can be used jointly for CRC risk prediction. In this paper, we derived and compared different approaches to generating predictive polygenic risk scores (PRS) from genome-wide association studies (GWASs) including 55,105 CRC-affected case subjects and 65,079 control subjects of European ancestry. We built the PRS in three ways, using (1) 140 previously identified and validated CRC loci; (2) SNP selection based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) clumping followed by machine-learning approaches; and (3) LDpred, a Bayesian approach for genome-wide risk prediction. We tested the PRS in an independent cohort of 101,987 individuals with 1,699 CRC-affected case subjects. The discriminatory accuracy, calculated by the age- and sex-adjusted area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC), was highest for the LDpred-derived PRS (AUC = 0.654) including nearly 1.2 M genetic variants (the proportion of causal genetic variants for CRC assumed to be 0.003), whereas the PRS of the 140 known variants identified from GWASs had the lowest AUC (AUC = 0.629). Based on the LDpred-derived PRS, we are able to identify 30% of individuals without a family history as having risk for CRC similar to those with a family history of CRC, whereas the PRS based on known GWAS variants identified only top 10% as having a similar relative risk. About 90% of these individuals have no family history and would have been considered average risk under current screening guidelines, but might benefit from earlier screening. The developed PRS offers a way for risk-stratified CRC screening and other targeted interventions.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genoma Humano/genética , Medição de Risco , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Teorema de Bayes , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco
11.
Cancer Res ; 80(17): 3732-3744, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32675277

RESUMO

Germline mutations in TP53 cause a rare high penetrance cancer syndrome, Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS). Here, we identified a rare TP53 tetramerization domain missense mutation, c.1000G>C;p.G334R, in a family with multiple late-onset LFS-spectrum cancers. Twenty additional c.1000G>C probands and one c.1000G>A proband were identified, and available tumors showed biallelic somatic inactivation of TP53. The majority of families were of Ashkenazi Jewish descent, and the TP53 c.1000G>C allele was found on a commonly inherited chromosome 17p13.1 haplotype. Transient transfection of the p.G334R allele conferred a mild defect in colony suppression assays. Lymphoblastoid cell lines from the index family in comparison with TP53 normal lines showed that although classical p53 target gene activation was maintained, a subset of p53 target genes (including PCLO, PLTP, PLXNB3, and LCN15) showed defective transactivation when treated with Nutlin-3a. Structural analysis demonstrated thermal instability of the G334R-mutant tetramer, and the G334R-mutant protein showed increased preponderance of mutant conformation. Clinical case review in comparison with classic LFS cohorts demonstrated similar rates of pediatric adrenocortical tumors and other LFS component cancers, but the latter at significantly later ages of onset. Our data show that TP53 c.1000G>C;p.G334R is found predominantly in Ashkenazi Jewish individuals, causes a mild defect in p53 function, and leads to low penetrance LFS. SIGNIFICANCE: TP53 c.1000C>G;p.G334R is a pathogenic, Ashkenazi Jewish-predominant mutation associated with a familial multiple cancer syndrome in which carriers should undergo screening and preventive measures to reduce cancer risk.

12.
J Community Genet ; 11(4): 501-504, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32676930

RESUMO

We describe utilization of clinical genetic services among survivors of childhood and young adult cancer after participation in a genetic registry. Clinical genetic counselors flagged 162 out of 1069 pedigrees (15.2%) as suggestive of inheritable cancer susceptibility, resulting in 126 (11.8%) referral letters. Following delivery of the referral letters, 19 (15.1%) participants completed clinical genetic counseling, 16 (12.7%) received testing, and four (3.2%) were found to have actionable results. Our results suggest a discordance between reported willingness to undergo genetic counseling and real-world utilization.

13.
Fam Cancer ; 19(4): 315-322, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32356167

RESUMO

Germline mutations in the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes cause Lynch syndrome. Classification and interpretation of intronic variants, especially those outside the consensus ± 1 ~ 2 splice sites are challenging as it is uncertain whether such variants would affect splicing accuracy and efficiency. The assessment of the pathogenicity of splice site variants in MLH1 is further complicated by the various isoforms due to alternative splicing. In this report, we describe a 42-year-old female with Lynch syndrome who carries a germline variant, MLH1 c.678-3T>A, in the splice acceptor site of intron 8. Functional studies and semiquantitative analysis demonstrated that this variant causes a significant increase in the transcripts with exon 9 or exon 9 and 10 deletions, which presumably leads to premature protein truncation or abnormal protein. In addition, we also observed MSI-H and loss of MLH1 by IHC in patient's tumor tissue. This variant also segregated with Lynch Syndrome related cancers in three affected family members. Based on these evidence, the MLH1 c.678-3T>A variant is considered pathogenic.

