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1.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500669

RESUMO

Five glutinous purple rice cultivars and non-glutinous purple rice cultivated in different altitudes in the north of Thailand were collected. The samples were extracted using ethanol and determined for anthocyanins using HPLC. The total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities against foodborne pathogens were investigated. The highland glutinous cultivar named Khao' Gam Luem-Phua (KGLP) extract had significantly high levels of cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, peonidin 3-O-glucoside, delphinidin 3-O-glucoside, TPC, and TFC, as well as exerting a potent antioxidant activity through ABTS assay (524.26 ± 4.63 VCEAC, mg l-ascorbic-ascorbic/g extract), lipid peroxidation (IC50 = 19.70 ± 0.31 µg/mL), superoxide anions (IC50 = 11.20 ± 0.25 µg/mL), nitric oxide (IC50 = 17.12 ± 0.56 µg/mL), a suppression effect on nitric oxide (IC50 = 18.32 ± 0.82 µg/mL), and an inducible nitric oxide synthase production (IC50 = 23.43 ± 1.21 µg/mL) in combined lipopolysaccharide-interferon-γ-activated RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells. Additionally, KGLP also exhibited antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella Enteritidis, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. These results indicate that Thai glutinous purple rice cultivated on the highland could be a potent natural source of antioxidants, anti-inflammatories, and antimicrobial agents for use as a natural active pharmaceutical ingredient in functional food and nutraceutical products.

2.
Clin Rheumatol ; 2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34554329

RESUMO

Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors have been developed as disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. Despite the positive therapeutic impacts of JAK inhibitors, concerns have been raised regarding the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), such as deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). A recent post hoc safety analysis of placebo-controlled trials of JAK inhibitors in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) reported an imbalance in the incidence of VTE for a 4-mg daily dose of baricitinib versus placebo. In a recent postmarketing surveillance trial for RA, a significantly higher incidence of PE was reported in treatment with tofacitinib (10 mg twice daily) compared with tofacitinib 5 mg or tumor necrosis factor inhibitors. We also experienced a case of massive PE occurring 3 months after starting baricitinib (4 mg once daily) for multiple biologic-resistant RA. Nevertheless, the evidence to support the role of JAK inhibitors in VTE risk remains insufficient. There are a number of predisposing conditions and risk factors for VTE. In addition to the known risk factors that can provoke VTE, advanced age, obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and smoking can also contribute to its development. Greater VTE risk is noted in patients with chronic inflammatory conditions, particularly RA patients with uncontrolled disease activity and any comorbidity. Prior to the initiation of JAK inhibitors, clinicians should consider both the number and strength of VTE risk factors for each patient. In addition, clinicians should advise patients to seek prompt medical help if they develop clinical signs and symptoms that suggest VTE/PE. Key Points • Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are at increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), especially those with uncontrolled, high disease activity and those with comorbidities. • In addition to the well-known risk factors that provoke VTE events, advanced age and cardiovascular risk factors, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and smoking, should be considered risk factors for VTE. • Although a signal of VTE/pulmonary embolism (PE) risk with JAK inhibitors has been noted in RA patients who are already at high risk, the evidence is currently insufficient to support the increased risk of VTE during RA treatment with JAK inhibitors. • If there are no suitable alternatives, clinicians should prescribe JAK inhibitors with caution, considering both the strength of individual risk factors and the cumulative weight of all risk factors for each patient.

