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1.
Gastroenterol Rep (Oxf) ; 7(5): 367-370, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31687157

RESUMO

Strongyloidiasis is an intestinal infection caused by the parasitic nematodes of the Strongyloides species, most commonly Strongyloides stercoralis. We report a case of a 66-year-old immigrant male from Haiti who presented with complaints of diarrhea and an unintentional 80-lb weight loss over the past 5 years. Stool examination was positive for strongyloidiasis. Following albendazole therapy, esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) showed a unique ampullary lesion. Histopathology of the ampullary lesion showed reactive epithelium with Strongyloides larva. In addition, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) detected a large pancreatic cyst. Both these findings were absent on EGD 5 years previously, prior to the onset of his symptoms. This paper documents a rare case of an ampullary lesion and pancreatic cyst secondary to hepatobiliary strongyloidiasis in a non-Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) patient. We review the epidemiology, life cycle, clinical presentation and treatment of strongyloidiasis.

2.
Arab J Gastroenterol ; 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759875

RESUMO

This article has been withdrawn at the request of the editor. The Publisher apologizes for any inconvenience this may cause. The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at https://www.elsevier.com/about/our-business/policies/article-withdrawal.

3.
J Clin Gastroenterol ; 53(9): 627-634, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403982

RESUMO

Esophageal cancer represents one of the most lethal forms of malignancy. The growing incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma represents an emerging public health concern. This review article summarizes current diagnostic, management, and therapeutic practices of premalignant conditions of the esophagus including Barrett's esophagus, tylosis, granular cell tumors, achalasia, and the ingestion of caustic substances. Our report provides clinicians and academics with a global clinical perspective regarding presentation, surveillance guidelines, and therapeutic management of these esophageal conditions.

4.
Hosp Pract (1995) ; 47(3): 123-129, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177865

RESUMO

Clostridium difficile (CD) is the most common cause of nosocomial diarrhea. We aim to highlight practice measures for controlling and preventing Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) in the hospital setting. Electronic databases including PubMed, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, ClinicalTrials.gov, and Cochrane Databases were searched for human studies that assessed strategic measures for the prevention of CDI. Bundled interventions can effectively reduce the rates of CDI. Current evidence support the implementation antibiotic stewardship programs, hygiene enhancement, dietary management with probiotics, use of copper surfaces, and the cautious use of PPIs. However, current guidelines do not advocate the use of copper, probiotics, or the discontinuation of PPIs as a means for reducing CDI. We review these practical and evidence-based approaches.


Assuntos
Gestão de Antimicrobianos , Infecções por Clostridium/prevenção & controle , Clostridium difficile , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Hospitais , Humanos , Higiene
5.
Ghana Med J ; 53(1): 2-7, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31138937

RESUMO

Background: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is said to be rare in Sub-Saharan Africa and even rarer in males worldwide. SLE is mostly considered a disease of women, though men may also be affected, and this may lead to a delay in diagnosis in men. The result is a greater burden of inflammation and subsequent organ damage over time. Method: Data from the medical records of 13 male patients diagnosed with SLE at the Rheumatology Clinic of Korle- Bu Teaching Hospital between January 2014 and January 2017 was retrospectively analyzed. Results: A total of 13 male patients out of a total of 134 SLE patients were included in our analysis. The mean age was 30.62 ± SD 8.47 years (range of 17 to 46 years). All of them (100%) presented with constitutional features. The most common ACR criteria observed was 61.5 % rash, 54.5 % oral ulcers, 92.3% arthritis, 61.5 % serositis and 38.5% renal involvement, 46.2 % CNS involvement. Looking at their serological profile, 91.7 % had a positive antinuclear antibody (ANA). 33.3 % had positive anti-dsDNA and 58.3 % extractable nuclear antigens. The mean duration from onset of symptoms to diagnosis was 21.31 months. Five patients were diagnosed with lupus nephritis, all at the time of diagnosis. There were no mortalities. Conclusion: Male SLE patients in Ghana are comparable to other populations, with arthritis and constitutional features being predominant early features and lupus nephritis being the main early indicator of organ damage. This should warrant aggressive management in male patients. Funding: None declared.


