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3.
J Neurosurg ; : 1-7, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33386017

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A primary cause of cognitive decline after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is cerebral injury due to cerebral hyperperfusion. However, the mechanisms of how cerebral hyperperfusion induces cerebral cortex and white matter injury are not known. The presence of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) on susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) is independently associated with a decline in global cognitive function. The purpose of this prospective observational study was to determine whether cerebral hyperperfusion following CEA leads to the development of CMBs and if postoperative cognitive decline is related to these developed CMBs. METHODS: During the 27-month study period, patients who underwent CEA for ipsilateral internal carotid artery stenosis (≥ 70%) also underwent SWI and neuropsychological testing before and 2 months after surgery, as well as quantitative brain perfusion SPECT prior to and immediately after surgery. RESULTS: According to quantitative brain perfusion SPECT and SWI before and after surgery, 12 (16%) and 7 (9%) of 75 patients exhibited postoperative cerebral hyperperfusion and increased CMBs in the cerebral hemisphere ipsilateral to surgery, respectively. Cerebral hyperperfusion was associated with an increase in CMBs after surgery (logistic regression analysis, 95% CI 5.08-31.25, p < 0.0001). According to neuropsychological assessments before and after surgery, 10 patients (13%) showed postoperative cognitive decline. Increased CMBs were associated with cognitive decline after surgery (logistic regression analysis, 95% CI 6.80-66.67, p < 0.0001). Among the patients with cerebral hyperperfusion after surgery, the incidence of postoperative cognitive decline was higher in those with increased CMBs (100%) than in those without (20%; p = 0.0101). CONCLUSIONS: Cerebral hyperperfusion following CEA leads to the development of CMBs, and postoperative cognitive decline is related to these developed CMBs.

4.
Circ J ; 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33229795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Japan there is no consensus on how to efficiently measure quality indicators (QIs), defined as a standard of care, for acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Using information from a health insurance claims database and electronic medical records, we evaluated the feasibility and validity of measuring QIs for AIS patients who received intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (IV rt-PA) or endovascular therapy (EVT).Methods and Results:AIS patients receiving rt-PA or EVT between 2013 and 2015 were identified. We selected 17 AIS QI measures for primary stroke centers (PSCs) and 8 for comprehensive stroke centers (CSCs). Defined QIs were calculated for each hospital and then averaged. In total, the data of 8,206 patients (rt-PA 83.7%, EVT 34.9%) from 172 hospitals were obtained. Median National Institute of Health Stroke Scale score at admission was 14, and 37.7% of the patients were functionally independent at discharge. All target QIs were successfully measured with fewer missing values, and the accuracy of preset data was about 90%. Adherence rates were low (<50%) in 5 QI measures among PSCs, including door-to-needle time ≤1 h, and in 1 QI measure among CSCs (door-to-brain and vascular imaging time ≤30 min). CONCLUSIONS: Measuring QIs for AIS by this novel approach was feasible and reliable in the provision of a national benchmark.

5.
J Neurosurg ; : 1-8, 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33186907

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The consistency of meningiomas is a critical factor affecting the difficulty of resection, operative complications, and operative time. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) is derived from diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and is calculated using two optimized b values. While the results of comparisons between the standard ADC and the consistency of meningiomas vary, the shifted ADC has been reported to be strongly correlated with liver stiffness. The purpose of the present prospective cohort study was to determine whether preoperative standard and shifted ADC maps predict the consistency of intracranial meningiomas. METHODS: Standard (b values 0 and 1000 sec/mm2) and shifted (b values 200 and 1500 sec/mm2) ADC maps were calculated using preoperative DWI in patients undergoing resection of intracranial meningiomas. Regions of interest (ROIs) were placed within the tumor on standard and shifted ADC maps and registered on the navigation system. Tumor tissue located at the registered ROI was resected through craniotomy, and its stiffness was measured using a durometer. The cutoff point lying closest to the upper left corner of a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was determined for the detection of tumor stiffness such that an ultrasonic aspirator or scissors was always required for resection. Each tumor tissue sample with stiffness greater than or equal to or less than this cutoff point was defined as hard or soft tumor, respectively. RESULTS: For 76 ROIs obtained from 25 patients studied, significant negative correlations were observed between stiffness and the standard ADC (ρ = -0.465, p < 0.01) and the shifted ADC (ρ = -0.490, p < 0.01). The area under the ROC curve for detecting hard tumor (stiffness ≥ 20.8 kPa) did not differ between the standard ADC (0.820) and the shifted ADC (0.847) (p = 0.39). The positive predictive value (PPV) for the combination of a low standard ADC and a low shifted ADC for detecting hard tumor was 89%. The PPV for the combination of a high standard ADC and a high shifted ADC for detecting soft tumor (stiffness < 20.8 kPa) was 81%. CONCLUSIONS: A combination of standard and shifted ADC maps derived from preoperative DWI can be used to predict the consistency of intracranial meningiomas.

