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1.
J Hum Genet ; 64(10): 1041-1044, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31388108

RESUMO

Mesomelic dysplasia (MD) encompasses a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by shortening of the middle segments of the limbs. Previous studies have revealed the development of Nievergelt type-like MD accompanied by postaxial toe reduction in a patient with a ~500 kb microdeletion at 2q11.2 involving AFF3 alone, and the occurrence of Nievergelt type-like MD in mice with a ~353 kb deletion involving Aff3, together with strong expression of mouse Aff3 in the developing limbs and zeugopod. We encountered a 2 6/12-year-old Japanese girl with an unclassifiable MD associated with hypoplasia of postaxial toes, and identified a de novo likely pathogenic variant of AFF3 (NM_002285.2:c.697 G > A, p.(Ala233Thr)) by whole exome sequencing. The results provide further evidence for AFF3 being the causative gene for MD with foot malformation which may be termed "AFF3-related MD" or "Steichen-Gersdorf type MD".

2.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332306

RESUMO

Split-hand/foot malformation (SHFM) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous condition. We sequentially performed screening of the previously identified Japanese founder 17p13.3 duplication/triplication involving BHLHA9, array comparative genomic hybridization, and whole exome sequencing (WES) in newly recruited 41 Japanese families with non-syndromic and syndromic SHFM. We also carried out WES in seven families with nonsyndromic and syndromic SHFM in which underlying genetic causes including pathogenic copy-number variants (CNVs) remained undetected in our previous studies of 56 families. Consequently, we identified not only known pathogenic CNVs (17p13.3 duplications/triplications [n = 21], 2q31 deletion [n = 1], and 10q24 duplications [n = 3]) and rare variants in known causative genes (TP63 [n = 3], DLX5 [n = 1], IGF2 [n = 1], WNT10B [n = 3], WNT10B/PORCN [n = 1], and PORCN [n = 1]), but also a de novo 19q13.11 deletion disrupting UBA2 (n = 1) and variants that probably affect function in LRP6 (n = 1) and UBA2 (n = 1). Thus, together with our previous data based on testing of 56 families, molecular studies for a total of 97 families with SHFM revealed underlying genetic causes in 75 families, and clinical studies for the 75 families indicated a certain degree of correlation between genetic causes and phenotypes. The results imply that SHFM primarily occurs as a genetic disorder with genotype-phenotype correlations. Furthermore, the results together with previous data such as the development of SHFM in Lrp6 knockout mice, the presence of SHFM in two subjects with 19q13 deletions involving UBA2, and strong mouse Uba2 expression in the developing limb buds, imply that LRP6 and UBA2 represent plausible candidate genes for SHFM.

3.
Cytogenet Genome Res ; 158(3): 115-120, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266029

RESUMO

Unbalanced translocations of Y-chromosomal fragments harboring the sex-determining region Y gene (SRY) to the X chromosome or an autosome result in 46,XX and 45,X testicular disorders of sex development (DSD), respectively. Of these, Y;autosome translocation is an extremely rare condition. Here, we identified a 20-year-old man with a 45,X,t(Y;7)(q11.21;q35) karyotype, who exhibited unilateral cryptorchidism, small testis, intellectual disability, and various congenital anomalies. The fusion junction of the translocation was blunt, and the breakpoint-flanking regions shared only 50% similarity. These results indicate that Y;autosome translocations can occur between 2 low-similarity sequences, probably via nonhomologous end joining. Furthermore, translocations of a Ypterq11.21 fragment to 7q35 likely result in normal or only mildly impaired male-type sexual development, along with various clinical features of 7q deletion syndrome, although their effects on adult testicular function remain to be studied.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 7/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Y/genética , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento Sexual/genética , Genes sry/genética , Doenças Testiculares/genética , Translocação Genética/genética , Adulto , Pontos de Quebra do Cromossomo , Feminino , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Recém-Nascido , Cariótipo , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
4.
Pediatr Diabetes ; 20(6): 712-719, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31124255