Assuntos
Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/fisiopatologia , Nefrite Lúpica/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Gana , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
6.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 204, 2019 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30944035

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate dyslipidemia in Ghanaian subjects with type 2 diabetes. RESULTS: Hundred individuals with type 2 diabetes and 61 apparently healthy controls participated. The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia among persons with type 2 diabetes was 53%. Blood pressure, fasting blood glucose (FBG), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels were higher in persons with type 2 diabetes compared with the control group (p < 0.01). Positive correlations were found within persons with type 2 diabetes for triglyceride vs FBG; ALT vs age and aspartate transaminase (AST) vs TG (p < 0.05 respectively). This study demonstrated hyperlipidemia and poor liver health in persons with type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Adulto , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Colesterol/sangue , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Dislipidemias/sangue , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Triglicerídeos/sangue
7.
Ann Gastroenterol ; 32(1): 24-29, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30598588

RESUMO

Tracheoesophageal fistulas (TEF) are pathologic communications between the trachea and esophagus. TEF can lead to significant respiratory distress that may result in lethal respiratory compromise, often due to recurrent and intractable infections. Through the use of endoscopy, some TEF can be successfully repaired using different approaches depending on the size, location, availability, and experience of the treating endoscopist. The aim of this manuscript is to provide an up-to-date review of the endoscopic management of TEF for gastroenterologists.

8.
Ann Gastroenterol ; 32(1): 30-38, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30598589

RESUMO

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has evolved into a robust and efficient means for treating recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Our narrative review looks at the donor selection, preparation, delivery techniques and cost-effectiveness of FMT. We searched electronic databases, including PubMed, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Databases, for studies that compared the biological effects of donor selection, fresh or frozen fecal preparation, and various delivery techniques. We also evaluated the cost-effectiveness and manually searched references to identify additional relevant studies. Overall, there is a paucity of studies that directly compare outcomes associated with related and non-related stool donors. However, inferences from prior studies indicate that the success of FMT does not depend on the donor-patient relationship. Over time, the use of unrelated donors has increased because of the formation of stool banks and the need to save processing time and capital. However, longitudinal studies are needed to clarify the optimal freezing time before microbial function declines. Several FMT techniques have been developed, such as colonoscopy, enema, nasogastric or nasojejunal tubes, and capsules. The comparable and high efficacy of FMT capsules, combined with their convenience, safety and aesthetically tolerable mode of delivery, makes it an attractive option for many patients. Cost-effective models comparing these various approaches support the use of FMT via colonoscopy as being the best strategy for the treatment of recurrent CDI.

11.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) ; 90(3): 433-439, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30575083

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Research findings on the relationship between serum androgens and adipose tissue in older females are inconsistent. We aimed to clarify the relationship using state-of-the-art techniques to evaluate associations between body fat distribution and plasma testosterone (T) levels in older postmenopausal women. DESIGN: Observational, cross-sectional study of healthy, community dwelling postmenopausal women. PATIENTS AND MEASUREMENTS: Postmenopausal women (60-80 years old) were included in this study. Overall body composition was evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Abdominal and thigh fat depots were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Circulating T concentrations were analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Thirty-five women (66.6 ± 0.8 years) participated in this study. T levels were positively associated with clinical proxy measures of adiposity including weight (ρ = 0.39), BMI (ρ = 0.43) and waist circumference (ρ = 0.39) (all P < 0.05). Fat mass and % body fat were correlated with T levels (ρ = 0.42 and 0.38 respectively, both P < 0.05). T correlated with overall and superficial abdominal fat (ρ = 0.34 and 0.37 respectively, both P < 0.05) but not with visceral adipose tissue. T increased with greater thigh fat (ρ = 0.49, P < 0.05) in both superficial and deep depots (ρ = 0.50 and 0.35 respectively, both P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that postmenopausal women with higher circulating T levels have both higher regional and overall body adiposity. These findings underscore the sexual dimorphism in the relationship between serum androgen levels and adiposity.

12.
BMC Res Notes ; 11(1): 634, 2018 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30176917

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different levels of exercise on markers of oxidative stress and selected metabolic parameters in Ghanaian young adults. RESULTS: Significant increases in a marker of oxidative stress malondialdehyde and antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase and uric acid were observed in the exercisers compared with the inactive group (p < 0.05). Total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein levels were significantly different (p < 0.05) between the two groups. Positive associations between exercise intensity, antioxidant concentration and malondialdehyde were observed within the exercise group for vigorous exercise with regards to uric acid, superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde (r = 0.512, p = 0.004; r = 0.810, p = 0.001; r = 0.715, p = 0.001) respectively and moderate exercise vs malondialdehyde (r = 0.841, p = 0.001) compared to the inactive group. Exercise participants performed more vigorous exercise (p < 0.001), moderate exercise (p < 0.001) and more walking (p < 0.001) compared with the inactive group while the inactive group exhibited more sitting (p < 0.001). The study provides a first report on the risk associated with increase in oxidative stress and the importance of walking as a health promotion intervention among young Ghanaian adults.


