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1.
J Chem Phys ; 157(16): 164705, 2022 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36319417

##### RESUMO

We report on carbon monoxide desorption and oxidation induced by 400 nm femtosecond laser excitation on the O/Ru(0001) surface probed by time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy (TR-XAS) at the carbon K-edge. The experiments were performed under constant background pressures of CO (6 × 10-8 Torr) and O2 (3 × 10-8 Torr). Under these conditions, we detect two transient CO species with narrow 2π* peaks, suggesting little 2π* interaction with the surface. Based on polarization measurements, we find that these two species have opposing orientations: (1) CO favoring a more perpendicular orientation and (2) CO favoring a more parallel orientation with respect to the surface. We also directly detect gas-phase CO2 using a mass spectrometer and observe weak signatures of bent adsorbed CO2 at slightly higher x-ray energies than the 2π* region. These results are compared to previously reported TR-XAS results at the O K-edge, where the CO background pressure was three times lower (2 × 10-8 Torr) while maintaining the same O2 pressure. At the lower CO pressure, in the CO 2π* region, we observed adsorbed CO and a distribution of OC-O bond lengths close to the CO oxidation transition state, with little indication of gas-like CO. The shift toward "gas-like" CO species may be explained by the higher CO exposure, which blocks O adsorption, decreasing O coverage and increasing CO coverage. These effects decrease the CO desorption barrier through dipole-dipole interaction while simultaneously increasing the CO oxidation barrier.

2.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; : e202212506, 2022 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36240783

##### RESUMO

Although pyridinic-nitrogen (pyri-N) doped graphene is highly active for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) of fuel cells in alkaline media, the activity critically decreases under acidic conditions. We report on how to prevent the deactivation based on the mechanistic understanding that O 2 + p y r i - N H + + e - â O 2 , a + p y r i - N H ${{{\rm O}}_{2}+{\rm p}{\rm y}{\rm r}{\rm i}{\rm { -}}{\rm N}{{\rm H}}^{+}+{{\rm e}}^{-}{\to }_{\ }^{{\rm \ }}{{\rm O}}_{2,{\rm a}}+{\rm p}{\rm y}{\rm r}{\rm i}{\rm { -}}{\rm N}{\rm H}}$ governs the ORR kinetics. First, we considered that the deactivation is due to the hydration of pyri-NH+ , leading to a lower shift of the redox potential. Introducing the hydrophobic cavity prevented the hydration of pyri-NH+ but inhibited the proton transport. We then increased proton conductivity in the hydrophobic cavity by introducing SiO2 particles coated with ionic liquid polymer/Nafion® which kept the high onset potentials with an increased current density even in acidic media.

3.
J Synchrotron Radiat ; 29(Pt 1): 202-213, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34985437

##### RESUMO

Resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) has become an important scientific tool. Nonetheless, conventional high-resolution (few hundred meV or less) RIXS measurements, especially in the soft X-ray range, require low-throughput grating spectrometers, which limits measurement accuracy. Here, the performance of a different method for measuring RIXS, i.e. photoelectron spectrometry for analysis of X-rays (PAX), is computationally investigated. This method transforms the X-ray measurement problem of RIXS to an electron measurement problem, enabling use of high-throughput, compact electron spectrometers. X-rays to be measured are incident on a converter material and the energy distribution of the resultant photoelectrons, the PAX spectrum, is measured with an electron spectrometer. A deconvolution algorithm for analysis of such PAX data is proposed. It is shown that the deconvolution algorithm works well on data recorded with â¼0.5âeV resolution. Additional simulations show the potential of PAX for estimation of RIXS features with smaller widths. For simulations using the 3d levels of Ag as a converter material, and with 105 simulated detected electrons, it is estimated that features with a few hundred meV width can be accurately estimated in a model RIXS spectrum. For simulations using a sharp Fermi edge to encode RIXS spectra, it is estimated that one can accurately distinguish 100âmeV FWHM peaks separated by 45âmeV with 105 simulated detected electrons that were photoemitted from within 0.4âeV of the Fermi level.

4.
Phys Rev Lett ; 129(27): 276001, 2022 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36638285

##### RESUMO

The electronic excitation occurring on adsorbates at ultrafast timescales from optical lasers that initiate surface chemical reactions is still an open question. Here, we report the ultrafast temporal evolution of x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and x-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) of a simple well-known adsorbate prototype system, namely carbon (C) atoms adsorbed on a nickel [Ni(100)] surface, following intense laser optical pumping at 400 nm. We observe ultrafast (â¼100 fs) changes in both XAS and XES showing clear signatures of the formation of a hot electron-hole pair distribution on the adsorbate. This is followed by slower changes on a few picoseconds timescale, shown to be consistent with thermalization of the complete C/Ni system. Density functional theory spectrum simulations support this interpretation.