RESUMO

KLF11 is the causative gene for maturity-onset diabetes of the young 7 (MODY7). KLF11 regulates insulin gene expression through binding to the GC box in the promoter. To date, only two KLF11 mutations have been identified in three families with early-onset type 2 diabetes. Here, we report a novel KLF11 variant associated with early childhood-onset type 1B diabetes. The proband and his younger sister exhibited hyperglycemia at age 1 year, and their mother developed diabetes at age 4 years. These three individuals required insulin injection from the initial phase of the disease. Being negative for islet cell autoantibodies, they were diagnosed with type 1B diabetes. Mutation screening for 30 diabetes-associated genes identified a heterozygous KLF11 variant (p.His418Gln) in the proband and his sister. The variant was also detected in the affected mother, as well as in the allegedly unaffected maternal grandmother. In silico analyses indicated that this variant involves a highly conserved histidine residue in the first C2 H2 zinc finger domain which ligates a zinc ion. In vitro analyses showed that expression levels and intracellular localization of His418Gln-KLF11 were comparable to those of wildtype (WT)-KLF11. Luciferase assays demonstrated that while WT-KLF11 suppressed the activity of a 6 × GC box-containing reporter, His418Gln-KLF11 lacked the suppressive effect. Notably, His418Gln-KLF11 canceled the suppressive effect of co-transfected WT-KLF11. Such a dominant-negative effect was absent in the previously reported Ala347Ser-KLF11 variant. These results indicate that specific variants of KLF11 (MODY7) with a dominant-negative effect underlie early childhood-onset type 1B diabetes with incomplete penetrance. This study documents a novel monogenic mutation associated with diabetes in children.

5.
Hum Mol Genet ; 28(14): 2319-2329, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30985895

RESUMO

Disorders of sex development (DSDs) are defined as congenital conditions in which chromosomal, gonadal or anatomical sex is atypical. In many DSD cases, genetic causes remain to be elucidated. Here, we performed a case-control exome sequencing study comparing gene-based burdens of rare damaging variants between 26 DSD cases and 2625 controls. We found exome-wide significant enrichment of rare heterozygous truncating variants in the MYRF gene encoding myelin regulatory factor, a transcription factor essential for oligodendrocyte development. All three variants occurred de novo. We identified an additional 46,XY DSD case of a de novo damaging missense variant in an independent cohort. The clinical symptoms included hypoplasia of Müllerian derivatives and ovaries in 46,XX DSD patients, defective development of Sertoli and Leydig cells in 46,XY DSD patients and congenital diaphragmatic hernia in one 46,XY DSD patient. As all of these cells and tissues are or partly consist of coelomic epithelium (CE)-derived cells (CEDC) and CEDC developed from CE via proliferaiton and migration, MYRF might be related to these processes. Consistent with this hypothesis, single-cell RNA sequencing of foetal gonads revealed high expression of MYRF in CE and CEDC. Reanalysis of public chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing data for rat Myrf showed that genes regulating proliferation and migration were enriched among putative target genes of Myrf. These results suggested that MYRF is a novel causative gene of 46,XY and 46,XX DSD and MYRF is a transcription factor regulating CD and/or CEDC proliferation and migration, which is essential for development of multiple organs.

6.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 30(5): 877-889, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30962325

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The stimulatory G-protein α-subunit encoded by GNAS exons 1-13 (GNAS-Gsα) mediates signal transduction of multiple G protein-coupled receptors, including arginine vasopressin receptor 2 (AVPR2). Various germline-derived loss-of-function GNAS-Gsα variants of maternal and paternal origin have been found in pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia and pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism, respectively. Specific somatic gain-of-function GNAS-Gsα variants have been detected in McCune-Albright syndrome and may result in phosphate wasting. However, no germline-derived gain-of-function variant has been identified, implying that such a variant causes embryonic lethality. METHODS: We performed whole-exome sequencing in two families with dominantly inherited nephrogenic syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (NSIAD) as a salient phenotype after excluding a gain-of-function variant of AVPR2 and functional studies for identified variants. RESULTS: Whole-exome sequencing revealed two GNAS-Gsα candidate variants for NSIAD: GNAS-Gsα p.(F68_G70del) in one family and GNAS-Gsα p.(M255V) in one family. Both variants were absent from public and in-house databases. Of genes with rare variants, GNAS-Gsα alone was involved in AVPR2 signaling and shared by the families. Protein structural analyses revealed a gain-of-function-compatible conformational property for p.M255V-Gsα, although such assessment was not possible for p.F68_G70del-Gsα. Both variants had gain-of-function effects that were significantly milder than those of McCune-Albright syndrome-specific somatic Gsα variants. Model mice for p.F68_G70del-Gsα showed normal survivability and NSIAD-compatible phenotype, whereas those for p.M255V-Gsα exhibited severe failure to thrive. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that germline-derived gain-of-function rare variants of GNAS-Gsα exist and cause NSIAD as a novel Gsα-mediated genetic disease. It is likely that AVPR2 signaling is most sensitive to GNAS-Gsα's gain-of-function effects.