3.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 69(8): 789-795, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34334523

RESUMO

In this study, the effect of contact time, temperature, pH, and coexistences on the adsorption of phosphate ions using the complex nickel-aluminum-zirconium hydroxide (NAZ) was evaluated. Moreover, the recovery of adsorbed phosphate ions from NAZ using desorption solution with different concentrations was demonstrated. The results showed that the quantity of phosphate ions adsorbed gradually increased with time, and the adsorption equilibrium was achieved within 24 h after adsorption. This kinetic data could be well described by the pseudo-second-order model with the correlation coefficient in the value of 0.997. Additionally, the quantity of phosphate which was adsorbed increased as temperature increased, and these results corresponded well with both the Langmuir, the correlation coefficient ranged from 0.920-0.949, and Freundlich models, the correlation coefficient ranged from 0.863-0.995. These results showed that the adsorption of phosphate ion was monolayer adsorption onto the NAZ surface. The optimal pH for removal of phosphate ions from aqueous media was during 4-8. In addition, chloride, nitrate, and sulfate ions did not significantly affect to the adsorption capability of phosphate ions in the complex solution system. Finally, the phosphate ions which were adsorbed onto NAZ could be recovered using sodium sulfate solution (recovery percentage: approx. 50% using sodium sulfate solution at 1000 mmol/L). These results highlight the potential of using NAZ as the cost-effectiveness adsorbent for phosphate ions removal from aqueous media.


Assuntos
Alumínio/química , Hidróxidos/química , Níquel/química , Fosfatos/química , Zircônio/química , Adsorção , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Íons/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Propriedades de Superfície , Termodinâmica
4.
Plants (Basel) ; 10(8)2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34451693

RESUMO

The current study investigated the inhibiting effect on reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS), and matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) production in a cell-based study of standardized rosmarinic acid enriched extract (SRAEE) prepared from Thunbergia laurifolia leaves. HPLC chromatogram revealed that rosmarinic acid is a major component in prepared SRAEE, followed by caffeic acid. SRAEE exhibited antioxidant activity both in vitro and cell-based studies. SRAEE showed scavenging effects on nitric oxide and superoxide anion and inhibition effects on lipid peroxidation in vitro. SRAEE also inhibited ROS and MMP-1 production in normal human dermal fibroblast cells induced by H2O2 and UVA, respectively, without exerted cytotoxicity. Additionally, collagen degradation was protected by SRAEE induced by UVA. Nitric oxide and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) productions were also inhibited by SRAEE in RAW264.7 mouse macrophage cells induced by combined lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-interferon-γ (IFN-γ). The results indicated that SRAEE is a potential candidate as a natural pharmaceutical active ingredient for cosmeceutical product application.

5.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 5343-5356, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34413642

RESUMO

Purpose: The multi-instillation of three commercially available (CA) eye drops [fluorometholone (FL)-, bromfenac (BF)- and levofloxacin (LV)-eye drops] has been used to manage pain and inflammation post-intraocular surgery. However, the multi-instillation of these three eye drops causes corneal damage, and the FL drops have the disadvantage of low ocular bioavailability. To overcome these problems, we prepared fixed-combination eye drops based on FL nanoparticles (FL-NPs) and BF/LV solution (nFBL-FC), and evaluated the corneal toxicity and transcorneal penetration of the nFBL-FC eye drops. Methods: FL powder was mixed in 2-hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin solution containing benzalkonium chloride, mannitol and methylcellulose, and milled with a Bead Smash 12 (5500 rpm for 30 s×30 times). The BF/LV solution was then added to the milled-dispersions to be used as nFBL-FC. The FL, BF and LV concentrations were measured by HPLC methods, and transcorneal penetration was evaluated in rabbits. Results: The FL particle size in nFBL-FC was 40-150 nm, with only 0.0018% in liquid form. No aggregation of FL particles in the nFBL-FC was observed for 1 month. The viability of human corneal epithelial cells treated with nFBL-FC was remarkably higher than that of cells subjected to the multi-instillation of the corresponding three CA-eye drops. In addition, the corneal penetrations (AUC) of the FL, BF and LV in nFBL-FC were 4.9-, 1.8-, and 7.1-fold those of the corresponding CA-eye drops, respectively. Moreover, the caveolae-dependent endocytosis (CavME) inhibitor (nystatin) significantly prevented the transcorneal penetration of these drugs. Conclusion: We prepared fixed-combination eye drops based on FL-NPs and BF/LV solution (nFBL-FC), and show that high levels of FL-NPs and dissolved BF/LV (liquid drugs) can be delivered into the aqueous humor by the instillation of nFBL-FC. Further, we show that CavME is mainly related to the enhancement of transcorneal penetration of both the solid (NPs) and liquid drugs.

