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1.
BMJ Open ; 9(10): e031092, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594892

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Genomic sequencing has rapidly transitioned into clinical practice, improving diagnosis and treatment options for patients with hereditary disorders. However, large-scale implementation of genomic sequencing faces challenges, especially with regard to the return of incidental results, which refer to genetic variants uncovered during testing that are unrelated to the primary disease under investigation, but of potential clinical significance. High-quality evidence evaluating health outcomes and costs of receiving incidental results is critical for the adoption of genomic sequencing into clinical care and to understand the unintended consequences of adoption of genomic sequencing. We aim to evaluate the health outcomes and costs of receiving incidental results for patients undergoing genomic sequencing. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will compare health outcomes and costs of receiving, versus not receiving, incidental results for adult patients with cancer undergoing genomic sequencing in a mixed-methods randomised controlled trial. Two hundred and sixty patients who have previously undergone first or second-tier genetic testing for cancer and received uninformative results will be recruited from familial cancer clinics in Toronto, Ontario. Participants in both arms will receive cancer-related results. Participants in the intervention arm have the option to receive incidental results. Our primary outcome is psychological distress at 2 weeks following return of results. Secondary outcomes include behavioural consequences, clinical and personal utility assessed over the 12 months after results are returned and health service use and costs at 12 months and 5 years. A subset of participants and providers will complete qualitative interviews about utility of incidental results. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study has been approved by Clinical Trials Ontario Streamlined Research Ethics Review System that provides ethical review and oversight for multiple sites participating in the same clinical trial in Ontario.Results from the trial will be shared through stakeholder workshops, national and international conferences, and peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03597165.

2.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600786

RESUMO

We previously identified five SNPs at four susceptibility loci for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in individuals of European ancestry through a large genome-wide association study (GWAS). To further elucidate genetic susceptibility to DLBCL, we sought to validate 2 loci at 3q13.33 and 3p24.1 that were suggestive in the original GWAS with additional genotyping. In the meta-analysis (5,662 cases and 9,237 controls) of the four original GWAS discovery scans and three replication studies, the 3q13.33 locus (rs9831894; minor allele frequency [MAF]=0.40) was associated with DLBCL risk (OR=0.83, P=3.62x10-13). rs9831894 is in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with additional variants that are part of a super-enhancer that physically interacts with promoters of CD86 and ILDR1. In the meta-analysis (5,510 cases and 12,817 controls) of the four GWAS discovery scans and four replication studies, the 3p24.1 locus (rs6773363; MAF=0.45) was also associated with DLBCL risk (OR=1.20, P=2.31x10-12). This SNP is 29,426 bp upstream of the nearest gene EOMES and in LD with additional SNPs that are part of a highly lineage-specific and tumor-acquired super-enhancer that shows long-range interaction with AZI2 promoter. These loci provide additional evidence for the role of immune function in the etiology of DLBCL, the most common lymphoma subtype.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645350

RESUMO

We describe the Clinical Genome Resource (ClinGen) cancer-related curation activities and the importance of curation to the evolving state of variant interpretation in a clinical context for both pediatric and adult cancer patients. We highlight specific examples from the CDH1 and PTEN Variant Curation Expert Panels (VCEPs) of the FDA-recognized process by which ClinGen VCEPs specify the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics/Association of Molecular Pathology evidence code to develop variant classifications. We also review gene curations performed within the Hereditary Cancer Clinical Domain. We describe the parallel efforts for curation of somatic cancer variants from the Somatic Cancer Working Group. The ClinGen Germline/Somatic Committee is working to improve incorporation of both hereditary and somatic variant data to aid clinical interpretation. These ClinGen efforts rely on broad data sharing and detailed phenotypic and molecular information from published case studies to provide expert-curated variant interpretation to the cancer community.