7.
Clin Epigenetics ; 11(1): 36, 2019 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30819260

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human 15q11-13 is responsible for Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and Angelman syndrome (AS) and includes several imprinted genes together with bipartite elements named AS-IC (imprinting center) and PWS-IC. These concertedly confer allele specificity on 15q11-13. Here, we report DNA methylation status of 15q11-13 and other autosomal imprinted differentially methylated regions (iDMRs) in cases with various deletions within the PWS/AS-responsible region. METHODS: We performed array-based methylation analysis and examined the methylation status of CpG sites in 15q11-13 and in 71 iDMRs in six cases with various microdeletions, eight cases with conventional deletions within 15q11-13, and healthy controls. RESULTS: We detected 89 CpGs in 15q11-13 showing significant methylation changes in our cases. Of them, 14 CpGs in the SNORD116s cluster presented slight hypomethylation in the PWS cases and hypermethylation in the AS cases. No iDMRs at regions other than 15q11-13 showed abnormal methylation. CONCLUSIONS: We identified CpG sites and regions in which methylation status is regulated by AS-IC and PWS-IC. This result indicated that each IC had unique functions and coordinately regulated the DNA methylation of respective alleles. In addition, only aberrant methylation at iDMRs in 15q11-13 leads to the development of the phenotypes in our cases.

8.
Clin Epigenetics ; 11(1): 42, 2019 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30846001

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The human chromosome 14q32.2 imprinted region harbors the primary MEG3/DLK1:IG-differentially methylated region (DMR) and secondary MEG3:TSS-DMR. The MEG3:TSS-DMR can remain unmethylated only in the presence of unmethylated MEG3/DLK1:IG-DMR in somatic tissues, but not in the placenta, because of a hierarchical regulation of the methylation pattern between the two DMRs. METHODS: We performed molecular studies in a 4-year-old Japanese girl with Temple syndrome (TS14). RESULTS: Pyrosequencing analysis showed extremely low methylation levels of five CpGs at the MEG3:TSS-DMR and grossly normal methylation levels of four CpGs at the MEG3/DLK1:IG-DMR in leukocytes. HumanMethylation450 BeadChip confirmed marked hypomethylation of the MEG3:TSS-DMR and revealed multilocus imprinting disturbance (MLID) including mild hypomethylation of the H19/IGF2:IG-DMR and mild hypermethylation of the GNAS A/B:TSS-DMR in leukocytes. Bisulfite sequencing showed markedly hypomethylated CpGs at the MEG3:TSS-DMR and irregularly and non-differentially methylated CpGs at the MEG3/DLK1:IG-DMR in leukocytes and apparently normal methylation patterns of the two DMRs in the placenta. Maternal uniparental disomy 14 and a deletion involving this imprinted region were excluded. CONCLUSIONS: Such a methylation pattern of the MEG3/DLK1:IG-DMR has not been reported in patients with TS14. It may be possible that a certain degree of irregular hypomethylation at the MEG3/DLK1:IG-DMR has prevented methylation of the MEG3:TSS-DMR in somatic tissues and that a hypermethylation type MLID has occurred at the MEG3/DLK1:IG-DMR to yield the apparently normal methylation pattern in the placenta.