6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066280

RESUMO

We previously designed a Carbopol gel formulation (N-IND/MEN) based on a combination of indomethacin solid nanoparticles (IND-NPs) and l-menthol, and we reported that the N-IND/MEN showed high transdermal penetration. However, the detailed mechanism for transdermal penetration of IND-NPs was not clearly defined. In this study, we investigated whether endocytosis in the skin tissue of rat and Göttingen minipig is related to the transdermal penetration of IND-NPs using pharmacological inhibitors of endocytosis. The pharmacological inhibitors used in this study are as follows: 54 µM nystatin, a caveolae-mediated endocytosis (CavME) inhibitor; 40 µM dynasore, a clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) inhibitor; and 2 µM rottlerin, a micropinocytosis (MP) inhibitor. The N-IND/MEN was prepared by a bead mill method, and the particle size of solid indomethacin was 79-216 nm. In both rat and Göttingen minipig skin, skin penetration of approximately 80% IND-NPs was limited by the stratum corneum (SC), although the penetration of SC was improved by the combination of l-menthol. On the other hand, the treatment of nystatin and dynasore decreased the transdermal penetration of indomethacin in rats and Göttingen minipigs treated with N-IND/MEN. Moreover, in addition to nystatin and dynasore, rottlerin attenuated the transdermal penetration of IND-NPs in the Göttingen minipigs' skin. In conclusion, we found that l-menthol enhanced the SC penetration of IND-NPs. In addition, this study suggests that the SC-passed IND-NPs are absorbed into the skin tissue by energy-dependent endocytosis (CavME, CME, and/or MP pathways) on the epidermis under the SC, resulting in an enhancement in transdermal penetration of IND-NPs. These findings provide significant information for the design of nanomedicines in transdermal formulations.


Assuntos
Endocitose , Indometacina/administração & dosagem , Mentol/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Absorção Cutânea , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Cutânea , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Antipruriginosos/administração & dosagem , Composição de Medicamentos , Metabolismo Energético , Masculino , Nanopartículas/química , Ratos , Suínos , Porco Miniatura
7.
Pharmaceutics ; 13(3)2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809008

RESUMO

Postprandial hyperglycemia, a so-called blood glucose spike, is associated with enhanced risks of diabetes mellitus (DM) and its complications. In this study, we attempted to design nanoparticles (NPs) of protamine zinc insulin (PZI) by the bead mill method, and prepare ophthalmic formulations based on the PZI-NPs with (nPZI/P) or without polyacrylic acid (nPZI). In addition, we investigated whether the instillation of the newly developed nPZI and nPZI/P can prevent postprandial hyperglycemia in a rabbit model involving the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The particle size of PZI was decreased by the bead mill to a range for both nPZI and nPZI/P of 80-550 nm with no observable aggregation for 6 d. Neither nPZI nor nPZI/P caused any noticeable corneal toxicity. The plasma INS levels in rabbits instilled with nPZI were significantly higher than in rabbits instilled with INS suspensions (commercially available formulations, CA-INS), and the plasma INS levels were further enhanced with the amount of polyacrylic acid in the nPZI/P. In addition, the rapid rise in plasma glucose levels in OGTT-treated rabbits was prevented by a single instillation of nPZI/P, which was significantly more effective at attenuating postprandial hyperglycemia (blood glucose spike) in comparison with nPZI. In conclusion, we designed nPZI/P, and show that a single instillation before OGTT attenuates the rapid enhancement of plasma glucose levels. These findings suggest a better management strategy for the postprandial blood glucose spike, which is an important target of DM therapy.

