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1.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241351, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151950

RESUMO

Faces that consistently shifted the gaze to subsequent target locations in a gaze cueing task were chosen as being more trustworthy than faces that always looked away from the target, suggesting that the validity of a gaze cue influenced the viewers' judgments regarding the trustworthiness of human faces. We investigated whether the gaze cueing effect and judgments regarding the personality conveyed by a face would be affected by the valence of a target. A face image moved its eyes to the left or the right, and an emotional target image (positive, negative, or neutral) appeared to left or right of the face. Participants had to indicate the location of this target by pressing a key. The target image was preceded by a face that shifted its gaze to the target image (valid cue), a face that directed its gaze to the opposite side (invalid cue), or a face that did not move its eyes (no cue). The perceived trustworthiness of the face was evaluated after the gaze-cueing task. Results showed that faces that looked at positive targets were evaluated as more trustworthy than faces that looked at negative targets. However, the valence of the targets did not affect trustworthiness ratings in invalid and no-cue conditions. We suggest that integrated information about the predictability of the gaze cue and the valence of the gaze target modulates impressions about the personality of the face.

2.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 82(6): 2851-2861, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32378148

RESUMO

Visual search is expedited in a spatial context encountered repeatedly. A much-debated question is how early the facilitation by contextual memory arises. The current study examined the possibility of the facilitation of early attentional processing by constructing a descriptive model of the time course of visual search and its facilitation by contextual cueing. Participants in this experiment engaged in a speed-accuracy tradeoff (SAT) task after learning the spatial contexts in a standard visual search task in which they searched for a rotated T target among Ls. In the SAT task, they were required to search for the target and respond immediately when a sound probe was presented, even if they did not find or identify the target when the inter-stimulus interval between the search display and the probe varied from 40 ms to 2,000 ms. Participants completed two blocks of the SAT task, in which they searched in learned and new contexts. The results of the SAT procedure showed that responses were more accurate in repeated contexts than in new contexts, even when only a brief period of time elapsed after presenting the search display (> 90 ms). We conducted an analysis of the time course of contextual-cueing effects with Bayesian hierarchical modeling, which demonstrated that the rate of increase in accuracy was higher for the repeated than for the new contexts. These findings suggest that early attentional processing is enhanced by learning the contexts, and this enhancement arises very early in the time course of the visual search.


Assuntos
Atenção , Sinais (Psicologia) , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Memória , Tempo de Reação
3.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 81(2): 420-432, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30361950

RESUMO

It is known that unpleasant images capture our attention. However, the causes of the emotions evoked by these images can vary. Trypophobia is the fear of clustered objects. A recent study claimed that this phobia is elicited by the specific power spectrum of such images. In the present study, we measured saccade trajectories to examine how trypophobic images possessing a characteristic power spectrum affect visual attention. The participants' task was to make a saccade in the direction that was indicated by a cue. Four irrelevant images with different emotional content were presented as periphery distractors at 0 ms, 150 ms, and 450 ms in terms of cue-image onset asynchrony. The irrelevant images consisted of trypophobic, fearful, or neutral scenes. The presence of saccade trajectory deviations induced by trypophobic images suggest that intact trypophobic images oriented attention to their location. Moreover, when the images were phase scrambled, the saccade curved away from the trypophobic images, suggesting that trypophobic power spectra also triggered attentional capture, which was weak and then led to inhibition. These findings suggest that not only the power spectral characteristics but also the gist of a trypophobic image affect attentional deployment.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Medo/fisiologia , Inibição Psicológica , Transtornos Fóbicos/fisiopatologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Movimentos Sacádicos/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Conscious Cogn ; 67: 56-68, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30529912

RESUMO

Trypophobia is a common but unusual phobia that is induced by viewing many clustered objects. Previous studies suggested that this trypophobia is caused by the specific power spectrum of the images; this idea has not been fully investigated empirically. In the present study, we used breaking continuous flash suppression (b-CFS) to clarify whether the trypophobic images affect access to visual awareness, and what features of trypophobic images contribute to rapid access of awareness. In the b-CFS paradigms, a dynamic masking pattern presented to one eye suppresses the target images shown to the other eye. The participants' task was to indicate where the target image appeared in a dichoptic display through a mirror stereoscope. The target images consisted of trypophobic, fear-related, clusters or neutral images. The trypophobic images emerged into awareness faster than the other types of images. However, the phase-scrambled versions of the trypophobic images did not show any differences across the image types, suggesting that the trypophobic power spectra themselves did not affect access to awareness. Moreover, the phase-scrambled trypophobic images without CFS tended to be detected earlier than the phase-scrambled fearful and neutral images. These findings indicate that trypophobic power spectra might affect post-perceptual processing, such as response production.