Assuntos
Exercício/fisiologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Adulto , Antioxidantes , Biomarcadores , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Lactação , Malondialdeído , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 18(1): 419, 2018 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30139334

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV remains a significant public health dilemma in West and Central Africa. HIV-related morbidity and mortality are unjustly high, yet little is known about the spectrum of complicating comorbidities in HIV-positive patients who are admitted to hospitals in these regions. METHODS: This study involved a retrospective chart review to determine the common comorbidities and mortality rate of HIV-infected patients admitted over a six month period to the internal medicine service at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH), a tertiary care center in Ghana. Patients admitted with a known or new HIV diagnosis from January to July 2016 were included. Data were collected regarding the number of new versus known cases admitted, the most common presenting complaints, final admitting diagnoses, and causes of mortality in these patients. RESULTS: During the six-month study period, 250 HIV-positive patients were admitted to KATH, and 245 of these individuals had valid survival time recorded. Of these patients, 145/245 (59.2%) were female. Median age of patients included in the study was 42 years old (IQR 35-51). The mortality rate for HIV patients admitted to the hospital was 35.5% (87 patients). One hundred and forty-five (59.4%) patients had a known history of HIV documented in their patient charts, while the remaining patients were newly diagnosed with HIV during their inpatient stay. Pulmonary tuberculosis predominated among diagnostic findings, with 40.4% of HIV-infected patients diagnosed with the condition while admitted. Patients presenting with neurological symptoms on admission were 2.14 (95% CI: 1.27-3.61) times more likely to die than those without neurological symptoms (p = .004). CONCLUSIONS: Over 40% of HIV-positive patients admitted to KATH were newly diagnosed with HIV at admission. While pulmonary tuberculosis was the most common co-morbidity, patients presenting with neurological symptoms were at higher risk of death. This study suggests that enhanced outpatient screening is needed for early diagnosis and prompt HAART initiation, as well as increased access to diagnostic modalities and treatment for HIV-positive patients with neurological symptoms.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/epidemiologia , Adulto , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gana/epidemiologia , HIV , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Tuberculose Pulmonar/complicações , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia
14.
Clin Case Rep ; 6(7): 1377-1378, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29988618

RESUMO

Gastric mucosal prolapse (GMP) is a rare clinical syndrome that in patients with hiatal hernias and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) may present with typical findings of abdominal pain and reflux symptoms but prove resistant to medical therapy. Physicians should therefore be aware and consider GMP as a differential in such patients in order to make an accurate diagnosis and provide timely treatment.

15.
Ann Gastroenterol ; 31(4): 448-455, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29991889

RESUMO

Advances in the field of endoscopy have allowed gastroenterologists to obtain detailed imaging of anatomical structures and to treat gastrointestinal diseases with endoscopic therapies. However, these technological developments have exposed endoscopists and staff to hazards such as musculoskeletal injuries, exposure to infectious agents, and ionizing radiation. We aimed to review the occupational hazards for the gastroenterologist and endoscopist. Using PubMed, Medline, Medscape, and Google Scholar, we identified peer-reviewed articles with the keywords "occupational hazards," "health hazards," "occupational health hazards," "endoscopy," "gastroenterologist," "infectious agents," "musculoskeletal injuries," and "radiation." Strategies for reducing exposure to infectious agents, radiation, and the risk of musculoskeletal injuries related to gastroenterology include compliance with established standard measures, the use of thyroid shields and radioprotective eyewear, and ergonomic practices. We conclude that educating endoscopic personnel and trainees in these practices, in addition to further research in these areas, will likely lead to the development of more efficient and user-friendly workspaces that are safer for patients and personnel.