4.
Hum Mutat ; 2019 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444830

RESUMO

Fumarate hydratase (FH) mutations underpin the autosomal recessive syndrome. FH deficiency and the autosomal dominant syndrome hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC). The FH c.1431_1433dupAAA (p.Lys477dup) genomic alteration has been conclusively shown to contribute to FH deficiency when occurring with another FH germline alteration. However, a sufficiently large dataset has been lacking to conclusively determine its clinical significance to cancer predisposition in the heterozygous state. We reviewed a series of 7,571 patients with cancer who received germline results through MSK-IMPACT testing at the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. The FH c.1431_1433dupAAA (p.Lys477dup) variant was detected in 24 individuals, none of whom was affected with renal cancer. Eleven of the 372 patients with renal cancer were identified to carried pathogenic FH variants associated with HLRCC. None of these 372 patients with renal cancer carried the FH c.1431_1433dupAAA variant. Our data indicate the FH c.1431_1433dupAAA is not associated with cancer including renal cell carcinoma.

5.
Nature ; 571(7766): 576-579, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292550

RESUMO

Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 predispose individuals to certain cancers1-3, and disease-specific screening and preventative strategies have reduced cancer mortality in affected patients4,5. These classical tumour-suppressor genes have tumorigenic effects associated with somatic biallelic inactivation, although haploinsufficiency may also promote the formation and progression of tumours6,7. Moreover, BRCA1/2-mutant tumours are often deficient in the repair of double-stranded DNA breaks by homologous recombination8-13, and consequently exhibit increased therapeutic sensitivity to platinum-containing therapy and inhibitors of poly-(ADP-ribose)-polymerase (PARP)14,15. However, the phenotypic and therapeutic relevance of mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 remains poorly defined in most cancer types. Here we show that in the 2.7% and 1.8% of patients with advanced-stage cancer and germline pathogenic or somatic loss-of-function alterations in BRCA1/2, respectively, selective pressure for biallelic inactivation, zygosity-dependent phenotype penetrance, and sensitivity to PARP inhibition were observed only in tumour types associated with increased heritable cancer risk in BRCA1/2 carriers (BRCA-associated cancer types). Conversely, among patients with non-BRCA-associated cancer types, most carriers of these BRCA1/2 mutation types had evidence for tumour pathogenesis that was independent of mutant BRCA1/2. Overall, mutant BRCA is an indispensable founding event for some tumours, but in a considerable proportion of other cancers, it appears to be biologically neutral-a difference predominantly conditioned by tumour lineage-with implications for disease pathogenesis, screening, design of clinical trials and therapeutic decision-making.

6.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 12(9): 599-608, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337648

RESUMO

Germline mutations in BRCA1/2 are risk factors for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The aim of this study was to evaluate whether results of surveillance for PDAC in high risk individuals (HRI) differ between those with and without a pathogenic BRCA1/2 mutation. This prospective study was conducted within the Pancreatic Tumor Registry at a major cancer center. There were 83 HRIs with ≥1 first-degree relative with PDAC who underwent surveillance and testing for pathogenic germline mutations in BRCA1/2 A secondary analysis includes 18 HRIs with known mutations in BRCA1/2 but with weaker family history. HRIs were evaluated over time using magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and endoscopic ultrasound when indicated by MRCP findings. We reviewed imaging results, blinded to mutation status. Demographic information was obtained from interviewer-administered questionnaires. The outcome was the proportion with any pancreatic abnormality identified at initial or follow-up surveillance. Among the 83 HRIs in the main analysis, 48 had a mutation in BRCA1/2 and 35 did not. Overall, 16 of 48 (33%) BRCA1/2-positive and 13 of 35 (37%) BRCA1/2-negative participants had pancreatic abnormalities on imaging; in each group, all but one finding was an intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm. Among those with pathogenic mutations but weaker family history, results were similar: 7 of 18 (39%) with pancreatic abnormalities. Results of surveillance for pancreatic abnormalities on imaging are similar regardless of BRCA1/2 mutation status. While the results from this small study need confirmation in other studies, at present there does not appear to be increased yield from targeting individuals with BRCA1/2 mutations for surveillance.