5.
Phys Rev Lett ; 127(1): 016802, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270277

##### RESUMO

We use a pump-probe scheme to measure the time evolution of the C K-edge x-ray absorption spectrum from CO/Ru(0001) after excitation by an ultrashort high-intensity optical laser pulse. Because of the short duration of the x-ray probe pulse and precise control of the pulse delay, the excitation-induced dynamics during the first picosecond after the pump can be resolved with unprecedented time resolution. By comparing with density functional theory spectrum calculations, we find high excitation of the internal stretch and frustrated rotation modes occurring within 200 fs of laser excitation, as well as thermalization of the system in the picosecond regime. The â¼100 fs initial excitation of these CO vibrational modes is not readily rationalized by traditional theories of nonadiabatic coupling of adsorbates to metal surfaces, e.g., electronic frictions based on first order electron-phonon coupling or transient population of adsorbate resonances. We suggest that coupling of the adsorbate to nonthermalized electron-hole pairs is responsible for the ultrafast initial excitation of the modes.

6.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 11(20): 8758-8764, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921048

##### RESUMO

BiVO4 is one of the most promising photoanode materials for water-splitting systems. Nitrogen incorporation into a BiVO4 surface overcomes the known bottleneck in its charge-transfer kinetics into the electrolyte. We explored the role of nitrogen in the surface charge recombination and charge-transfer kinetics by employing transient photocurrent spectroscopy at the time scale of surface recombination and water oxidation kinetics, transient absorption spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We attributed the activity enhancement mechanism to the accelerated V5+/V4+ redox process, in which incorporated nitrogen suppresses a limiting surface recombination channel by increasing the oxygen vacancies.

7.
Phys Rev Lett ; 125(7): 076002, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32857536

##### RESUMO

We study the structural dynamics of liquid water by time-resolved anisotropic x-ray scattering under the optical Kerr effect condition. In this way, we can separate the anisotropic scattering decay of 160 fs from the delayed temperature increase of â¼0.1 K occurring at 1 ps and quantify transient changes in the O-O pair distribution function. Polarizable molecular dynamics simulations reproduce well the experiment, indicating transient alignment of molecules along the electric field, which shortens the nearest-neighbor distances. In addition, analysis of the simulated water local structure provides evidence that two hypothesized fluctuating water configurations exhibit different polarizability.

8.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(5): 2677-2684, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531435

##### RESUMO

The transient dynamics of carbon monoxide (CO) molecules on a Ru(0001) surface following femtosecond optical laser pump excitation has been studied by monitoring changes in the unoccupied electronic structure using an ultrafast X-ray free-electron laser (FEL) probe. The particular symmetry of perpendicularly chemisorbed CO on the surface is exploited to investigate how the molecular orientation changes with time by varying the polarization of the FEL pulses. The time evolution of spectral features corresponding to the desorption precursor state was well distinguished due to the narrow line-width of the C K-edge in the X-ray absorption (XA) spectrum, illustrating that CO molecules in the precursor state rotated freely and resided on the surface for several picoseconds. Most of the CO molecules trapped in the precursor state ultimately cooled back down to the chemisorbed state, while we estimate that â¼14.5 ± 4.9% of the molecules in the precursor state desorbed into the gas phase. It was also observed that chemisorbed CO molecules diffused over the metal surface from on-top sites toward highly coordinated sites. In addition, a new "vibrationally hot precursor" state was identified in the polarization-dependent XA spectra.

9.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 90(11): 113101, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779391

##### RESUMO

We present results obtained with a new soft X-ray spectrometer based on transition-edge sensors (TESs) composed of Mo/Cu bilayers coupled to bismuth absorbers. This spectrometer simultaneously provides excellent energy resolution, high detection efficiency, and broadband spectral coverage. The new spectrometer is optimized for incident X-ray energies below 2 keV. Each pixel serves as both a highly sensitive calorimeter and an X-ray absorber with near unity quantum efficiency. We have commissioned this 240-pixel TES spectrometer at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource beamline 10-1 (BL 10-1) and used it to probe the local electronic structure of sample materials with unprecedented sensitivity in the soft X-ray regime. As mounted, the TES spectrometer has a maximum detection solid angle of 2 × 10-3 sr. The energy resolution of all pixels combined is 1.5 eV full width at half maximum at 500 eV. We describe the performance of the TES spectrometer in terms of its energy resolution and count-rate capability and demonstrate its utility as a high throughput detector for synchrotron-based X-ray spectroscopy. Results from initial X-ray emission spectroscopy and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering experiments obtained with the spectrometer are presented.

