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1.
J Dermatol ; 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32030784

RESUMO

Mucosal melanoma of the nasal cavity is a rare disease that has been consistently associated with poor outcome. While complete surgical excision offers the only prospect of a cure, it is associated with a high risk of surgical morbidity due to the challenging anatomical location, and most patients still develop incurable metastatic disease. The efficacy of immunotherapy on mucosal melanoma is lower in comparison with cutaneous melanoma, and mucosal melanoma rarely has BRAF mutations. Although preclinical data have shown that combination treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors and radiotherapy (RT) improve the response, there have been few reports on the combination of RT and anti-programmed death 1 therapy for mucosal melanoma of the nasal cavity. We retrospectively investigated 10 cases of mucosal melanoma of the nasal cavity in which combined treatment was applied. The local control (LC) rate of the primary lesion and regional lymph nodes was favorably 100%. On the other hand, the median progression-free survival (PFS) time was 29.6 weeks (range, 2-82). The 6-month PFS rate was 60%. Although severe mucositis occurred in one patient, the incidence of treatment-related adverse events was not significantly increased. RT with anti-programmed death 1 antibody therapy for mucosal melanoma of the nasal cavity was tolerable and had the potential to improve LC and PFS.

2.
Br J Radiol ; : 20190625, 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031414

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Although various single genetic factors have been shown to affect radiosensitivity, high-throughput DNA sequencing analyses have revealed complex genomic landscapes in many cancer types. The aim of this study is to elucidate the association between accumulated alterations in driver and passenger genes and radiation therapy response. METHODS: We used 59 human solid cancer cell lines derived from 11 organ sites. Radiation-induced cell death was measured using a standard colony-forming assay delivered as a single dose ranging from 0 to 12 Gy. Comprehensive genomic data for the cell lines were acquired from the Catalogue Of Somatic Mutations In Cancer v. 80. Random forest classifiers were constructed to predict radioresistant phenotypes using genomic features. The Cancer Genome Atlas data sets were used to evaluate the clinical impact of the genomic feature following radiotherapy. RESULTS: The 59 cancer cell lines harbored either nucleotide variations or copy number variations in a median of 157 genes per cell. Radiosensitivity of the cancer cells was correlated with neither the number of driver gene mutations nor the number of passenger gene mutations. However, the proportion of driver gene alterations to total gene alterations in gene sets selected from the Kyoto Encyclopedia Genes and Genomes predicted radioresistant cells with sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 73%. High probability of radioresistance predicted by the model was associated with worse overall survival following definitive radiotherapy in patients of The Cancer Genome Atlas data sets. CONCLUSION: Cellular radiosensitivity was associated with the proportion of driver to total gene alterations in the selected oncogenic pathways, which may be a biomarker candidate for response to radiation therapy. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: These findings suggest that accumulated alterations in not only driver genes but also passenger genes affect radiosensitivity.

3.
Anticancer Res ; 40(1): 379-386, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31892590

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: We evaluated the efficacy and safety of carbon-ion radiotherapy (CIRT) alone for Stage III non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data of 65 patients (median age=73 years) with Stage III NSCLC who underwent CIRT alone in the QST Hospital, Chiba, Japan, between 1997 and 2015 were retrospectively analysed. The median dose was 72.0 Gy (relative biological effectiveness). RESULTS: The median follow-up was 27.6 months (range=1.6-207.7 months). Two-year local control, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) rates were 73.9%, 38.6%, and 54.9%, respectively. Overall, 1 (2%), 4 (6%), and 1 (2%) patient developed Grade 4 (mediastinal haemorrhage), Grade 3 (radiation pneumonitis), and Grade 3 (bronchial fistula) toxicities, respectively. On univariate analysis, clinical T and N stage and CIRT timing were significant predictors of PFS and OS; clinical target volume was a significant predictor of PFS. CONCLUSION: CIRT alone is effective with acceptable toxicity for Stage III NSCLC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/radioterapia , Radioterapia com Íons Pesados/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
J Radiat Res ; 61(1): 92-103, 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31822894