7.
Eur Urol ; 76(6): 754-764, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326218

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Hereditary cases account for about 5% of all cases of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). With advances in next-generation sequencing, several new hereditary syndromes have been described in the last few years. OBJECTIVE: To review and summarise the recent preclinical and clinical literature in hereditary renal cancer. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A systematic review of the literature was performed in November 2018 using PubMed and OMIM databases, with an emphasis on kidney cancer, genetics and genomics, clinical criteria, and management. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Several autosomal dominant hereditary RCC syndromes have been described, including those related to germline pathogenic variants in VHL, MET, FH, TSC1/TSC2, FLCN, SDHA/B/C/D, BAP1, CDC73, and MITF. Clinical spectrum of SDH, BAP1, and MITF is still being defined, although these appear to be associated with a lower incidence of RCC. FH and likely BAP1 RCC are associated with more aggressive disease. Preclinical and clinical studies show that using systemic therapy that exploits specific genetic pathways is a promising strategy. CONCLUSIONS: There are several well-described hereditary RCC syndromes, as well as recently identified ones, for which the full clinical spectrum is yet to be defined. In the new era of precision medicine, identification of these syndromes may play an important role in management and systemic treatment selection. PATIENT SUMMARY: This review covers updates in the diagnosis and management of familial kidney cancer syndromes. We describe updates in testing and management of the most common syndromes such as von Hippel-Lindau, and hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma. We also provide insights into recently described familial kidney cancer syndromes.

9.
Hum Mutat ; 40(10): 1781-1796, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112363

RESUMO

BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) pathogenic sequence variants (PSVs) confer elevated risks of multiple cancers. However, most BRCA1/2 PSVs reports focus on European ancestry individuals. Knowledge of the PSV distribution in African descent individuals is poorly understood. We undertook a systematic review of the published literature and publicly available databases reporting BRCA1/2 PSVs also accessed the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) database to identify African or African descent individuals. Using these data, we inferred which of the BRCA PSVs were likely to be of African continental origin. Of the 43,817 BRCA1/2 PSV carriers in the CIMBA database, 469 (1%) were of African descent. Additional African descent individuals were identified in public databases (n = 291) and the literature (n = 601). We identified 164 unique BRCA1 and 173 unique BRCA2 PSVs in individuals of African ancestry. Of these, 83 BRCA1 and 91 BRCA2 PSVs are of likely or possible African origin. We observed numerous differences in the distribution of PSV type and function in African origin versus non-African origin PSVs. Research in populations of African ancestry with BRCA1/2 PSVs is needed to provide the information needed for clinical management and decision-making in African descent individuals worldwide.

10.
Blood Adv ; 3(7): 1039-1046, 2019 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30940639

RESUMO

Recent studies have identified germline mutations in TP53, PAX5, ETV6, and IKZF1 in kindreds with familial acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), but the genetic basis of ALL in many kindreds is unknown despite mutational analysis of the exome. Here, we report a germline deletion of ETV6 identified by linkage and structural variant analysis of whole-genome sequencing data segregating in a kindred with thrombocytopenia, B-progenitor acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The 75-nt deletion removed the ETV6 exon 7 splice acceptor, resulting in exon skipping and protein truncation. The ETV6 deletion was also identified by optimal structural variant analysis of exome sequencing data. These findings identify a new mechanism of germline predisposition in ALL and implicate ETV6 germline variation in predisposition to lymphoma. Importantly, these data highlight the importance of germline structural variant analysis in the search for germline variants predisposing to familial leukemia.

11.
JAMA Oncol ; 5(4): 576-577, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30816934
12.
Hum Genet ; 138(4): 307-326, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30820706