8.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 69(1): 86-91, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33390525

RESUMO

In this study, complex nickel-aluminum hydroxides were prepared at different molar ratios (NA12, NA11, NA21, NA31, and NA41), and their adsorption capability on arsenic ions (As(III)) from aqueous media was assessed. The physicochemical properties such as morphology, X-ray diffraction pattern, specific surface area, numbers of hydroxyl groups, and surface pH were investigated. In addition, the effect of contact time, temperature, and pH on the adsorption capability on As(III) was also evaluated. NA41 exerted the highest adsorption capability on As(III) comparable to other prepared adsorbents. However, the specific surface area and numbers of hydroxyl groups did not significantly affect the adsorption capability on As(III). The equilibrium adsorption of As(III) using NA41 was achieved within 24 h, and the obtained results corresponded to a pseudo-second-order model with correlation coefficient value of 0.980. Additionally, the adsorption isotherms were well described by both the Langmuir and Freundlich equations. The optimal pH condition for removal of As(III) using NA41 was found to be approximately 6-8. Finally, the adsorption mechanism of As(III) was assessed by analyzing the binding energy and elemental distribution, which indicated that the electrostatic interaction and ion exchange influenced the adsorption of As(III) under experimental conditions. These results demonstrated the potential candidate of NA41 as an effective adsorbent on As(III) removal from aqueous media.


Assuntos
Alumínio/química , Arsênio/isolamento & purificação , Hidróxidos/química , Níquel/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/isolamento & purificação , Adsorção , Arsênio/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Tamanho da Partícula , Propriedades de Superfície , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
9.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 69(1): 92-98, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33390526

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of acid-activated bentonite by focusing on its capability of improving the quality of tap water used during wire electrical discharge machining. Raw bentonite (RB) was activated using sulfuric acid, nitric acid, and phosphoric acid solutions with concentrations of 1, 5, and 10 mol/L, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy images, specific surface area, pore volume, cation exchange capacity, X-ray diffraction patterns, and binding energy of RB and acid-activated bentonites were also evaluated. The specific surface area and pore volume of acid-activated bentonites exceeded those of RB. Conversely, the cation exchange capacity of acid-activated bentonites exhibited an opposite trend. The electrical conductivity of tap water was decreased significantly due to bentonite activated with sulfuric acid, nitric acid, and phosphoric acid solution (removal percentage of approximately 31-39%), as compared to that due to RB. Therefore, the relationship between electrical conductivity and the removed concentration of anion/cation ions was evaluated; the correlation coefficient was -0.950 for the experimental condition in this study. Additionally, the amount of magnesium, calcium, potassium, and sodium ions were decreased after the treatment. These results indicated that acid-activated bentonite can be produced from RB via acid activation and that it can be used to decrease electrical conductivity of tap water.


Assuntos
Bentonita/química , Ácido Nítrico/química , Ácidos Fosfóricos/química , Ácidos Sulfúricos/química , Água/química , Condutividade Elétrica , Tamanho da Partícula , Controle de Qualidade , Soluções
10.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 140(12): 1463-1470, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33268687