RESUMO

The aim of this work is to generate synthetic computed tomography (sCT) images from multi-sequence magnetic resonance (MR) images using an adversarial network and to assess the feasibility of sCT-based treatment planning for brain radiotherapy. Datasets for 15 patients with glioblastoma were selected and 580 pairs of CT and MR images were used. T1-weighted, T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery MR sequences were combined to create a three-channel image as input data. A conditional generative adversarial network (cGAN) was trained using image patches. The image quality was evaluated using voxel-wise mean absolute errors (MAEs) of the CT number. For the dosimetric evaluation, 3D conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans were generated using the original CT set and recalculated using the sCT images. The isocenter dose and dose-volume parameters were compared for 3D-CRT and VMAT plans, respectively. The equivalent path length was also compared. The mean MAEs for the whole body, soft tissue and bone region were 108.1 ± 24.0, 38.9 ± 10.7 and 366.2 ± 62.0 hounsfield unit, respectively. The dosimetric evaluation revealed no significant difference in the isocenter dose for 3D-CRT plans. The differences in the dose received by 2% of the volume (D2%), D50% and D98% relative to the prescribed dose were <1.0%. The overall equivalent path length was shorter than that for real CT by 0.6 ± 1.9 mm. A treatment planning study using generated sCT detected only small, clinically negligible differences. These findings demonstrated the feasibility of generating sCT images for MR-only radiotherapy from multi-sequence MR images using cGAN.

5.
J Radiat Res ; 61(1): 146-160, 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825076

RESUMO

This paper describes the ongoing structure of radiation oncology in Japan in terms of equipment, personnel, patient load and geographic distribution to identify and overcome any existing limitations. From March 2013 to August 2016, the Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology conducted a questionnaire based on the Japanese national structure survey of radiation oncology in 2012. Data were analyzed based on the institutional stratification by the annual number of new patients treated with radiotherapy per institution. The estimated annual numbers of new and total (new plus repeat) patients treated with radiation were 213 000 and 251 000, respectively. Additionally, the estimated cancer incidence was 865 238 cases with ~24.6% of all newly diagnosed patients being treated with radiation. The types and numbers of treatment devices actually used included linear accelerator (LINAC; n = 864), telecobalt (n = 0), Gamma Knife (n = 44), 60Co remote afterloading system (RALS; n = 23) and 192Ir RALS (n = 130). The LINAC system used dual-energy functions in 651 units, 3D conformal radiotherapy functions in 759 and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) functions in 466. There were 792 Japan Radiological Society/Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology-certified radiation oncologists, 1061.6 full-time equivalent (FTE) radiation oncologists, 2124.2 FTE radiotherapy technologists, 181.3 FTE medical physicists, 170.9 FTE radiotherapy quality managers and 841.5 FTE nurses. The frequency of IMRT use significantly increased during this time. In conclusion, the Japanese structure of radiation oncology has clearly improved in terms of equipment and utility although there was a shortage of personnel in 2012.

6.
Acta Oncol ; : 1-10, 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755332

RESUMO

Background: This study aimed to evaluate knowledge-based volume modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans for oesophageal cancers using a model trained with plans optimised with a different treatment planning system (TPS) and to compare lung dose sparing in two TPSs, Eclipse and RayStation.Materials and methods: A total of 64 patients with stage I-III oesophageal cancers were treated using hybrid VMAT (H-VMAT) plans optimised using RayStation. Among them, 40 plans were used for training the model for knowledge-based planning (KBP) in RapidPlan. The remaining 24 plans were recalculated using RapidPlan to validate the KBP model. H-VMAT plans calculated using RapidPlan were compared with H-VMAT plans optimised using RayStation with respect to planning target volume doses, lung doses, and modulation complexity.Results: In the lung, there were significant differences between the volume ratios receiving doses in excess of 5, 10, and 20 Gy (V5, V10, and V20). The V5 for the lung with H-VMAT plans optimised using RapidPlan was significantly higher than that of H-VMAT plans optimised using RayStation (p < .01), with a mean difference of 10%. Compared to H-VMAT plans optimised using RayStation, the V10 and V20 for the lung were significantly lower with H-VMAT plans optimised using RapidPlan (p = .04 and p = .02), with differences exceeding 1.0%. In terms of modulation complexity, the change in beam output at each control point was more constant with H-VMAT plans optimised using RapidPlan than with H-VMAT plans optimised using RayStation. The range of the change with H-VMAT plans optimised using RapidPlan was one third that of H-VMAT plans optimised using RayStation.Conclusion: Two optimisers in Eclipse and RayStation had different dosimetric performance in lung sparing and modulation complexity. RapidPlan could not improve low lung doses, however, it provided an appreciate intermediated doses compared to plans optimised with RayStation.