6.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(22)2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33218023

RESUMO

The purpose of the present study was to determine whether objective gait test scores obtained using a tri-axial accelerometer can detect subjective improvement in gait as determined by the patient after carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Each patient undergoing CEA for ipsilateral internal carotid artery stenosis determined whether their gait was subjectively improved at six months after CEA when compared with preoperatively. Gait testing using a tri-axial accelerometer was also performed preoperatively and six months postoperatively. Twelve (15%) of 79 patients reported subjectively improved gait. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve for differences between pre- and postoperative test values in stride time, cadence, and ground floor reaction for detecting subjectively improved gait were 0.995 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.945-1.000), 0.958 (95%CI, 0.887-0.990), and 0.851 (95%CI, 0.753-0.921), respectively. Cut-off points for value differences in detecting subjectively improved gait were identical to mean -1.7 standard deviation (SD) for stride time, mean +1.6 SD for cadence, and mean +0.4 SD for ground floor reaction of control values from normal subjects. Objective gait test scores obtained using the tri-axial accelerometer can detect subjective gait improvements after CEA. When determining significant postoperative improvements in gait using a tri-axial accelerometer, optimal cut-off points for each test value can be defined.

7.
Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo) ; 60(11): 543-552, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33071274

RESUMO

Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) is a rare glial tumor, however, its histological differentiation from high-grade gliomas is often difficult. Molecular characteristics may contribute to a better diagnostic discrimination. Prognostic factors of PXA are also important but few relevant reports have been published. This study investigated the molecular features and prognostic factors of PXAs. Seven university hospitals participated in this study by providing retrospective clinical data and tumor samples of PXA cases between 1993 and 2014. Tumor samples were analyzed for immunohistochemical (IHC) neuronal and glial markers along with Ki67. The status of the BRAF and TERT promoter (TERTp) mutation was also evaluated using the same samples, followed by feature extraction of PXA and survival analyses. In all, 19 primary cases (17 PXA and 2 anaplastic PXA) were included. IHC examination revealed the stable staining of nestin and the close association of synaptophysin to NFP. Of the PXA cases, 57% had the BRAF mutation and only 7% had the TERTp mutation. On univariate analysis, age (≥60 years), preoperative Karnofsky performance status (KPS) (≤80%), and marked peritumoral edema were significantly associated with progression-free survival (PFS). No independent factor was indicated by the multivariate analysis. In conclusion, PXA was characterized by positive nestin staining and a few TERTp mutations. The neuronal differential marker and BRAF status may help in diagnosis. Patient age, preoperative KPS, and marked perifocal edema were associated with PFS. The present study is limited because of small number of cases and its retrospective nature. Further clinical study is needed.