9.
Brain Dev ; 41(5): 474-479, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30723005

RESUMO

Whole-exome sequencing (WES) can comprehensively detect both pathogenic single nucleotide variants and copy number variants, enabling identification of a coexistence of two or more genetic etiologies. Here we report a family consisting of individuals with Becker muscular dystrophy and rippling muscle disease. The proband, a 12-year-old boy, was diagnosed with Becker muscular dystrophy with exon 45-55 DMD deletions at age 4. He had myalgia and muscle stiffness. Interestingly, percussion-induced muscle mounding (PIMM), which is a characteristic of rippling muscle disease, was also observed. The father also showed muscle stiffness, myalgia, fatigability, muscle rippling and PIMM. WES revealed a missense CAV3 mutation (NM_033337.2:c.80G>A) in the proband, the father, the oldest sister and the grandmother, who had an elevated serum creatine kinase (CK) level. The c.80G>A mutation was considered pathogenic according to ACMG guidelines. The second older sister, the mother and the paternal grandfather did not have the CAV3 mutation and had normal CK. Using two programs for copy number analysis with WES data, we successfully identified the DMD deletion in the proband, the older sister and the mother. We revealed the coexistence of the CAV3 mutation and the DMD deletion in a family with complex muscular diseases and confirmed the usefulness of WES for elucidating such etiology.


Assuntos
Caveolina 3/genética , Distrofina/genética , Doenças Musculares/genética , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Musculares/metabolismo , Doenças Musculares/fisiopatologia , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/metabolismo , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/fisiopatologia , Linhagem
10.
Clin Epigenetics ; 11(1): 21, 2019 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30732658

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human-assisted reproductive technologies (ART) are a widely accepted treatment for infertile couples. At the same time, many studies have suggested the correlation between ART and increased incidences of normally rare imprinting disorders such as Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS), Angelman syndrome (AS), Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), and Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS). Major methylation dynamics take place during cell development and the preimplantation stages of embryonic development. ART may prevent the proper erasure, establishment, and maintenance of DNA methylation. However, the causes and ART risk factors for these disorders are not well understood. RESULTS: A nationwide epidemiological study in Japan in 2015 in which 2777 pediatrics departments were contacted and a total of 931 patients with imprinting disorders including 117 BWS, 227 AS, 520 PWS, and 67 SRS patients, were recruited. We found 4.46- and 8.91-fold increased frequencies of BWS and SRS associated with ART, respectively. Most of these patients were conceived via in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and showed aberrant imprinted DNA methylation. We also found that ART-conceived SRS (ART-SRS) patients had incomplete and more widespread DNA methylation variations than spontaneously conceived SRS patients, especially in sperm-specific methylated regions using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing to compare DNA methylomes. In addition, we found that the ART patients with one of three imprinting disorders, PWS, AS, and SRS, displayed additional minor phenotypes and lack of the phenotypes. The frequency of ART-conceived Prader-Willi syndrome (ART-PWS) was 3.44-fold higher than anticipated. When maternal age was 37 years or less, the rate of DNA methylation errors in ART-PWS patients was significantly increased compared with spontaneously conceived PWS patients. CONCLUSIONS: We reconfirmed the association between ART and imprinting disorders. In addition, we found unique methylation patterns in ART-SRS patients, therefore, concluded that the imprinting disorders related to ART might tend to take place just after fertilization at a time when the epigenome is most vulnerable and might be affected by the techniques of manipulation used for IVF or ICSI and the culture medium of the fertilized egg.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Angelman/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Beckwith-Wiedemann/epidemiologia , Metilação de DNA , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/epidemiologia , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/efeitos adversos , Síndrome de Silver-Russell/epidemiologia , Adulto , Síndrome de Angelman/genética , Síndrome de Beckwith-Wiedemann/genética , Feminino , Fertilização In Vitro/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Associação Genética , Impressão Genômica , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Idade Materna , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/genética , Gravidez , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Síndrome de Silver-Russell/genética , Injeções de Esperma Intracitoplásmicas/efeitos adversos
11.
J Hum Genet ; 64(4): 313-322, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30655572