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies have reported 56 independently associated colorectal cancer (CRC) risk variants, most of which are non-coding and believed to exert their effects by modulating gene expression. The computational method PrediXcan uses cis-regulatory variant predictors to impute expression and perform gene-level association tests in GWAS without directly measured transcriptomes. In this study, we used reference datasets from colon (n = 169) and whole blood (n = 922) transcriptomes to test CRC association with genetically determined expression levels in a genome-wide analysis of 12,186 cases and 14,718 controls. Three novel associations were discovered from colon transverse models at FDR ≤ 0.2 and further evaluated in an independent replication including 32,825 cases and 39,933 controls. After adjusting for multiple comparisons, we found statistically significant associations using colon transcriptome models with TRIM4 (discovery P = 2.2 × 10- 4, replication P = 0.01), and PYGL (discovery P = 2.3 × 10- 4, replication P = 6.7 × 10- 4). Interestingly, both genes encode proteins that influence redox homeostasis and are related to cellular metabolic reprogramming in tumors, implicating a novel CRC pathway linked to cell growth and proliferation. Defining CRC risk regions as one megabase up- and downstream of one of the 56 independent risk variants, we defined 44 non-overlapping CRC-risk regions. Among these risk regions, we identified genes associated with CRC (P < 0.05) in 34/44 CRC-risk regions. Importantly, CRC association was found for two genes in the previously reported 2q25 locus, CXCR1 and CXCR2, which are potential cancer therapeutic targets. These findings provide strong candidate genes to prioritize for subsequent laboratory follow-up of GWAS loci. This study is the first to implement PrediXcan in a large colorectal cancer study and findings highlight the utility of integrating transcriptome data in GWAS for discovery of, and biological insight into, risk loci.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Frequência do Gene , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
13.
Genet Med ; 21(7): 1668, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30894706

RESUMO

An update to the original published conflict of interest for author Liying Zhang, PhD. L.Z. received compensation from Future Technology Research LLC (seminar on precision medicine), Roche Diagnostics Asia Pacific, BGI, Illumina (speaking activities at conferences/workshop). L.Z.'s family member has a leadership position and ownership interest of Shanghai Genome Center. This correction has been made.

14.
Genet Med ; 21(9): 2116-2125, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30787465

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Cancer care professionals are confronted with interpreting results from multiplexed gene sequencing of patients at hereditary risk for cancer. Assessments for variant classification now require orthogonal data searches and aggregation of multiple lines of evidence from diverse resources. The clinical genetics community needs a fast algorithm that automates American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) based variant classification and provides uniform results. METHODS: Pathogenicity of Mutation Analyzer (PathoMAN) automates germline genomic variant curation from clinical sequencing based on ACMG guidelines. PathoMAN aggregates multiple tracks of genomic, protein, and disease specific information from public sources. We compared expertly curated variant data from clinical laboratories to assess performance. RESULTS: PathoMAN achieved a high overall concordance of 94.4% for pathogenic and 81.1% for benign variants. We observed negligible discordance (0.3% pathogenic, 0% benign) when contrasted against expert curated variants. Some loss of resolution (5.3% pathogenic, 18.9% benign) and gain of resolution (1.6% pathogenic, 3.8% benign) were also observed. CONCLUSION: Automation of variant curation enables unbiased, fast, efficient delivery of results in both clinical and laboratory research. We highlight the advantages and weaknesses related to the programmable automation of variant classification. PathoMAN will aid in rapid variant classification by generating robust models using a knowledgebase of diverse genetic data ( https://pathoman.mskcc.org).

15.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(5): 824-828, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30718883

RESUMO

Along with traditional effects of aging and carcinogen exposure-inherited DNA variation has substantial contribution to cancer risk. Extraordinary progress made in analysis of common variation with GWAS methodology does not provide sufficient resolution to understand rare variation. To fulfill missing classification for rare germline variation we assembled dataset of whole exome sequences from>2000 patients (selected cases tested negative for candidate genes and unselected cases) with different types of cancers (breast cancer, colon cancer, and cutaneous and ocular melanomas) matched to more than 7000 non-cancer controls and analyzed germline variation in known cancer predisposing genes to identify common properties of disease-associated DNA variation and aid the future searches for new cancer susceptibility genes. Cancer predisposing genes were divided into non-overlapping classes according to the mode of inheritance of the related cancer syndrome or known tumor suppressor activity. Out of all classes only genes linked to dominant syndromes presented significant rare germline variants enrichment in cases. Separate analysis of protein-truncating and missense variation in this list of genes confirmed significant prevalence of protein-truncating variants in cases only in loss-of-function tolerant genes (pLI < 0.1), while ultra-rare missense variants were significantly overrepresented in cases only in constrained genes (pLI > 0.9). In addition to findings in genetically enriched cases, we observed significant burden of rare variation in unselected cases, suggesting substantial role of inherited variation even in relatively late cancer manifestation. Taken together, our findings provide reference for distribution and types of DNA variation underlying inherited predisposition to some common cancer types.