Assuntos
Conscientização/fisiologia , Estado de Consciência/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Transtornos Fóbicos/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
5.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 78(8): 2397-2410, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27566325

RESUMO

Implicit learning of visual contexts facilitates search performance-a phenomenon known as contextual cueing; however, little is known about contextual cueing under situations in which multidimensional regularities exist simultaneously. In everyday vision, different information, such as object identity and location, appears simultaneously and interacts with each other. We tested the hypothesis that, in contextual cueing, when multiple regularities are present, the regularities that are most relevant to our behavioral goals would be prioritized. Previous studies of contextual cueing have commonly used the visual search paradigm. However, this paradigm is not suitable for directing participants' attention to a particular regularity. Therefore, we developed a new paradigm, the "spatiotemporal contextual cueing paradigm," and manipulated task-relevant and task-irrelevant regularities. In four experiments, we demonstrated that task-relevant regularities were more responsible for search facilitation than task-irrelevant regularities. This finding suggests our visual behavior is focused on regularities that are relevant to our current goal.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Adulto , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
6.
Brain Nerve ; 66(4): 385-92, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24748086

RESUMO

Given the vast amount of visual information in visual scenes, the capacity of our brain to processes such scenes is severely limited. The core mechanism of selection is referred to as visual attention, and it has been the topic of intense investigation for over 25 years in experimental psychology and cognitive neuroscience. Visual attention is not a single, unitary mechanism, but consists of multiple subcomponents. Attention can be directed to various aspects of visual information, such as spatial location, features, or objects. Additionally, attention is guided by external factors such as the salience of stimuli, or whether we are able to move our attention volitionally. The purpose of this article is to review the status of these components of attentional guidance and how they interact with each other, with an emphasis on psychophysical studies.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Córtex Visual/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Retroalimentação , Humanos , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Percepção Espacial
7.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 73(6): 1815-22, 2011 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21594733

RESUMO

We investigated whether implicit learning in a visual search task would influence preferences for visual stimuli. Participants performed a contextual cueing task in which they searched for visual targets, the locations of which were either predicted or not predicted by the positioning of distractors. The speed with which participants located the targets increased across trials more rapidly for predictive displays than for non-predictive displays, consistent with contextual cueing. Participants were subsequently asked to rate the "goodness" of visual displays. The rating results showed that they preferred predictive displays to both non-predictive and novel displays. The participants did not recognize predictive displays any more frequently than they did non-predictive or novel displays. These results suggest that contextual cueing occurred implicitly and that the implicit learning of visual layouts promotes a preference for visual layouts that are predictive of target location.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Sinais (Psicologia) , Memória de Curto Prazo , Orientação , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Adulto , Aprendizagem por Associação , Feminino , Área de Dependência-Independência , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
8.
Perception ; 39(1): 72-80, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20301848

RESUMO

Repetition of the same spatial configurations of a search display implicitly facilitates performance of a visual-search task when the target location in the display is fixed. The improvement of performance is referred to as contextual cueing. We examined whether the association process between target location and surrounding configuration of distractors occurs during active search or at the instant the target is found. To dissociate these two processes, we changed the surrounding configuration of the distractors at the instant of target detection so that the layout where the participants had searched for the target and the layout presented at the instant of target detection differed. The results demonstrated that both processes are responsible for the contextual-cueing effect, but they differ in the accuracies of attentional guidance and their time courses, suggesting that two different types of attentional-guidance processes may be involved in contextual cueing.


Assuntos
Atenção , Sinais (Psicologia) , Orientação , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Movimentos Sacádicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo , Tempo de Reação , Adulto Jovem
9.
Percept Psychophys ; 70(2): 329-36, 2008 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18372753

RESUMO

Jiang and Wagner (2004) demonstrated that individual target-distractor associations were learned in contextual cuing. We examined whether individual associations can be learned in efficient visual searches that do not involve attentional deployment to individual search items. In Experiment 1, individual associations were not learned during the efficient search tasks. However, in Experiment 2, where additional exposure duration of the search display was provided by presenting placeholders marking future locations of the search items, individual associations were successfully learned in the efficient search tasks and transferred to inefficient search. Moreover, Experiment 3 demonstrated that a concurrent task requiring attention does not affect the learning of the local visual context. These results clearly showed that attentional deployment is not necessary for learning individual locations and clarified how the human visual system extracts and preserves regularity in complex visual environments for efficient visual information processing.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem por Associação , Percepção de Cores , Sinais (Psicologia) , Aprendizagem por Discriminação , Rememoração Mental , Orientação , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Adulto , Feminino , Área de Dependência-Independência , Humanos , Masculino , Desempenho Psicomotor , Psicofísica , Tempo de Reação , Retenção Psicológica
10.
Psychon Bull Rev ; 13(3): 543-8, 2006 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17048744

RESUMO

Using a hybrid paradigm of a contextual cuing task and a probe detection task, we tested whether or not contextually new objects can be prioritized in visual search. After several hundred visual search practice trials with repeated and nonrepeated layouts, an additional distractor that was contextually new was presented in the repeated layouts. The results showed that detection of probe dots appearing at the location of a search target was faster in the repeated than in the nonrepeated layouts. More importantly, detection of probe dots at the new object locations was as fast as that of probe dots at the target locations in repeated layouts, suggesting that the attentional system implicitly prioritizes the processing of a location where a change in contextual information has occurred.


Assuntos
Atenção , Percepção Visual , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mascaramento Perceptivo , Tempo de Reação , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Detecção de Sinal Psicológico
11.
Psychol Sci ; 13(2): 125-9, 2002 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11933995

RESUMO

Inhibitory tagging is a process that prevents focal attention from revisiting previously checked items in inefficient searches, facilitating search performance. Recent studies suggested that inhibitory tagging is object rather than location based, but it was unclear whether inhibitory tagging operates on moving objects. The present study investigated the tagging effect on moving objects. Participants were asked to search for a moving target among randomly and independently moving distractors. After either efficient or inefficient search, participants performed a probe detection task that measured the inhibitory effect on search items. The inhibitory effect on distractors was observed only after inefficient searches. The present results support the concept of object-based inhibitory tagging.


Assuntos
Atenção , Inibição Psicológica , Percepção de Movimento , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tempo de Reação
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