RESUMO

Casein kinase 2 (CK2) is a serine threonine kinase ubiquitously expressed in eukaryotic cells and involved in various cellular processes. In recent studies, de novo variants in CSNK2A1 and CSNK2B, which encode the subunits of CK2, have been identified in individuals with intellectual disability syndrome. In this study, we describe four patients with neurodevelopmental disorders possessing de novo variants in CSNK2A1 or CSNK2B. Using whole-exome sequencing, we detected two de novo variants in CSNK2A1 in two unrelated Japanese patients, a novel variant c.571C>T, p.(Arg191*) and a recurrent variant c.593A>G, p.(Lys198Arg), and two novel de novo variants in CSNK2B in Japanese and Malaysian patients, c.494A>G, p.(His165Arg) and c.533_534insGT, p.(Pro179Tyrfs*49), respectively. All four patients showed mild to profound intellectual disabilities, developmental delays, and various types of seizures. This and previous studies have found a total of 20 CSNK2A1 variants in 28 individuals with syndromic intellectual disability. The hotspot variant c.593A>G, p.(Lys198Arg) was found in eight of 28 patients. Meanwhile, only five CSNK2B variants were identified in five individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders. We reviewed the previous literature to verify the phenotypic spectrum of CSNK2A1- and CSNK2B-related syndromes.


Assuntos
Caseína Quinase II/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Convulsões/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/complicações , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Mutação , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/fisiopatologia , Linhagem , Convulsões/complicações , Convulsões/fisiopatologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
12.
Clin Case Rep ; 6(11): 2229-2233, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30455927

RESUMO

We identified a heterozygous p.(R284H) variant of GATA4 in a Japanese family with atrial septal defect, including boys with apparently normal male sex development. The findings, together with the previous data, imply that GATA4 variants primarily cause congenital heart disease and rarely result in 46,XY disorder of sex development.

13.
J Med Genet ; 2018 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30242100

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recently, a patient with maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 16 (UPD(16)mat) presenting with Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS) phenotype was reported. SRS is characterised by growth failure and dysmorphic features. OBJECTIVE: To clarify the prevalence of UPD(16)mat in aetiology-unknown patients with SRS phenotype and phenotypic differences between UPD(16)mat and SRS. METHODS: We studied 94 patients with SRS phenotype of unknown aetiology. Sixty-three satisfied the Netchine-Harbison clinical scoring system (NH-CSS) criteria, and 25 out of 63 patients showed both protruding forehead and relative macrocephaly (clinical SRS). The remaining 31 patients met only three NH-CSS criteria, but were clinically suspected as having SRS. To detect UPD(16)mat, we performed methylation analysis for the ZNF597:TSS-differentially methylated region (DMR) on chromosome 16 and subsequently performed microsatellite, SNP array and exome analyses in the patients with hypomethylated ZNF597:TSS-DMR. RESULTS: We identified two patients (2.1%) with a mixture of maternal isodisomy and heterodisomy of chromosome 16 in 94 aetiology-unknown patients with SRS phenotype. Both patients exhibited preterm birth and prenatal and postnatal growth failure. The male patient had ventricular septal defect and hypospadias. Whole-exome sequencing detected no gene mutations related to their phenotypes. CONCLUSION: We suggest considering genetic testing for UPD(16)mat in SRS phenotypic patients without known aetiology.

14.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 19(1): 262, 2018 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30053842