8.
Cerebrovasc Dis Extra ; 10(3): 105-115, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032285

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A temporary increase in the occurrence of cerebrovascular diseases (CVDs) after the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami of 2011 was reported; however, no studies have been conducted to investigate long-term effects. We assessed the long-term impact of the disaster on the incidence of CVDs. METHODS: Incidence data for CVDs from 2008 to 2017 were acquired from the population-based Stroke Registry with an inventory survey of Iwate Prefecture, Japan. Part of the coastal area in Iwate Prefecture was mildly flooded and the other part was severely flooded. Age-adjusted incidence rates of CVDs (according to the Japanese standard population) were calculated for each area. The relative risk (RR) of incidence based on the years before the disaster (2008-2010), adjusted by stratified age groups, was calculated for the year of the disaster (2011), and the years after the disaster (2012-2017) in each area. RESULTS: The age-adjusted incidence rates gradually decreased in all areas, with the exception of a temporary increase among men who lived on the coast the year the disaster occurred. The adjusted RR in the disaster year were not significant in any area and those of the postdisaster years were 0.91 (95% CI 0.87-0.96) for all inland men, 0.93 (0.89-0.97) for all inland women, 0.85 (0.78-0.93) for all coastal men, 0.87 (0.81-0.94) for all coastal women, 0.88 (0.80-0.98) for men at mildly flooded coast, 0.82 (0.75-0.89) for women at mildly flooded coast, 0.79 (0.68-0.91) for men at severely flooded coast, and 0.98 (0.86-1.11) for women at severely flooded coast. CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of CVDs in the flooded coastal areas did not increase in the year of the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami; furthermore, it decreased for men according to the severity of flood damage in the subsequent years; this can be attributed to supportive activities for the tsunami victims and the migration of the population.

9.
J Neurointerv Surg ; 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32934139

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The dual-layer nitinol CASPER stent was designed to prevent plaque prolapse into its strut and periprocedural stroke. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a clinical trial for government approval of the device in patients at either high or normal risk for carotid endarterectomy (CEA). METHODS: Eligible patients had ≥50% symptomatic stenosis or ≥80% asymptomatic stenosis according to the North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial methods (peak systolic velocity 130 and 230 cm/s on ultrasonography, respectively). The primary endpoint was the lack of major adverse events (MAEs), defined as death, stroke, and myocardial infarction within 30 days, and ipsilateral stroke within 1 year. The performance goal was set at 90.5%. MAE rates were also compared between the CEA high- and normal-risk groups. RESULTS: 140 carotid artery stenting procedures, including 40% of patients at high risk and 60% at normal risk for CEA, were performed in 13 institutes. MAEs occurred in two cases (one intraprocedural and one postprocedural stroke), and the MAE rate was 1.4%. The non-MAE rate was 98.6% according to Kaplan-Meier analysis, which was superior to the previously set performance goal. The deployment success, target lesion revascularization (TLR), in-stent restenosis, and cerebrovascular event rates were 99.3%, 2.4%, 8.5%, and 7.2%, respectively. The MAE rate in patients with normal CEA risk was 1.2%, which was similar to the high-risk CEA group, with no significant difference due to the small number of MAEs. CONCLUSIONS: The MAE rate following use of the CASPER stent was low (1.4%). The MAE, deployment success, TLR, in-stenosis, and cerebrovascular event rates were similar to those of previous reports.

10.
World Neurosurg ; 143: e199-e205, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810631

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Many studies of external-internal carotid artery (EC-IC) bypass as cerebral revascularization for unclippable internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms have reported surgical outcomes, including bypass patency and aneurysm resolution. However, no previous studies have assessed the long-term outcomes of cerebral blood flow (CBF), brain neural density, and cognition. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the long-term outcomes of CBF and neurotransmitter receptor function using early and late images of iodine-123 (123I)-iomazenil (IMZ) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and the cognitive function of patients who had undergone EC-IC bypass for symptomatic aneurysms in the cavernous portion of the ICA. METHODS: We performed a prospective observational study of 11 patients who had undergone superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery bypass or bypass using a saphenous vein graft for symptomatic aneurysms in the cavernous portion of the ICA. One patient experienced extensive infarction and, therefore, did not undergo postoperative testing. 123I-IMZ SPECT was performed with scanning at 23 minutes (early) and 180 minutes (late) after tracer administration before and after surgery. The preoperative and follow-up neuropsychological test scores from 6 patients were also analyzed. RESULTS: None of 10 patients who had undergone EC-IC bypass showed reductions in CBF and brain neural density. In addition, the neuropsychological test scores had not changed significantly from preoperatively to postoperatively. CONCLUSION: Using early and late 123I-IMZ SPECT, the present study has demonstrated that patients undergoing uncomplicated cerebral revascularization for unclippable ICA aneurysms will not experience reductions in CBF or neurotransmitter receptor function, and their cognitive function was not impaired.