RESUMO

To decrease the amount of waste biomass and develop a useful application. Coconut fiber (CF) was used to prepare a novel adsorbent to remove methylene blue (MB), which is a recalcitrant organic compound in the water environment. We were able to produce novel adsorbents such as CCF500 and CCF1000 by the calcination treatment of CF. The specific surface area and pore volume of CCF1000 were higher than those of CF or CCF500. Quantity of MB adsorbed was in the order; CCF5000.986). The adsorption mechanism of MB using CCF1000 was demonstrated in this study. The intensities of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and sulfur (S) onto CCF1000 surface increased after adsorption of MB. In addition, the binding energies of nitrogen (1s) at approximately 400 eV and sulfur (2s and 2p) at approximately 165 and 230 eV which were generated after adsorption. Therefore, the adsorption of MB from aquatic solution was strongly involved with the physicochemical properties of CCF1000 surface. Our findings showed that CCF500 and CCF1000 could be produced from CF by calcination treatment, which demonstrates that the amount of waste biomass decreased. In particular, CCF1000 displays the capability to adsorb MB from aquatic solution. These results showed that CCF1000 could be a useful adsorbent for aquatic environment purification.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Cocos , Azul de Metileno/isolamento & purificação , Poluentes Químicos da Água/isolamento & purificação , Poluição da Água/prevenção & controle , Adsorção , Carbono , Fenômenos Químicos , Azul de Metileno/química , Nitrogênio , Enxofre , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
11.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 140(9): 1165-1173, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879248

RESUMO

Relationship between water molecules and parent and hydroxypropylated cyclodextrins (denoted as CD and HP-CD) was assessed in this paper. The trends in ad-desorption isotherms of CD for water molecule were quite different compared to those of HP-CD. Ad-desorption isotherms of CD showed the hysteresis under our experimental conditions. The molar ratio of hydration (R-value) using α-CD, ß-CD, γ-CD, HP-α-CD, HP-ß-CD, and HP-γ-CD was 7.1, 11.4, 13.5, 12.5, 14.0, and 16.7, respectively. These results indicated that the adsorption capability of water molecule of HP-CD was greater than that of CD. Additionally, the changes in characteristics of CD and HP-CD at different water activity conditions were demonstrated. X-ray diffraction patterns were significantly different between CD and HP-CD. The crystal structure of HP-α-CD, HP-ß-CD, and HP-γ-CD showed amorphous at different water activity conditions. Finally, sorption entropy and heat of sorption of water molecules were calculated in this experiment. In summary, these results provide useful information for understanding the relationship between water molecules and parent and hydroxypropylated cyclodextrins.


Assuntos
Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Água/química , 2-Hidroxipropil-beta-Ciclodextrina/química , Adsorção , Cristalização , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
12.
Cells ; 9(10)2020 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993012

RESUMO

We attempted to design an ophthalmic in situ gel formulation incorporating disulfiram (DIS) nanoparticles (Dis-NPs/ISG) and demonstrated the therapeutic effect of Dis-NPs/ISG on retinal dysfunction in 15-month-old Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats, a rat model of diabetes. The DIS particles were crushed using a bead mill to prepare the nanoparticles, and the Dis-NPs/ISG was prepared using a combination of the DIS nanoparticles and an in situ gelling system based on methylcellulose (MC). The particle size of the Dis-NPs/ISG was 80-250 nm, and there was no detectable precipitation or aggregation for 1 month. Moreover, the Dis-NPs/ISG was gelled at 37 °C, and the drug was delivered into the retina by instillation. Only diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) was detected in the retina (DIS was not detected) when the Dis-NPs/ISG was instilled in the right eye, and the DDC levels in the right retina were significantly higher than those in the left retina. In addition, the retinal residence time of the drug was prolonged by the application of the in situ gelling system, since the DDC levels in the retinas of rats instilled with Dis-NPs/ISG were higher than those in DIS nanoparticles without MC. Furthermore, repetitive instillation of the Dis-NPs/ISG attenuated the deterioration of electroretinograms (ERGs) in 15-month-old OLETF rats by preventing the collapse of ATP production via excessive nitric oxide and recovered the decrease in retinal function. These findings provide important information for the development of novel therapeutic approaches to diabetic retinopathy.