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Congenital limb deficiency is a rare and intractable disease, which impairs both function and appearance of the limbs. To establish adequate medical care, it is necessary to reveal the actual conditions and problems associated with this disease. However, there have been no extensive epidemiological surveys in Japan addressing this disease. This is the first nationwide epidemiological survey of congenital limb deficiency in this country. METHODS: With the cooperation of epidemiology experts, we performed a two-stage nationwide survey to estimate the number of patients with congenital limb deficiency and reveal basic patient features. We targeted orthopaedic surgery, paediatric, and plastic surgery departments. Hospitals were categorized according to the institution type and the number of hospital beds; hospitals were randomly selected from these categories. We selected 2283 departments from a total 7825 departments throughout Japan. In this study, we defined congenital limb deficiency as partial or total absence of the limbs, proximal to the proximal interphalangeal joint of the fingers/lesser toes or interphalangeal joint of the thumb/great toe. We distributed the first survey querying the number of initial patient visits from January 2014 to December 2015. Targets of the second survey were departments that reported one or more initial patient visits in the first survey. RESULTS: In the first survey, 1767 departments responded (response rate: 77.4%). Among them, 161 departments reported one or more initial patient visits. We conducted the second survey among these 161 departments, of which 96 departments responded (response rate: 59.6%). The estimated number of initial visits by patients with congenital limb deficiency was 417 (95% confidence interval: 339-495) per year in 2014 and 2015. The estimated prevalence of congenital limb deficiency in Japan was 4.15 (95% confidence interval: 3.37-4.93) per 10,000 live births. The sex ratio was 1.40. Upper limbs were more affected than lower limbs. CONCLUSIONS: We revealed the estimated number of initial patient visits per year and birth prevalence of congenital limb deficiency in Japan. Our results will contribute to establishing the disease concept and grades of severity of congenital limb deficiency.

15.
Endocr J ; 65(10): 979-990, 2018 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30012903

RESUMO

11-oxygenated C19 steroids (11oxC19s) are newly specified human androgens. Although median serum levels of 11oxC19 were reported to be higher in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) than in unaffected women, inter-individual variations in androgen levels among PCOS patients have poorly been investigated. Here, we quantified four 11oxC19s, i.e., 11-ketotestosterone (11KT), 11ß-hydroxytestosterone (11OHT), 11ß-hydroxyandrostenedione (11OHΔ4A), and 11-ketoandrostenedione (11KΔ4A), in blood samples of 28 PCOS patients and 31 eumenorrheic women using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We referred to our previous data of classic androgens in these individuals. We found that 11OHT levels were higher in the PCOS group than in the eumenorrheic group. Moreover, although the median values of 11KT, 11KΔ4A, and 11OHΔ4A were comparable between the two groups, these steroids were markedly increased in some patients. Of the 28 patients, 8 had high levels of both 11oxC19s and classic androgens, whereas 4 had an increase only in 11oxC19 levels, and 12 had an increase only in classic androgen levels. Intragroup variations in androgen levels were relatively large in the PCOS group. Levels of 11OHT and 11KT were significantly higher in overweight/obese patients than in normal weight patients and correlated with body mass indexes. These results highlight the clinical significance of 11oxC19s as circulating androgens in PCOS patients and indicate that the accumulation of 11oxC19s and/or classic androgens is an essential feature of PCOS. The profiles of circulating androgens appear to vary among patients. In particular, overweight/obesity likely enhances the 11oxC19s accumulation in PCOS, although this notion awaits further validation.

16.
Epigenomics ; 10(7): 941-954, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29962238

RESUMO

AIM: This study aimed to establish a catalog of probes corresponding to imprinted differentially methylated regions (DMRs) on the Infinium HumanMethylationEPIC BeadChip. MATERIALS & METHODS: Reciprocal uniparental diploidies with low normal biparental mosaic contribution, together with normal diploid controls, were subjected to EPIC BeadChip hybridization. The methylation profiles were assessed for imprinted differential methylation. Top candidates were validated using locus-specific PCR-based assays. RESULTS: Seven hundred and eighty-nine CpG probes coincided with 50 known imprinted DMRs and 467 CpG probes corresponding to 124 novel imprinted DMR candidates were identified. Validation led to identification of several subtle DMRs within known imprinted domains as well as novel maternally methylated regions associated with PTCHD3 and JAKMIP1. CONCLUSION: Our comprehensive list of bona fide-imprinted DMR probes will simplify and facilitate methylation profiling of individuals with imprinting disorders and is applicable to other diseases in which aberrant imprinting has been implicated, such as cancer and fetal growth.