7.
Med Phys ; 2019 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733105

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to develop a deep learning (DL) method for generating virtual noncontrast (VNC) computed tomography (CT) images from contrast-enhanced (CE) CT images (VNCDL ) and to evaluate its performance in dose calculations for head and neck radiotherapy in comparison with VNC images derived from a dual-energy CT (DECT) scanner (VNCDECT ). METHODS: This retrospective study included data for 61 patients who underwent head and neck radiotherapy. All planning CT images were obtained with a single-source DECT scanner (80 and 140 kVp) with rapid kVp switching. The DL-based method used a pair of virtual monochromatic images (VMIs) at 70 keV with and without contrast materials. VMIs without contrast materials were used as reference true noncontrast (TNC) images. Deformable image registration was used between the TNC and CE images. We used the data of 45 patients, chosen randomly, for training (7922 paired images), and data from the other 16 patients as test data. We generated the VNCDL images with a densely connected convolutional network. As the VNCDECT images, we used VMIs with the iodine signal suppressed, reconstructed from the CE images of the 16 test patients. The CT numbers of the tumor, common carotid artery, internal jugular vein, muscle, fat, bone marrow, cortical bone, and mandible of each VNC image were compared with those of the TNC image. The dose of the reference TNC plan was recalculated using the CE, VNCDL , and VNCDECT images. Difference maps of the dose distributions and dose-volume histograms were evaluated. RESULTS: The mean prediction time for the VNCDL images was 3.4 s per patient, and the mean number of slices was 204. The absolute differences in CT numbers of the VNCDL images were significantly smaller than those of the VNCDECT images for the bone marrow (8.0 ± 6.5 vs 175.1 ± 40.9 HU; P < 0.001) and mandible (20.3 ± 19.3 vs 106.2 ± 80.5 HU; P = 0.002). The DL-based model provided the dose distribution most similar to that of the TNC plan. With the VNCDECT plans, dose errors >1.0% were observed in bone regions. The dose-volume histogram analysis showed that the VNCDL plans yielded the smallest errors for the primary target, although dose differences were <1.0% for all the approaches. For the maximum dose to the mandible, the mean ± SD errors for the CE, VNCDL , and VNCDECT plans were -0.13% ± 0.23% (range: -0.46% to 0.31%; P = 0.037), -0.01% ± 0.22% (range: -0.40% to 0.36%; P = 1.0), and 0.53% ± 0.47% (range: -0.21% to 1.41%; P < 0.001), respectively. CONCLUSION: In this study, we developed a method based on DL that can rapidly generate VNC images from CE images without a DECT scanner. Compared with the DECT approach, the DL-based method improved the prediction accuracy of CT numbers in bone regions. Consequently, there was greater agreement between the VNCDL and TNC plan dose distributions than with the CE and VNCDECT plans, achieved by suppressing the contrast material signals while retaining the CT numbers of bone structures.

8.
J Radiat Res ; 60(6): 786-802, 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665374

RESUMO

We evaluated the evolving structure of radiation oncology in Japan in terms of equipment, personnel, patient load and geographic distribution to identify and overcome any existing limitations. From March 2012 to August 2015, the Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology conducted a questionnaire based on the Japanese national structure survey of radiation oncology in 2011. Data were analyzed based on the institutional stratification by the annual number of new patients treated with radiotherapy per institution. The estimated annual numbers of new and total (new plus repeat) patients treated with radiation were 211 000 and 250 000, respectively. Additionally, the estimated cancer incidence was 851 537 cases with approximately 24.8% of all newly diagnosed patients being treated with radiation. The types and numbers of treatment devices actually used included linear accelerator (LINAC; n = 836), telecobalt (n = 3), Gamma Knife (n = 46), 60Co remote afterloading system (RALS; n = 24), and 192Ir RALS (n = 125). The LINAC system used dual-energy functions in 619 units, 3D conformal radiotherapy functions in 719 and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) functions in 412. There were 756 JRS or JASTRO-certified radiation oncologists, 1018.5 full-time equivalent (FTE) radiation oncologists, 2026.7 FTE radiotherapy technologists, 149.1 FTE medical physicists, 141.5 FTE radiotherapy quality managers and 716.3 FTE nurses. The frequency of IMRT use significantly increased during this time. To conclude, although there was a shortage of personnel in 2011, the Japanese structure of radiation oncology has clearly improved in terms of equipment and utility.

9.
Anticancer Res ; 39(9): 4805-4810, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519582

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Ro 90-7501 has been reported as an inhibitor of the amyloid ß42 fibril assembly that is associated with Alzheimer's disease. The present study aimed to elucidate the radiosensitizing effects of Ro 90-7501 and focused on ATM signaling after irradiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Clonogenic survival, apoptosis, and cell-cycle assays as well as western blotting were performed in HeLa cells treated with irradiation and Ro 90-7501. Tumor growth delay assay was also performed using BALB/c-nu mice. RESULTS: The combination of irradiation with Ro 90-7501 showed significant radiosensitizing effects in clonogenic survival and tumor growth delay assays. Ro 90-7501 significantly increased apoptosis and impaired cell cycle after irradiation. Western blotting showed that Ro 90-7501 suppressed the phosphorylation of ATM and its downstream proteins, such as H2AX, Chk1, and Chk2, after irradiation. CONCLUSION: Ro 90-7501 inhibits DNA damage response by inhibiting ATM and has significant radiosensitizing effects on cervical cancer cells.