Assuntos
Retinopatia Diabética/tratamento farmacológico , Géis/farmacologia , Nanopartículas/uso terapêutico , Doenças Retinianas/tratamento farmacológico , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Retinopatia Diabética/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Dissulfiram/química , Dissulfiram/farmacologia , Géis/química , Humanos , Nanopartículas/química , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos OLETF , Retina/efeitos dos fármacos , Retina/patologia , Doenças Retinianas/patologia
13.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 140(8): 955-960, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741867

RESUMO

A nickel-aluminium-zirconium complex-layered hydroxide (NAZ), which was synthesized using each inorganic sulfate mixing ratio of 0.9 : 1.0 : 0.1, was prepared and calcined at different temperatures. The physicochemical properties of the NAZ were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, specific surface area, number of hydroxyl groups, and pore volume. The specific surface area, number of hydroxyl groups, and pore volume of NAZ was 51.9 m2/g, 1.08 mmol/g, and 0.27 µL/g, respectively. The amount of phosphate ion adsorbed onto NAZ was higher than that onto calcined NAZ at different temperatures. Therefore, the interaction between phosphate ions and NAZ was assessed using the elemental distribution analysis and the binding energy. After adsorption, the intensity of phosphorus atoms increased, indicating that the phosphate ions were adsorbed onto the NAZ surface. Additionally, phosphorus peaks (189 eV for 2s and 130 eV for 2p), which were not detected before adsorption, were clearly detected after adsorption. On the other hand, the intensity of the sulfur peak (165 eV for 2p) decreased after adsorption. Thus, we evaluated the ion exchange between phosphate ion and sulfate ion in the interlayer space of the NAZ. As a result, the correlation coefficient between the amount of phosphate ion adsorbed and the amount of sulfate ion released was positively correlated (r=0.960). Therefore, it can be clearly stated that one of the adsorption mechanisms of phosphate ions was related to ion exchange in the interlayer space of the NAZ. These findings are useful for preventing the eutrophication and recovery of phosphate ion in water environments.


Assuntos
Complexos de Coordenação/química , Complexos de Coordenação/síntese química , Hidróxidos/química , Hidróxidos/síntese química , Fosfatos/química , Adsorção , Alumínio , Fenômenos Químicos , Eutrofização , Troca Iônica , Íons , Microscopia Eletroquímica de Varredura , Níquel , Zircônio
14.
Heliyon ; 6(6): e04298, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32617421

RESUMO

Herein, to assess the adsorption capability and elucidate the adsorption mechanism of Cd(II) from the aqueous phase, virgin lignin (Lig) and calcined lignin (Lig200, Lig400, Lig600, Lig800, and Lig1000) were prepared. The characteristics, including specific surface area and pore volume of adsorbents, were investigated, and the adsorption capability along with the effect of temperature, contact time, and pH on the adsorption of Cd(II) were evaluated. The characteristics of the adsorbent surface were related to the adsorption capability of Cd(II) from the aqueous phase, and the correlation coefficients between the adsorbed amount and specific surface area and total pore volumes were 0.872 and 0.960, respectively. Moreover, the amount adsorbed using Lig800 (91.3 mg/g) was higher than that using other adsorbent samples. The adsorption mechanism was elucidated to investigate the binding energy and elemental distribution before and after Cd(II) adsorption. Finally, the desorption capability of Cd(II) from Lig800 using a hydrochloric acid solution was demonstrated. Results obtained herein suggest that Lig800 is a potential candidate for the removal of Cd(II).

15.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 68(6): 546-551, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32475859

RESUMO

The water quality in a river (water environment) is very important for human health and aquatic organisms. In 2015, the highly regarded Water Resources Management Strategy of Thailand was announced by The Ministry of Industry in Thailand. In this study, the water quality of the Ping river in Northern Thailand, including Chiang Mai and Lamphun provinces, was focused on and measured for three different seasons (summer, rainy, and winter seasons). Anions (F-, Cl-, NO2-, NO3-, and SO42-) and cations (Na+, Mg2+, Si4+, S6+, K+, and Ca2+) were qualified by an ion chromatograph and an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, respectively. The concentration of anions and cations (except for Mg2+ and Ca2+) in the Ping river at upstream (countryside) locations were lower than that at downstream (closer main city) locations, which indicated that the fertilizers, industrial or household wastewaters had been flowing into the Ping river at downstream locations. Additionally, the concentration of anions and cations in the rainy season was higher than other seasons. The present results provide the water quality of the Ping river which was not yet reported officially by the Thailand government.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Rios/química , Estações do Ano , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Qualidade da Água , Tailândia
16.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 140(5): 729-737, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32378677