16.
Genet Med ; 2018 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30504931

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Several genes on hereditary breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility test panels have not been systematically examined for strength of association with disease. We employed the Clinical Genome Resource (ClinGen) clinical validity framework to assess the strength of evidence between selected genes and breast or ovarian cancer. METHODS: Thirty-one genes offered on cancer panel testing were selected for evaluation. The strength of gene-disease relationship was systematically evaluated and a clinical validity classification of either Definitive, Strong, Moderate, Limited, Refuted, Disputed, or No Reported Evidence was assigned. RESULTS: Definitive clinical validity classifications were made for 10/31 and 10/32 gene-disease pairs for breast and ovarian cancer respectively. Two genes had a Moderate classification whereas, 6/31 and 6/32 genes had Limited classifications for breast and ovarian cancer respectively. Contradictory evidence resulted in Disputed or Refuted assertions for 9/31 genes for breast and 4/32 genes for ovarian cancer. No Reported Evidence of disease association was asserted for 5/31 genes for breast and 11/32 for ovarian cancer. CONCLUSION: Evaluation of gene-disease association using the ClinGen clinical validity framework revealed a wide range of classifications. This information should aid laboratories in tailoring appropriate gene panels and assist health-care providers in interpreting results from panel testing.

17.
Genet Med ; 2018 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30523343

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Gene-disease associations implicated in hereditary colorectal cancer and polyposis susceptibility were evaluated using the ClinGen Clinical Validity framework. METHODS: Forty-two gene-disease pairs were assessed for strength of evidence supporting an association with hereditary colorectal cancer and/or polyposis. Genetic and experimental evidence supporting each gene-disease relationship was curated independently by two trained biocurators. Evidence was reviewed with experts and assigned a final clinical validity classification. RESULTS: Of all gene-disease pairs evaluated, 14/42 (33.3%) were Definitive, 1/42 (2.4%) were Strong, 6/42 (14.3%) were Moderate, 18/42 (42.9%) were Limited, and 3/42 (7.1%) were either No Reported Evidence, Disputed, or Refuted. Of panels in the National Institutes of Health Genetic Testing Registry, 4/26 (~15.4%) contain genes with Limited clinical evidence. CONCLUSION: Clinicians and laboratory diagnosticians should note that <60% of the genes on clinically available panels have Strong or Definitive evidence of association with hereditary colon cancer or polyposis, and >40% have only Moderate, Limited, Disputed, or Refuted evidence. Continuing to expand the structured assessment of the clinical relevance of genes listed on hereditary cancer testing panels will help clinicians and diagnostic laboratories focus the communication of genetic testing results on clinically significant genes.

18.
PLoS Genet ; 14(12): e1007752, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30586411

RESUMO

The BRCA Challenge is a long-term data-sharing project initiated within the Global Alliance for Genomics and Health (GA4GH) to aggregate BRCA1 and BRCA2 data to support highly collaborative research activities. Its goal is to generate an informed and current understanding of the impact of genetic variation on cancer risk across the iconic cancer predisposition genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2. Initially, reported variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 available from public databases were integrated into a single, newly created site, www.brcaexchange.org. The purpose of the BRCA Exchange is to provide the community with a reliable and easily accessible record of variants interpreted for a high-penetrance phenotype. More than 20,000 variants have been aggregated, three times the number found in the next-largest public database at the project's outset, of which approximately 7,250 have expert classifications. The data set is based on shared information from existing clinical databases-Breast Cancer Information Core (BIC), ClinVar, and the Leiden Open Variation Database (LOVD)-as well as population databases, all linked to a single point of access. The BRCA Challenge has brought together the existing international Evidence-based Network for the Interpretation of Germline Mutant Alleles (ENIGMA) consortium expert panel, along with expert clinicians, diagnosticians, researchers, and database providers, all with a common goal of advancing our understanding of BRCA1 and BRCA2 variation. Ongoing work includes direct contact with national centers with access to BRCA1 and BRCA2 diagnostic data to encourage data sharing, development of methods suitable for extraction of genetic variation at the level of individual laboratory reports, and engagement with participant communities to enable a more comprehensive understanding of the clinical significance of genetic variation in BRCA1 and BRCA2.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Genéticas , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Variação Genética , Alelos , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas/ética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação/ética , Disseminação de Informação/legislação & jurisprudência , Masculino , Mutação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Penetrância , Fenótipo , Fatores de Risco
19.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO1800283, 2018 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30376427