16.
Case Rep Gastroenterol ; 12(2): 217-223, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29928186

RESUMO

Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an inflammatory disease presenting from mild localized inflammation to severe infected necrotic pancreatic tissue. In the literature, there are a few cases of hypothermia-induced AP. However, the association between hypothermia and AP is still a myth. Generally, mortality from acute pancreatitis is nearly 3-6%. Here, we present a 40-year-old chronic alcoholic female who presented with acute pancreatitis induced by transient hypothermia. A 40-year-old chronic alcoholic female was hypothermic at 81°F on arrival which was improved to 91.7°F with warming blanket and then around 97°F in 8 h. Laboratory tests including complete blood count, lipid panel, and comprehensive metabolic panels were within the normal limit. Serum alcohol level was 0.01, amylase 498, lipase 1,200, ammonia 26, serum carboxyhemoglobin level 2.4, and ß-HCG was negative. The entire sepsis workup was negative. During rewarming period, she had one episode of witnessed generalized tonic-clonic seizure. It was followed by transient hypotension. Fluid challenge was successful with 2 L of normal saline. Sonogram (abdomen) showed fatty liver and trace ascites. CAT scan (abdomen and pelvis) showed evidence of acute pancreatitis without necrosis, peripancreatic abscess, pancreatic mass, or radiopaque gallstones. The patient was managed medically and later discharged from the hospital on the 4th day as she tolerated a normal low-fat diet. In our patient, transient hypothermia from chronic alcohol abuse and her social circumstances might predispose to microcirculatory disturbance resulting in acute pancreatitis. Early and aggressive fluid resuscitation prevents complications.

17.
Mol Clin Oncol ; 8(5): 671-674, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29725533

RESUMO

Leiomyomas are rare, benign submucosal tumors originating from smooth muscle cells. The clinical presentation is usually asymptomatic, with excellent prognosis. We herein report the case of a 68-year-old female with a solitary leiomyoma found during esophagogastroduodenoscopy for hematemesis. Histopathological examination revealed smooth muscle proliferation supported by positive staining for smooth muscle myosin heavy chain and negative staining for CD117 and S-100, consistent with the marker expression pattern of leiomyoma. We report on the clinical presentation of this case, and discuss the origin, epidemiology, treatment and management of leiomyomas.

18.
SAGE Open Med ; 6: 2050312118762042, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29623201

RESUMO

Objectives: Elevated immunoglobulin levels have been strongly linked to the development and progression of inflammatory disorders such as type 2 diabetes and obesity. This study aimed to evaluate circulating immunoglobulin levels and to identify other metabolic factors that influence humoral immune response among Ghanaian subjects with type 2 diabetes. Methods: A comparative cross-sectional study conducted at the National Diabetes Management and Research Center, Accra. Eighty persons with type 2 diabetes were age-matched with 78 controls. Immunoglobulin A, immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M; interleukin 6; fasting blood glucose; glycated hemoglobin; and lipid parameter concentrations were measured. Blood pressure, anthropometry and body composition indices were also assessed. Results: Median immunoglobulin A and immunoglobulin G (g/L) levels were higher in the case group compared with controls (0.89 vs 0.74, p = 0.043; 7.58 vs 7.29, p < 0.001). Immunoglobulin G, immunoglobulin A and interleukin 6 levels in the case cohort, respectively, associated weakly with fasting blood glucose (r = 0.252, p = 0.001; r = 0.170, p = 0.031; r = 0.296, p = 0.001). There were positive correlations within the control group for immunoglobulin A versus interleukin 6 (r = 0.366, p = 0.001) and within the case group for glycated hemoglobin versus interleukin 6 (r = 0.190, p = 0.020). Conclusion: Our data suggest that humoral immune response is altered in subjects with type 2 diabetes and that serum immunoglobulin levels could serve as useful biomarkers in the investigation and management of diabetes mellitus.

20.
World J Hepatol ; 10(2): 347-351, 2018 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29527270

RESUMO

Primary hepatic peripheral T-cell lymphoma (H-PTCL) is one of the rarest forms of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. We report a patient who presented with worsening jaundice, abdominal pain, and vomiting. Laboratory values were significant for elevated total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, and liver aminotransferases. Following a liver biopsy, histopathology revealed several large dense clusters of atypical T-lymphocytes which were CD2+, CD3+, CD5+, CD7-, CD4+, CD8-, CD56-, CD57-, CD30+ by immunohistochemistry. The proliferation index was approximately 70% by labeling for ki67/mib1. The above histological profile was consistent with peripheral T-cell lymphoma of the liver. Epstein-Barr viral serology indicated a remote infection, a likely risk factor for PTCL. Bone marrow biopsy was negative for malignancy, further supporting hepatic origin.

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