Assuntos
Aminas/farmacologia , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/metabolismo , Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Radiossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/efeitos da radiação , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/efeitos da radiação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Reparo do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Modelos Biológicos , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/metabolismo
10.
Opt Express ; 27(17): 24499-24511, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31510338

RESUMO

We present mid-infrared (MIR) supercontinuum generation in polarization-maintained ZBLAN fibers pumped by 2 µm femtosecond pulses from a Tm:YAP regenerative amplifier. A stable supercontinuum that spreads from 380 nm to 4 µm was generated by coupling only 0.5  µJ pulse energy into an elliptical core ZBLAN fiber. The supercontinuum was characterized using cross-correlation frequency-resolved optical gating (XFROG). The complex structure of the XFROG trace due to the pulse-to-pulse spectrum instability have been fixed by reducing the length of the applied fibers or improving the quality of the incident pulse spectrum.

11.
J Appl Clin Med Phys ; 20(10): 74-83, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502408

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We developed a technique to calculate the offset between room lasers and the radiation isocenter using a digital Winston-Lutz (WL) test with a starshot technique. We have performed isocenter localization quality assurance (QA) with submillimeter accuracy for a long period. Here we evaluated the feasibility and accuracy of this virtual starshot (VS) analysis for isocenter localization QA. METHODS: A 6-MV photon beam with a square multileaf collimator field was used to irradiate a WL sphere positioned at the intersection of the room lasers. Images were acquired using an electronic portal imaging device. A four-field WL test was performed, and the path of each beam was calculated from the offset between the beam and sphere. Virtual starshot analysis was used to analyze the radiation isocenter, which calculates the center of the beam paths by using a least-squares method, similar to the starshot analysis. Then, eight coplanar and 12 noncoplanar beams were irradiated to evaluate isocenter localization accuracy. RESULTS: Several VS analyses, using different WL spheres, were performed at three institutions, and the calculated accuracies were within 0.1 mm at all institutions. Long-term analysis showed that the isocenter localization accuracy was appropriately managed with three-dimensional accuracy within ± 0.5 mm for 90 months after the first laser adjustments. The offset between each beam and the room laser was within 0.6 mm and within 1.0 mm for eight coplanar and 12 noncoplanar beams, respectively, for 90 months. Cone-beam computed tomography images, acquired after verification beams, showed that the offset between the radiation isocenter and the imaging center was within 0.66 mm for 90 months. The isocenter localization accuracy within 1 mm was kept for long period at other four institutions. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term analysis showed the feasibility of VS analysis for isocenter localization QA, including room laser re-alignment, noncoplanar irradiation verification, and image guidance accuracy.

12.
Technol Cancer Res Treat ; 18: 1533033819871327, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455166

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Information on the short- and long-term outcomes of induction chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery for cT3-4 non-small cell lung cancer is limited. We analyzed the short- and long-term outcomes of induction chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery for cT3-4 non-small cell lung cancer. METHODS: Patients with non-small cell lung cancer who underwent induction chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery for cT3-4 non-small cell lung cancer were retrospectively reviewed (initial treatment group, n = 31). Their results were compared to those patients who underwent surgery as an initial treatment during the same period (initial surgery group, n = 35). RESULTS: Downstaging was achieved in 14 (45%) patients in the initial treatment group. R0 resection was achieved in 28 (90%) patients in the initial treatment group and 31 (88%) patients in the initial surgery group. The 90-day mortality rate was 3% in each group. Postoperative complications occurred in 16 (52%) patients in the initial treatment group and 13 (37%) patients in the initial surgery group. The 5-year overall survival rate of the initial treatment group was significantly higher than that of the initial surgery group (62.6% vs 43.5%, P = .04). The 5-year overall survival rates of the initial treatment N0-1 group and the initial surgery N0-1 group were 88.9% and 49.3%, respectively; the difference was statistically significant (P = .02). Multivariate analysis using 4 factors (age [≤65 vs >65], cN [cN0-1 vs cN2], general condition [chemoradiotherapy fit vs chemoradiotherapy unfit], and treatment mode [induction chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery vs surgery as an initial treatment]) revealed that treatment mode (induction chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery) and cN status (cN0-1) were significantly associated with good overall survival and disease-free survival. CONCLUSIONS: Induction chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery for cT3-4 non-small cell lung cancer could be performed with an acceptable degree of surgical risk. At present, it is thought to be one of the reasonable treatment approaches for selected patients with cT3-4 disease, even those with a cN0-1 status.