11.
BMJ Open ; 10(8): e033055, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764079

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Comprehensive stroke centre (CSC) capabilities are associated with reduced in-hospital mortality due to acute stroke. However, it remains unclear whether there are improving trends in the CSC capabilities or how hospital-related factors determine quality improvement. This study examined whether CSC capabilities changed in Japan between 2010 and 2018 and and whether any changes were influenced by hospital characteristics. DESIGN: A hospital-based cross-sectional study. SETTING: We sent out questionnaires to the training institutions of the Japan Neurosurgical Society and Japan Stroke Society in 2010, 2014 and 2018. PARTICIPANTS: 749 hospitals in 2010, 532 hospitals in 2014 and 786 hospitals in 2018 participated in the J-ASPECT study, a nationwide survey of acute stroke care capacity for proper designation of a comprehensive stroke centre in Japan. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: CSC capabilities were assessed using the validated scoring system (CSC score: 1-25 points) in 2010, 2014 and 2018 survey. The effect of hospital characteristics was examined using multiple logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Among the 323 hospitals that responded to all surveys, the implementation of 13 recommended items increased. The CSC score (median and IQR) was 16 (13-19), 18 (14-20) and 19 (15-21) for 2010, 2014 and 2018, respectively (p<0.001). There was a ≥20% increase in six items (eg, endovascular physicians, stroke unit and interventional coverage 24/7), and a ≤20% decrease in community education. A lower baseline CSC score (OR: 0.82, 95% CI 0.75 to 0.9), the number of beds≥500 (OR: 3.9, 95% CI 1.2 to 13.0) and the number of stroke physicians (7-9) (OR: 2.6, 95% CI 1.1 to 6.3) were associated with improved CSC capabilities, independent of geographical location. CONCLUSIONS: There was a significant improvement in CSC capabilities between 2010 and 2018, which was mainly related to the availability of endovascular treatment and multidisciplinary care. Our findings may be useful to determine which hospitals should be targeted to improve CSC capabilities in a defined area.

12.
Nucl Med Commun ; 41(11): 1161-1168, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32815897

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) often restores cerebral perfusion and neurotransmitter receptor function, which is seen on early and late images, respectively, on brain I-iomazenil single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The reliability of gait-related parameters obtained using a triaxial accelerometer, a portable device for gait assessment, has been confirmed with test-retest measurements. The purpose of the present prospective cohort study was to determine whether improvement in gait function after CEA is associated with postoperative recovery in perfusion and neurotransmitter receptor function in the motor-related cerebral cortex. METHODS: Gait testing using a triaxial accelerometer was performed preoperatively and 6 months postoperatively in 64 patients undergoing CEA for ipsilateral internal carotid artery stenosis (≥70%). I-iomazenil SPECT was also performed with scanning within 30 min (early images) and at 180 min (late images) after tracer administration before and after surgery. SPECT data were analyzed using a three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection, and motor (Brodmann 4) and premotor (Brodmann 6) cortexes in each hemisphere were combined and defined as the motor-related cortex. RESULTS: Based on preoperative and postoperative gait testing, seven patients (11%) showed postoperative improved gait. Logistic regression analysis revealed that postoperative increase in I-iomazenil uptake in the motor-related cortex ipsilateral to surgery on early [95% confidence interval (CI), 4.32-365.21; P = 0.0477) or late (95% CI, 9.45-1572.57; P = 0.0173) images was an independent predictor of postoperative improved gait. CONCLUSIONS: Improvement in gait function after CEA is associated with postoperative recovery in perfusion and neurotransmitter receptor function in the motor-related cerebral cortex.

13.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(9): 105081, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807478