10.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(2): 2526-2534, 2019 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30575394

##### RESUMO

11.
J Chem Phys ; 149(23): 234707, 2018 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30579301

##### RESUMO

We report on atom-specific activation of CO oxidation on Ru(0001) via resonant X-ray excitation. We show that resonant 1s core-level excitation of atomically adsorbed oxygen in the co-adsorbed phase of CO and oxygen directly drives CO oxidation. We separate this direct resonant channel from indirectly driven oxidation via X-ray induced substrate heating. Based on density functional theory calculations, we identify the valence-excited state created by the Auger decay as the driving electronic state for direct CO oxidation. We utilized the fresh-slice multi-pulse mode at the Linac Coherent Light Source that provided time-overlapped and 30 fs delayed pairs of soft X-ray pulses and discuss the prospects of femtosecond X-ray pump X-ray spectroscopy probe, as well as X-ray two-pulse correlation measurements for fundamental investigations of chemical reactions via selective X-ray excitation.

12.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 1917, 2018 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29765052

##### RESUMO

The dynamics of liquid water feature a variety of time scales, ranging from extremely fast ballistic-like thermal motion, to slower molecular diffusion and hydrogen-bond rearrangements. Here, we utilize coherent X-ray pulses to investigate the sub-100 fs equilibrium dynamics of water from ambient conditions down to supercooled temperatures. This novel approach utilizes the inherent capability of X-ray speckle visibility spectroscopy to measure equilibrium intermolecular dynamics with lengthscale selectivity, by measuring oxygen motion in momentum space. The observed decay of the speckle contrast at the first diffraction peak, which reflects tetrahedral coordination, is attributed to motion on a molecular scale within the first 120 fs. Through comparison with molecular dynamics simulations, we conclude that the slowing down upon cooling from 328 K down to 253 K is not due to simple thermal ballistic-like motion, but that cage effects play an important role even on timescales over 25 fs due to hydrogen-bonding.

13.
J Synchrotron Radiat ; 24(Pt 6): 1180-1186, 2017 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29091061

##### RESUMO

A method for measuring resonant inelastic X-ray scattering based on the conversion of X-ray photons into photoelectrons is presented. The setup is compact, relies on commercially available detectors, and offers significant flexibility. This method is demonstrated at the Linac Coherent Light Source with â¼0.5âeV resolution at the cobalt L3-edge, with signal rates comparable with traditional grating spectrometers.

14.
Phys Rev Lett ; 119(7): 075502, 2017 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28949651

##### RESUMO

Nuclear quantum effects (NQEs) have a significant influence on the hydrogen bonds in water and aqueous solutions and have thus been the topic of extensive studies. However, the microscopic origin and the corresponding temperature dependence of NQEs have been elusive and still remain the subject of ongoing discussion. Previous x-ray scattering investigations indicate that NQEs on the structure of water exhibit significant temperature dependence [Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 047801 (2005)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.94.047801]. Here, by performing wide-angle x-ray scattering of H_{2}O and D_{2}O droplets at temperatures from 275 K down to 240 K, we determine the temperature dependence of NQEs on the structure of water down to the deeply supercooled regime. The data reveal that the magnitude of NQEs on the structure of water is temperature independent, as the structure factor of D_{2}O is similar to H_{2}O if the temperature is shifted by a constant 5 K, valid from ambient conditions to the deeply supercooled regime. Analysis of the accelerated growth of tetrahedral structures in supercooled H_{2}O and D_{2}O also shows similar behavior with a clear 5 K shift. The results indicate a constant compensation between NQEs delocalizing the proton in the librational motion away from the bond and in the OH stretch vibrational modes along the bond. This is consistent with the fact that only the vibrational ground state is populated at ambient and supercooled conditions.

15.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 8(1): 285-290, 2017 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27983864

##### RESUMO

Copper electrocatalysts derived from an oxide have shown extraordinary electrochemical properties for the carbon dioxide reduction reaction (CO2RR). Using in situ ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and quasi in situ electron energy-loss spectroscopy in a transmission electron microscope, we show that there is a substantial amount of residual oxygen in nanostructured, oxide-derived copper electrocatalysts but no residual copper oxide. On the basis of these findings in combination with density functional theory simulations, we propose that residual subsurface oxygen changes the electronic structure of the catalyst and creates sites with higher carbon monoxide binding energy. If such sites are stable under the strongly reducing conditions found in CO2RR, these findings would explain the high efficiencies of oxide-derived copper in reducing carbon dioxide to multicarbon compounds such as ethylene.