14.
Cancer ; 126(13): 3114-3121, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32320050

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Constitutional or somatic mosaic epimutations are increasingly recognized as a mechanism of gene dysregulation resulting in cancer susceptibility. Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome is the cancer predisposition syndrome most commonly associated with epimutation and is extremely variable in its phenotypic presentation, which can include isolated tumors. Because to the authors' knowledge large-scale germline DNA sequencing studies have not included methylation analysis, the percentage of pediatric cancer predisposition that is due to epimutations is unknown. METHODS: Germline methylation testing at the 11p15.5 locus was performed in blood for 24 consecutive patients presenting with hepatoblastoma (3 patients) or Wilms tumor (21 patients). RESULTS: Six individuals with Wilms tumor and 1 patient with hepatoblastoma were found to have low-level gain of methylation at imprinting control 1, and a child with hepatoblastoma was found to have loss of methylation at imprinting control 2. The loss of methylation at imprinting control 2 was found to be maternally inherited, despite not being associated with any detectable genomic alteration. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, 33% of patients (8 of 24 patients) with Wilms tumor or hepatoblastoma were found to have an epigenetic susceptibility that was detectable in the blood. It is interesting to note that low-level gain of methylation at imprinting control 1 predominantly was detected in females with bilateral Wilms tumors. Further studies in larger cohorts are needed to determine the efficacy of testing all patients with Wilms tumor or hepatoblastoma for 11p15.5 epimutations in the blood as part of DNA analysis because this hallmark of predisposition will not be detected by sequencing-based approaches and detecting a cancer predisposition may modify treatment.

15.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 18(4): 380-391, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32259785

RESUMO

The NCCN Guidelines for Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Breast, Ovarian, and Pancreatic provide recommendations for genetic testing and counseling for hereditary cancer syndromes, and risk management recommendations for patients who are diagnosed with syndromes associated with an increased risk of these cancers. The NCCN panel meets at least annually to review comments, examine relevant new data, and reevaluate and update recommendations. These NCCN Guidelines Insights summarize the panel's discussion and most recent recommendations regarding criteria for high-penetrance genes associated with breast and ovarian cancer beyond BRCA1/2, pancreas screening and genes associated with pancreatic cancer, genetic testing for the purpose of systemic therapy decision-making, and testing for people with Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry.

16.
Public Health Genomics ; 23(1-2): 6-19, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191943

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Genetic risk modifier testing (GRMT), an emerging form of genetic testing based on common single nucleotide polymorphisms and polygenic risk scores, has the potential to refine estimates of BRCA1/2 mutation carriers' breast cancer risks. However, for women to benefit from GRMT, effective approaches for communicating this novel risk information are needed. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate patient preferences regarding risk communication materials for GRMT. METHODS: We developed four separate presentations (panel of genes, icon array, verbal risk estimate, graphical risk estimate) of hypothetical GRMT results, each using varying risk communication strategies to convey different information elements including number of risk modifier variants present, variant prevalence among BRCA1/2 carriers, and implications and uncertainties of test results for cancer risk. Thirty BRCA1/2 carriers evaluated these materials (randomized to low, moderate, or high breast cancer risk versions). Qualitative and quantitative data were obtained through in-person interviews. RESULTS: Across risk versions, participants preferred the presentation of the graphical risk estimate, often in combination with the verbal risk estimate. Interest in GRMT was high; 76.7% of participants wanted their own GRMT. Participants valued the potential for GRMT to clarify their cancer susceptibility and provide actionable information. Many (65.5%) anticipated that GRMT would make risk management decisions easier. CONCLUSIONS: Women with BRCA1/2 mutations could be highly receptive to GRMT, and the minimal amount of necessary information to be included in result risk communication materials includes graphical and verbal estimates of future cancer risk. Findings will inform clinical translation of GRMT in a manner consistent with patients' preferences.

17.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(4): 860-870, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Results from epidemiologic studies examining polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and colorectal cancer risk are inconsistent. Mendelian randomization may strengthen causal inference from observational studies. Given their shared metabolic pathway, examining the combined effects of aspirin/NSAID use with PUFAs could help elucidate an association between PUFAs and colorectal cancer risk. METHODS: Information was leveraged from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) regarding PUFA-associated SNPs to create weighted genetic scores (wGS) representing genetically predicted circulating blood PUFAs for 11,016 non-Hispanic white colorectal cancer cases and 13,732 controls in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO). Associations per SD increase in the wGS were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. Interactions between PUFA wGSs and aspirin/NSAID use on colorectal cancer risk were also examined. RESULTS: Modest colorectal cancer risk reductions were observed per SD increase in circulating linoleic acid [ORLA = 0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.93-0.98; P = 5.2 × 10-4] and α-linolenic acid (ORALA = 0.95; 95% CI = 0.92-0.97; P = 5.4 × 10-5), whereas modest increased risks were observed for arachidonic (ORAA = 1.06; 95% CI = 1.03-1.08; P = 3.3 × 10-5), eicosapentaenoic (OREPA = 1.04; 95% CI = 1.01-1.07; P = 2.5 × 10-3), and docosapentaenoic acids (ORDPA = 1.03; 95% CI = 1.01-1.06; P = 1.2 × 10-2). Each of these effects was stronger among aspirin/NSAID nonusers in the stratified analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that higher circulating shorter-chain PUFAs (i.e., LA and ALA) were associated with reduced colorectal cancer risk, whereas longer-chain PUFAs (i.e., AA, EPA, and DPA) were associated with an increased colorectal cancer risk. IMPACT: The interaction of PUFAs with aspirin/NSAID use indicates a shared colorectal cancer inflammatory pathway. Future research should continue to improve PUFA genetic instruments to elucidate the independent effects of PUFAs on colorectal cancer.