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) to acetazolamide (ACZ) on single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can be used to assess the severity of chronic cerebral ischemia; however, this is an invasive method. We examined whether whole-brain magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) at 7T could non-invasively detect impaired CVR in patients with chronic cerebral ischemia by demonstrating the leptomeningeal collaterals (LMCs). METHODS: Fifty-seven patients with symptomatic unilateral cervical stenosis underwent whole-brain time-of-flight MRA at 7T and cerebral perfusion SPECT before/after the ACZ challenge. MRA images were visually assessed based on 6-point grading systems to evaluate the development of LMCs toward the middle cerebral artery (MCA) and antegrade flow of MCA. CVR of the affected side was calculated from the SPECT data. Subsequently, we compared the LMC grades on MRA with CVR on SPECT. RESULTS: CVR was significantly lower in grades ≥ 2 of LMCs than in grades 0-1 (P < 0.05) when applying LMCs from the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) and/or posterior cerebral artery (PCA). These differences were more evident than those in the grading of the antegrade MCA flow. The LMC grades from ACA/PCA readily detected reduced CVR (< 18.4%) with a sensitivity/specificity of 0.79/0.82. CONCLUSION: The development of LMCs on whole-brain MRA at 7T can non-invasively detect reduced CVR with a high sensitivity/specificity in patients with unilateral cervical stenosis.


Assuntos
Angiografia Cerebral/métodos , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Circulação Colateral , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética , Meninges/irrigação sanguínea , Artéria Cerebral Média/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência Vertebrobasilar/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença Crônica , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Artéria Cerebral Média/fisiopatologia , Imagem de Perfusão , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único , Insuficiência Vertebrobasilar/fisiopatologia
14.
World Neurosurg ; 141: 15-19, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intraorbital arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) are rare lesions, and their treatment is challenging. We have presented a case of an intraorbital AVF treated with endovascular embolization through the surgically accessed basal vein of Rosenthal. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 53-year-old man had been referred to our hospital for an aneurysm-like lesion that was compressing the left optic chiasm. A left internal carotid angiogram demonstrated an orbital AVF fed by a distal segment of the ophthalmic arteries and the anterior branch of the inferolateral trunk that was drained solely into a tortuous basal vein of Rosenthal through a bridging vein of the left optic nerve sheath. Considering the risk of hemorrhagic complications during transvenous manipulation and visual complication in cases of transarterial embolization, combined surgical and transvenous embolization was attempted through the translocated basal vein of Rosenthal to bypass the dangerous path to the fistula. The lesion was directly catheterized through the translocated basal vein of Rosenthal after confirming visual tolerance to brief drainage occlusion using visual evoked potential monitoring, resulting in successful fistula obliteration using detachable coils. CONCLUSION: Direct catheterization of the translocated deep draining vein was useful to bypass the dangerous access to the fistula and could be a feasible alternative strategy for treating selected AVFs.

15.
No Shinkei Geka ; 48(6): 521-526, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32572004

RESUMO

Second impact syndrome occurrs when a patient who has sustained an initial head injury, most often a concussion, sustains a second head injury before the symptoms associated with the first have fully resolved, leading to rapid brain swelling and herniation. However, the underlying pathophysiology remains unclear. We report two cases in which acute subdural hematoma with rapid malignant brain swelling developed after repeated head traumas while snowboarding. One patient did not undergo craniotomy and died 21h after symptom onset. The other underwent urgent decompressive craniotomy and experienced prolonged disturbance of consciousness. Axial susceptibility-weighted magnetic resonance imaging performed 1 month after surgery in the second patient revealed multiple microbleeds in the subcortical white matter and parasagittal white matter in the bilateral hemispheres. These findings indicate that axonal injuries from angular acceleration may contribute to the rapid malignant brain swelling and poor outcomes.


Assuntos
Concussão Encefálica , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais , Hematoma Subdural Agudo , Esqui , Humanos
16.
J Hypertens ; 38(6): 1149-1157, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371805

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a common predictor of the cardiovascular prognosis in chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, whether or not electrocardiography-derived LVH (ECG-LVH) has prognostic value in patients with various degrees of CKD and improves the cardiovascular risk stratification based on traditional risk factors remains unclear. METHODS: A total of 7206 participants at least 40 years of age who were free from cardiovascular events in a general population were followed for the incidence of cardiovascular events. CKD was confirmed by either the presence of a reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (<60 ml/min per 1.73 m) or albuminuria, defined as a urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) of at least 30 mg/g Cr. RESULTS: A total of 1886 (26.2%) had CKD, of which 1471 (78.0%) had a preserved eGFR (CKD stage 1-2). After an average 11.3 years of follow-up, the adjusted hazard ratio for the incidence of cardiovascular events significantly increased for ECG-LVH according to the Sokolow--Lyon voltage, Cornell voltage, or Cornell voltage product among participants with CKD (hazard ratio 1.47, P = 0.002), in contrast to those without CKD (hazard ratio 1.15, P = 0.210). The inclusion of any ECG-LVH parameters improved the accuracy of reclassification in any risk prediction model based on the eGFR, UACR, or Framingham 10-year risk score in the CKD participants (net reclassification improvement = 0.13-0.32, all P values <0.040). CONCLUSION: In patients with CKD stage 1-5, ECG-LVH is useful for predicting the risk of future cardiovascular events and adds prognostic information to traditional cardiovascular risk assessments.