RESUMO

In this study, we evaluated the efficiency of fly ash (FA) recycling technology, produced from a coal-fired power plant, with the capability to adsorb cesium ion[Cs(I)] and strontium ion [Sr(II)] from aqueous phase. Zeolite was produced from FA by hydrothermal treatment in an alkaline solution. Zeolite 12, 24, and 48 have a Garronite structure. Moreover, the specific surface area of Zeolite was greater than that of FA. Zeolite 12 demonstrated the adsorption capability of Cs(I) and Sr(II) from aqueous phase. Adsorption isotherms data fitted both the Langmuir equation (correlation coefficient: >0.895) and the Freundlich equation (correlation coefficient: >0.881). In addition, the kinetic data fitted the pseudo-second-order model when compared to the pseudo-first-order model. Cs(I) and Sr(II) were selectively adsorbed by Zeolite 12 in complex solution system. Our findings indicate that Zeolite can be produced from FA by hydrothermal treatment in an alkaline solution and shows the capability to adsorb Cs(I) and Sr(II) from aqueous phase. Therefore, Zeolite can be useful adsorbent for purification in water environments.


Assuntos
Césio , Cinza de Carvão/química , Temperatura Alta , Estrôncio , Zeolitas/química , Zeolitas/síntese química , Adsorção , Césio/efeitos adversos , Íons , Soluções , Estrôncio/efeitos adversos , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água/métodos
17.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 68(4): 339-344, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238651

RESUMO

In this study, we prepared novel Mg/Fe/Al hydroxides (MFA series: denoted by MFA1, MFA2, MF, and MA) and investigated their properties using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, the specific surface area, and amount of hydroxyl groups. Additionally, the phosphate adsorption capabilities of the MFA series or Fe-Mg type hydrotalcites (FHT3.0 and FHT5.0) were evaluated by examining the effects of the solution pH and contact time, and analyzing the adsorption isotherm and desorption characteristics. In MFA1, a strong correlation exists between the amount of adsorbed phosphate ions and surface hydroxyl groups, with a correlation coefficient of 0.95. The adsorption kinetics data fitted using the pseudo-second-order model performs better than the pseudo-first-order model. The adsorption isotherm data were also fitted using both the Freundlich and Langmuir models. Finally, the phosphate ions adsorbed on the MFA1 surfaces were desorbed using sodium hydroxide solution. These results indicate that MFA1 offers great potential for phosphate ion adsorption from aqueous solutions and functions as a renewable adsorbent.


Assuntos
Alumínio/química , Hidróxidos/síntese química , Ferro/química , Magnésio/química , Fosfatos/química , Adsorção , Hidróxidos/química , Íons/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Propriedades de Superfície
18.
Pharmaceutics ; 12(4)2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32244754