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Microsatellite instability (MSI) and/or mismatch repair deficiency (MMR-D) testing has traditionally been performed in patients with colorectal (CRC) and endometrial cancer (EC) to screen for Lynch syndrome (LS)-associated cancer predisposition. The recent success of immunotherapy in high-frequency MSI (MSI-H) and/or MMR-D tumors now supports testing for MSI in all advanced solid tumors. The extent to which LS accounts for MSI-H across heterogeneous tumor types is unknown. Here, we establish the prevalence of LS across solid tumors according to MSI status. METHODS: MSI status was determined using targeted next-generation sequencing, with tumors classified as MSI-H, MSI-indeterminate, or microsatellite-stable. Matched germline DNA was analyzed for mutations in LS-associated mismatch repair genes ( MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2, EPCAM). In patients with LS with MSI-H/I tumors, immunohistochemical staining for MMR-D was assessed. RESULTS: Among 15,045 unique patients (more than 50 cancer types), LS was identified in 16.3% (53 of 326), 1.9% (13 of 699), and 0.3% (37 of 14,020) of patients with MSI-H, MSI-indeterminate, and microsatellite-stable tumors, respectively ( P < .001). Among patients with LS with MSI-H/I tumors, 50% (33 of 66) had tumors other than CRC/EC, including urothelial, prostate, pancreas, adrenocortical, small bowel, sarcoma, mesothelioma, melanoma, gastric, and germ cell tumors. In these patients with non-CRC/EC tumors, 45% (15 of 33) did not meet LS genetic testing criteria on the basis of personal/family history. Immunohistochemical staining of LS-positive MSI-H/I tumors demonstrated MMR-D in 98.2% (56 of 57) of available cases. CONCLUSION: MSI-H/MMR-D is predictive of LS across a much broader tumor spectrum than currently appreciated. Given implications for cancer surveillance and prevention measures in affected families, these data support germline genetic assessment for LS for patients with an MSI-H/MMR-D tumor, regardless of cancer type or family cancer history.

20.
Hum Mutat ; 39(11): 1542-1552, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30311369

RESUMO

In its landmark paper about Standards and Guidelines for the Interpretation of Sequence Variants, the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG), and Association for Molecular Pathology (AMP) did not address how to use tumor data when assessing the pathogenicity of germline variants. The Clinical Genome Resource (ClinGen) established a multidisciplinary working group, the Germline/Somatic Variant Subcommittee (GSVS) with this focus. The GSVS implemented a survey to determine current practices of integrating somatic data when classifying germline variants in cancer predisposition genes. The GSVS then reviewed and analyzed available resources of relevant somatic data, and performed integrative germline variant curation exercises. The committee determined that somatic hotspots could be systematically integrated into moderate evidence of pathogenicity (PM1). Tumor RNA sequencing data showing altered splicing may be considered as strong evidence in support of germline pathogenicity (PVS1) and tumor phenotypic features such as mutational signatures be considered supporting evidence of pathogenicity (PP4). However, at present, somatic data such as focal loss of heterozygosity and mutations occurring on the alternative allele are not recommended to be systematically integrated, instead, incorporation of this type of data should take place under the advisement of multidisciplinary cancer center tumor-normal sequencing boards.

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