17.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 8404, 2020 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32439877

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate whether intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) parameters can identify ischemic changes in the rat cerebral cortex using a preclinical ultra-high-field 11.7 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (11.7TMRI) scanner. In nine female Wistar rats (eight weeks old), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for IVIM analysis was successfully performed before (Pre) and after unilateral (UCCAO) and bilateral (BCCAO) common carotid artery occlusion. From the acquired DWI signals averaged in six regions of interest (ROI) placed on the cortex, volume fraction of perfusion compartment (F), pseudo diffusion coefficient (D*), F × D* and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were determined as IVIM parameters in the following three DWI signal models: the bi-exponential, kurtosis, and tri-exponential model. For a subgroup analysis, four rats that survived two weeks after BCCAO were assigned to the long survival (LS) group, whereas the non-LS group consisted of the remaining five animals. Each IVIM parameter change among three phases (Pre, UCCAO and BCCAO) was statistically examined in each ROI. Then, the change in each rat group was also examined for subgroup analysis. All three models were able to identify cerebral ischemic change and damage as IVIM parameter change among three phases. Furthermore, the kurtosis model could identify the parameter changes in more regions than the other two models. In the subgroup analysis with the kurtosis model, ADC in non-LS group significantly decreased between UCCAO and BCCAO but not in LS group. IVIM parameters at 11.7TMRI may help us to detect the subtle ischemic change; in particular, with the kurtosis model.

18.
Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo) ; 60(4): 165-190, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238620

RESUMO

The Japan Neurosurgical Database (JND) is a prospective observational study registry established in 2017 by the Japan Neurosurgical Society (JNS) to visualize real-world clinical practice, promote science, and improve the quality of care and neurosurgery board certification in Japan. We summarize JND's aims and methods, and describes the 2018 survey results. The JND registered in-hospital patients' clinical data mainly from JNS training institutions in 2018. Caseload, patient demographics, and in-hospital outcomes of the overall cohort and a neurosurgical subgroup were examined according to major classifications of main diagnosis. Neurosurgical caseload per neurosurgeon in training in core hospitals in 2018 was calculated as an indicator of neurosurgical training. Of 523,283 cases (male 55.3%) registered from 1360 participating institutions, the neurosurgical subgroup comprised of 33.9%. Among the major classifications, cerebrovascular diseases comprised the largest proportion overall and in the neurosurgical subgroup (53.1%, 41.0%, respectively), followed by neurotrauma (19.1%, 25.5%), and brain tumor (10.4%, 12.8%). Functional neurosurgery (6.4%, 3.7%), spinal and peripheral nerve disorders (5.1%, 10.1%), hydrocephalus/developmental anomalies (2.9%, 5.3%), and encephalitis/infection/inflammatory and miscellaneous diseases (2.9%, 1.6%) comprised smaller proportions. Most patients were aged 70-79 years in the overall cohort and neurosurgical subgroup (27.8%, 29.4%). Neurotrauma and cerebrovascular diseases in the neurosurgical subgroup comprised a higher and lower proportion, respectively, than in the overall cohort in elderly patients (e.g. 80 years, 46.9% vs. 33.5%, 26.8% vs. 54.4%). The 2018 median neurosurgical caseload per neurosurgeon in training was 80.7 (25-75th percentile 51.5-117.5). These initial results from 2018 reveal unique aspects of neurosurgical practice in Japan.