RESUMO

Meloxicam (MLX) is widely applied as a therapy for rheumatoid arthritis (RA); however, it takes far too long to reach its peak plasma concentration for a quick onset effect, and gastrointestinal toxicity has been observed in RA patients taking it. To solve these problems, we designed MLX solid nanoparticles (MLX-NPs) by the bead mill method and used them to prepare new oral formulations. The particle size of the MLX-NPs was approximately 20-180 nm, and they remained in the nano-size range for 1 month. The tmax of MLX-NPs was shorter than that of traditional MLX dispersions (MLX-TDs), and the intestinal penetration of MLX-NPs was significantly higher in comparison with MLX-TDs (P < 0.05). Caveolae-dependent endocytosis (CavME), clathrin-dependent endocytosis (CME), and micropinocytosis (MP) were found to be related to the high intestinal penetration of MLX-NPs. The area under the plasma MLX concentration-time curve (AUC) for MLX-NPs was 5-fold higher than that for MLX-TDs (P < 0.05), and the AUC in rats administered 0.05 mg/kg MLX-NPs were similar to rats administered the therapeutic dose of 0.2 mg/kg MLX-TDs. In addition, the anti-inflammatory effect of the MLX-NPs was also significantly higher than that of MLX-TDs at the corresponding dose (P < 0.05), and the therapeutic effect of 0.2 mg/kg MLX-TDs and 0.05 mg/kg MLX-NPs in adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA) rats showed no difference. Furthermore, the gastrointestinal lesions in AA rats treated repetitively with 0.05 mg/kg MLX-NPs were fewer than in rats receiving 0.2 mg/kg MLX-TDs (P < 0.05). In conclusion, we demonstrate that MLX solid nanoparticles allow a quick onset of therapeutic effect and that three endocytosis pathways, CavME, CME, and MP, are related to the high absorption of solid nanoparticles. In addition, we found that MLX solid nanoparticles make it possible to reduce the amount of orally administered drugs, and treatment with low doses of MLX-NPs allows RA therapy without intestinal ulcerogenic responses to MLX. These findings are useful for designing therapies for RA patients.

19.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 68(3): 292-297, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32115537

RESUMO

In this study, the adsorption capability of phosphate ion using a novel tri-metals complex hydroxide was evaluated for preventing the eutrophication in water environment. A nickel-aluminum-zirconium complex hydroxide (NAZ) was synthesized using each inorganic sulfate mixing ratio of 0.9 : 1.0 : 0.1 and was calcined at different temperatures. The characteristics of the NAZ were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy images, X-ray diffraction analysis, elemental distribution, and binding energy. Moreover, the amount adsorbed of phosphate ion onto uncalcined and calcined NAZ was measured. That of phosphate ions onto the uncalcined was the largest of all. These results suggested that the adsorption of phosphate ions tends to depend on the physicochemical properties (e.g., amount of hydroxyl groups, pore volumes, and pH) of the adsorbents. Moreover, the adsorption mechanism of phosphate ions was evaluated on the basis of binding energy and elemental analysis. After adsorption, the binding energy of phosphorus P (2s and 2p) peaked and the sulfur peak intensity S(2s) reduced. This result indicated that the adsorption mechanism of phosphate would be exchanged with sulfate ions.


Assuntos
Alumínio/química , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Hidróxidos/química , Níquel/química , Fosfatos/química , Zircônio/química , Adsorção , Complexos de Coordenação/síntese química , Tamanho da Partícula , Propriedades de Superfície
20.
Pharmaceutics ; 12(2)2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32075200

RESUMO

The commercially available rebamipide ophthalmic suspension (CA-REB) was approved for clinical use in patients with dry eye; however, the residence time on the ocular surface for the traditional formulations is short, since the drug is removed from the ocular surface through the nasolacrimal duct. In this study, we designed a novel sustained-release drug delivery system (DDS) for dry eye therapy by rebamipide nanoparticles. The rebamipide solid nanoparticle-based ophthalmic formulation (REB-NPs) was prepared by a bead mill using additives (2-hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin and methylcellulose) and a gel base (carbopol). The rebamipide particles formed are ellipsoid, with a particle size in the range of 40-200 nm. The rebamipide in the REB-NPs applied to eyelids was delivered into the lacrimal fluid through the meibomian glands, and sustained drug release was observed in comparison with CA-REB. Moreover, the REB-NPs increased the mucin levels in the lacrimal fluid and healed tear film breakup levels in an N-acetylcysteine-treated rabbit model. The information about this novel DDS route and creation of a nano-formulation can be used to design further studies aimed at therapy for dry eye.

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