17.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 103(6): 2083-2088, 2018 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29878129

RESUMO

Context: Maternal uniparental disomy for chromosome 20 [UPD(20)mat], resulting in aberrant expression of imprinted transcripts at the GNAS locus, is a poorly characterized condition. These patients manifested a phenotype similar to that of Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS) and small for gestational age-short stature (SGA-SS); however, the etiological relationship between UPD(20)mat and SRS/SGA-SS remains unclear. Moreover, no report has described endocrinological assessment of UPD(20)mat patients, although paternal UPD(20), the mirror image entity of UPD(20)mat, is known to cause multiple hormone resistance reflecting reduced α-subunit of the stimulatory G protein expression. Participants: Patients 1 to 5 showed nonmosaic heterodisomy and/or isodisomy for the entire chromosome 20. Patients 1 to 3 and 4 were identified through UPD(20)mat screening for 55 patients with etiology-unknown SRS and 96 patients with SGA-SS, respectively. Patient 5 was identified through molecular analysis for patients with developmental defects. Patients 1 to 5 manifested postnatal growth failure and feeding problems, with or without developmental delay, and other clinical features. Patients 1 to 4 were born SGA. Patients 4 and 5 exhibited hypercalcemia and low or low-normal parathyroid hormone levels. Patient 1 showed constantly decreased thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels after 12 years of age, although she had a normal TSH level at 5.2 years of age. Conclusion: The results suggest that UPD(20)mat underlies growth failure and feeding problems with additional features and could account for >5% of etiology-unknown SRS and small percentages of SGA-SS. Most important, this study provides an indication that UPD(20)mat can be associated with hypersensitivity of hormone receptors, which may gradually develop with age.

18.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(8): 1113-1120, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29706635

RESUMO

Height is a complex quantitative trait with a high heritability. Short stature is diagnosed when height is significantly below the average of the general population for that person's age and sex. We have recently found that the retinoic acid degrading enzyme CYP26C1 modifies SHOX deficiency phenotypes toward more severe clinical manifestations. Here, we asked whether damaging variants in CYP26C1 alone could lead to short stature. We performed exome and Sanger sequencing to analyze 856 individuals with short stature where SHOX deficiency was previously excluded. Three different damaging missense variants and one splicing variant were identified in six independent individuals; the functional significance of the identified variants was tested in vitro or in vivo using zebrafish as a model. The genetic and functional data reported here indicate that CYP26C1 represents a novel gene underlying growth disorders and that damaging variants in the absence of SHOX variants can lead to short stature.

20.
Jpn J Ophthalmol ; 62(4): 458-466, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29666954

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by retinal dystrophy, renal dysfunction, central obesity, mental impairment, polydactyly, and hypogonadism. Only limited information on BBS is available from Japanese patients. In addition, there are currently no reports of Japanese patients with BBS caused by BBS10 mutations. The purpose of this study was to present the characteristics of a Japanese patient with BBS caused by BBS10 mutations. PATIENT AND METHODS: The patient was a 22-year-old Japanese woman. Comprehensive ophthalmic examinations, including visual acuity measurements, perimetry, electroretinography (ERG), fundus autofluorescence imaging, and optical coherence tomography, were performed. Trio-based whole-exome sequencing was performed to identify potential pathogenic mutations, confirmed by Sanger sequencing. RESULTS: The patient showed neither renal malformation nor dysfunction, and visual impairment seemed to be relatively mild for BBS. The fundus examination revealed diffuse retinal degeneration without pigmentary deposits, and ERG scans showed undetectable responses. She had a history of surgically corrected polydactyly, and displayed symptoms of obesity. There was also a menstrual irregularity that could require progestin administration. Genetic analysis revealed compound heterozygous BBS10 mutations in the patient: a novel missense mutation c.98G>A [p.(G33E)], and a novel nonsense mutation c.2125A>T [p.(R709*)]. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first description of a Japanese patient with BBS caused by BBS10 mutations. The clinical characteristics of our patient were mild, as neither renal impairment nor legal blindness was observed. Early diagnosis would play a role in providing counseling, and in some cases, therapeutic interventions for BBS patients.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Bardet-Biedl/genética , DNA/genética , Chaperoninas do Grupo II/genética , Mutação , Retina/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome de Bardet-Biedl/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Bardet-Biedl/metabolismo , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Eletrorretinografia , Feminino , Chaperoninas do Grupo II/metabolismo , Humanos , Japão , Oftalmoscopia , Retina/fisiopatologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Adulto Jovem
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