16.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 7(18): 3647-51, 2016 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27584914

##### RESUMO

The concept of bonding and antibonding orbitals is fundamental in chemistry. The population of those orbitals and the energetic difference between the two reflect the strength of the bonding interaction. Weakening the bond is expected to reduce this energetic splitting, but the transient character of bond-activation has so far prohibited direct experimental access. Here we apply time-resolved soft X-ray spectroscopy at a free-electron laser to directly observe the decreased bonding-antibonding splitting following bond-activation using an ultrashort optical laser pulse.

17.
Phys Rev Lett ; 115(3): 036103, 2015 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26230806

##### RESUMO

We demonstrate the use of intense, quasi-half-cycle THz pulses, with an associated electric field component comparable to intramolecular electric fields, to direct the reaction coordinate of a chemical reaction by stimulating the nuclear motions of the reactants. Using a strong electric field from a THz pulse generated via coherent transition radiation from an ultrashort electron bunch, we present evidence that CO oxidation on Ru(0001) is selectively induced, while not promoting the thermally induced CO desorption process. The reaction is initiated by the motion of the O atoms on the surface driven by the electric field component of the THz pulse, rather than thermal heating of the surface.

18.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 17(42): 28121-8, 2015 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25772332

##### RESUMO

Size-selected 9 nm PtxY nanoparticles have recently shown an outstanding catalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction, representing a promising cathode catalyst for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Studying their electrochemical dealloying is a fundamental step towards the understanding of both their activity and stability. Herein, size-selected 9 nm PtxY nanoparticles have been deposited on the cathode side of a PEMFC specifically designed for in situ ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APXPS). The dealloying mechanism was followed in situ for the first time. It proceeds through the progressive oxidation of alloyed Y atoms, soon leading to the accumulation of Y(3+) cations at the cathode. Acid leaching with sulfuric acid is capable of accelerating the dealloying process and removing these Y(3+) cations which might cause long term degradation of the membrane. The use of APXPS under near operating conditions allowed observing the population of oxygenated surface species as a function of the electrochemical potential. Similar to the case of pure Pt nanoparticles, non-hydrated hydroxide plays a key role in the ORR catalytic process.

19.
J Chem Phys ; 142(4): 044505, 2015 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25637993

##### RESUMO

The structure of bulk liquid water was recently probed by x-ray scattering below the temperature limit of homogeneous nucleation (TH) of â¼232 K [J. A. Sellberg et al., Nature 510, 381-384 (2014)]. Here, we utilize a similar approach to study the structure of bulk liquid water below TH using oxygen K-edge x-ray emission spectroscopy (XES). Based on previous XES experiments [T. Tokushima et al., Chem. Phys. Lett. 460, 387-400 (2008)] at higher temperatures, we expected the ratio of the 1b1' and 1b1â³ peaks associated with the lone-pair orbital in water to change strongly upon deep supercooling as the coordination of the hydrogen (H-) bonds becomes tetrahedral. In contrast, we observed only minor changes in the lone-pair spectral region, challenging an interpretation in terms of two interconverting species. A number of alternative hypotheses to explain the results are put forward and discussed. Although the spectra can be explained by various contributions from these hypotheses, we here emphasize the interpretation that the line shape of each component changes dramatically when approaching lower temperatures, where, in particular, the peak assigned to the proposed disordered component would become more symmetrical as vibrational interference becomes more important.

20.
Phys Rev Lett ; 113(15): 153002, 2014 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25375708

##### RESUMO

We report on oxygen K-edge soft x-ray emission spectroscopy from a liquid water jet at the Linac Coherent Light Source. We observe significant changes in the spectral content when tuning over a wide range of incident x-ray fluences. In addition the total emission yield decreases at high fluences. These modifications result from reabsorption of x-ray emission by valence-excited molecules generated by the Auger cascade. Our observations have major implications for future x-ray emission studies at intense x-ray sources. We highlight the importance of the x-ray pulse length with respect to the core-hole lifetime.

##### Assuntos
Modelos Teóricos , Espectrometria por Raios X/métodos , Absorção Fisico-Química , Lasers , Raios X
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