18.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(13): 1389-1397, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31922918

RESUMO

PATIENTS AND METHODS: Probands with newly diagnosed cancer-associated pathogenic variants were offered facilitated cascade testing whereby the genetics team identified and contacted ARRs by telephone to disclose the familial pathogenic variant and offer telephone counseling and mailed saliva testing. Results and guideline-based recommendations were reviewed by telephone and shared with the primary care physician. RESULTS: Thirty probands were enrolled, and 114 ARRs were identified. Twelve ARRs were excluded (lived outside of the United States, n = 5; proband did not approve of contact, n = 7). Among 102 ARRs telephoned, contact was established with 95 (93%). Among 114 identified ARRs, 66 (58%) completed genetic testing. Among those completing testing, 27 (41%) carried the familial pathogenic variant. Surveys of ARRs at the time of genetic testing and 6 months later demonstrated low levels of anxiety, depression, distress, and uncertainty and high levels of satisfaction with testing. At 6 months, 7 ARRs with pathogenic variants had undergone cancer surveillance interventions and 4 had undergone cancer risk-reducing surgery. CONCLUSION: Facilitated cascade testing with telephone genetic counseling and mailed saliva kits resulted in high testing uptake among ARRs. Positive genetic testing resulted in utilization of genetically targeted primary disease prevention at short-term follow-up. Facilitated cascade testing is a straightforward, low-cost, easily implemented strategy with significant potential to promote early detection for affected ARRs and reduce cancer mortality and should be evaluated in larger scale clinical trials.

19.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(13): 1398-1408, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31922925

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Despite advances in DNA sequencing technology and expanded medical guidelines, the vast majority of individuals carrying pathogenic variants of common cancer susceptibility genes have yet to be identified. An alternative to population-wide genetic screening of healthy individuals would exploit the trend for genetic testing at the time of cancer diagnosis to guide therapy and prevention, combined with augmented familial diffusion or "cascade" of genomic risk information. METHODS: Using a multiple linear regression model, we derived the time interval to detect an estimated 3.9 million individuals in the United States with a pathogenic variant in 1 of 18 cancer susceptibility genes. We analyzed the impact of the proportion of incident patients sequenced, varying observed frequencies of pathogenic germline variants in patients with cancer, differential rates of diffusion of genetic information in families, and family size. RESULTS: The time to detect inherited cancer predisposing variants in the population is affected by the extent of cascade to first-, second-, and third-degree relatives (FDR, SDR, TDR, respectively), family size, prevalence of mutations in patients with cancer, and the proportion of patients with cancer sequenced. In a representative scenario, assuming a 7% prevalence of pathogenic variants across cancer types, an average family size of 3 per generation, and 15% of incident patients with cancer in the United States undergoing germline testing, the time to detect all 3.9 million individuals with pathogenic variants in 18 cancer susceptibility genes would be 46.2, 22.3, 13.6, and 9.9 years if 10%, 25%, 50%, and 70%, respectively, of all FDR, SDR, and TDR were tested for familial mutations. CONCLUSION: Peridiagnostic and cascade cancer genetic testing offers an alternative strategy to achieve population-wide identification of cancer susceptibility mutations.

20.
Hum Mutat ; 41(1): 103-109, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444830

RESUMO

Fumarate hydratase (FH) mutations underpin the autosomal recessive syndrome. FH deficiency and the autosomal dominant syndrome hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC). The FH c.1431_1433dupAAA (p.Lys477dup) genomic alteration has been conclusively shown to contribute to FH deficiency when occurring with another FH germline alteration. However, a sufficiently large dataset has been lacking to conclusively determine its clinical significance to cancer predisposition in the heterozygous state. We reviewed a series of 7,571 patients with cancer who received germline results through MSK-IMPACT testing at the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. The FH c.1431_1433dupAAA (p.Lys477dup) variant was detected in 24 individuals, none of whom was affected with renal cancer. Eleven of the 372 patients with renal cancer were identified to carried pathogenic FH variants associated with HLRCC. None of these 372 patients with renal cancer carried the FH c.1431_1433dupAAA variant. Our data indicate the FH c.1431_1433dupAAA is not associated with cancer including renal cell carcinoma.

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