19.
J Neurosurg ; : 1-11, 2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32168489

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Improved outcomes in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) treated at high-volume centers have been reported. The authors sought to examine whether hospital case volume and comprehensive stroke center (CSC) capabilities affect outcomes in patients treated with clipping or coiling for SAH. METHODS: The authors conducted a nationwide retrospective cohort study in 27,490 SAH patients who underwent clipping or coiling in 621 institutions between 2010 and 2015 and whose data were collected from the Japanese nationwide J-ASPECT Diagnosis Procedure Combination database. The CSC capabilities of each hospital were assessed by use of a validated scoring system based on answers to a previously reported 25-item questionnaire (CSC score 1-25 points). Hospitals were classified into quartiles based on CSC scores and case volumes of clipping or coiling for SAH. RESULTS: Overall, the absolute risk reductions associated with high versus low case volumes and high versus low CSC scores were relatively small. Nevertheless, in patients who underwent clipping, a high case volume (> 14 cases/yr) was significantly associated with reduced in-hospital mortality (Q1 as control, Q4 OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.55-0.90) but not with short-term poor outcome. In patients who underwent coiling, a high case volume (> 9 cases/yr) was associated with reduced in-hospital mortality (Q4 OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.53-0.90) and short-term poor outcomes (Q3 [> 5 cases/yr] OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.59-0.96 vs Q4 OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.51-0.82). A high CSC score (> 19 points) was significantly associated with reduced in-hospital mortality for clipping (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.54-0.86) but not coiling treatment. There was no association between CSC capabilities and short-term poor outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The effects of case volume and CSC capabilities on in-hospital mortality and short-term functional outcomes in SAH patients differed between patients undergoing clipping and those undergoing coiling. In the modern endovascular era, better outcomes of clipping may be achieved in facilities with high CSC capabilities.

20.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(4): 104680, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32057651

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Complete removal of the distal end of the plaque is an important requirement in carotid endarterectomy (CEA) to avoid postoperative complication. Preoperative identification of the distal end of plaque contributes to complete plaque removal. Three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance (MR) plaque imaging has been widely used to evaluate carotid plaque characterization. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether preoperative 3D fast spin echo (FSE) T1-weighted MR plaque imaging could identify the distal end of carotid plaque. METHODS: This study was designed as a prospective cohort study. We examined 50 patients with cervical internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis who underwent CEA. 3D-FSE T1-weighted MR plaque imaging of the affected carotid bifurcation was preoperatively performed using a 1.5-T scanner. Identification of the distal end of plaque (DEMRI) on MR plaque imaging was performed and the distance from the baseline (DistanceMRI) was measured. Intraoperatively, the superimposed distal end of carotid plaque (Esim) was marked on the ICA according to the measurement on MR plaque imaging. The actual distal end of plaque (DECEA) was then identified after arteriotomy and the difference (DifferenceCEA-MRI) between Esim and DECEA was measured. Contrast ratio of carotid plaque and tortuosity of the ICA were calculated using MR plaque imaging. RESULTS: Interobserver agreements in measurement of DistanceMRI were excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient, .955; 95% confidence interval, .922-.974). In 28 patients (56%), Esim was identical to DECEA. Mean DifferenceCEA-MRI was 1.32 ± 1.77 mm. DifferenceCEA-MRI was significantly greater with fibrotic plaque (4.14 ± 1.21 mm) than with lipid-rich or necrotic plaque (.43 ± .87 mm; P < .05) or hemorrhagic plaque (1.27 ± 1.64 mm; P < .05). Mean DifferenceCEA-MRI was significantly greater in the group with tortuosity of the ICA less than 120° (3.86 ± 1.77 mm) than in the group with greater than or equal to 120° but less than or equal to 150° (1.15 ± 1.51 mm; P < .05) or greater than150° (0.50 ± 1.10 mm; P < .05). No patients showed residual stenosis after surgery on postoperative MR angiography. CONCLUSIONS: Using 3D-FSE T1-weighted MR plaque imaging allowed identification of the distal end of carotid plaque and contributed to complete removal of the plaque, although it may be reduced for cases with low-signal-intensity plaque or severe tortuosity of the ICA.


Assuntos
Artéria Carótida Interna/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose das Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento Tridimensional , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética , Placa Aterosclerótica , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Artéria Carótida Interna/cirurgia , Estenose das Carótidas/cirurgia , Endarterectomia das Carótidas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
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