13.
Anticancer Res ; 39(8): 4279-4283, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366518

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: To determine whether concurrent chemotherapy with radiotherapy should be performed in elderly patients with esophageal cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 185 patients aged 80 years or older who were treated with definitive radiotherapy alone or combined with chemoradiotherapy for esophageal cancer at seven institutions were enrolled. In order to compare survival rates of patients treated with chemoradiotherapy with those of patients treated with radiotherapy alone, propensity score matching was performed to homogenize the two populations. RESULTS: For the whole patient cohort, the 3-year overall survival (OS) rate was 52.6% and the median survival was 42.5 months. After propensity score matching, the 3-year OS rate for the chemoradiotherapy group was not significantly better than that for the group treated with radiotherapy alone (53.7% vs. 59.9%, p=0.876). CONCLUSION: Concurrent chemotherapy with radiotherapy for esophageal cancer in patients aged 80 years or older did not have significant OS benefit over radiotherapy alone.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Quimiorradioterapia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Esofágicas/radioterapia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Terapia Combinada , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Feminino , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino
14.
Anticancer Res ; 39(6): 2935-2940, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177132

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate the toxicity and efficacy of re-irradiation with salvage stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) for recurrent glioma using CyberKnife. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study retrospectively investigated 35 patients with 48 recurrent grade 2-4 gliomas who received SRT between 1998 and 2011. Six patients (17.1%) had grade 2 gliomas, nine (25.7%) had grade 3 gliomas, and 20 (57.1%) had glioblastomas; all initially underwent surgery and conventional radiotherapy. The median initial and subsequent radiotherapy doses were 60 and 26 Gy, respectively. RESULTS: After a median follow-up period of 9.0 months, the only toxicity of grade 2 or more was radiation-induced brain necrosis in four patients (11.4%). The median overall and progression-free survival periods following re-irradiation were 9.0 and 3.0 months, respectively. Univariate analysis revealed that performance status at salvage re-irradiation was a significant predictor of progression-free survival. CONCLUSION: Salvage re-irradiation using CyberKnife is feasible, with an acceptable toxicity profile, for patients with recurrent glioma.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Glioma/radioterapia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/radioterapia , Radiocirurgia/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Doses de Radiação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Terapia de Salvação/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
15.
Brachytherapy ; 18(5): 589-597, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31229363

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of transitioning treatment planning techniques in high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy monotherapy for localized prostate cancer. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We compared 113 patients treated with initial two-dimensional treatment planning (2D: 74% received 54 Gy/nine fractions) to 240 patients treated with three-dimensional planning (3D: 70 CT image-guided 3D [CT-3D]: 84% 45.5 Gy/seven fractions and 170 MRI image-guided [MRI-3D]: 87% received 49 Gy/nine fractions). RESULTS: The actuarial 5-year biochemical failure-free survival rates for 2D and 3D planning were 88.4% and 95.1% (p = 0.0285 between 2D and 3D) (89.4% in CT-3D and 97.5% in MRI-3D), respectively; the rates for 2D and 3D planning were not available and 100% in the low-risk group (100% and 100%), 97.7% and 94.5% (p = 0.7626) (85.1% and 100%) in the intermediate-risk group, and 82.5% and 94.4% (p = 0.0507) (93.8% and 94.7%) for the high-risk group. Late gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity Grade 1, Grade 2, and Grade 3 was found in 13%, 4%, and 1% in 2D, whereas 8%, 2%, and 0% in 3D group (p = 0.0699), respectively. 3D decreased GI toxicity Grade 2 ≤ than 2D (19% and 10%, p = 0.0169). Late genitourinary toxicity Grade 1, Grade 2, and Grade 3 was 21%, 12%, and 3% for 2D and 32%, 18%, and 3% for 3D, respectively (p = 0.0217). CONCLUSIONS: The 3D technique has the potential to reduce GI toxicity and improve biochemical control rate compared to 2D planning, whereas 3D resulted in increased mild genitourinary toxicity.

16.
Cancer Med ; 8(10): 4547-4554, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the locations of lymph node recurrence and their association with irradiation fields used for radiotherapy after adjuvant chemoradiotherapy following endoscopic resection for superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. METHODS: Medical records of 96 consecutive patients with superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma who underwent adjuvant chemoradiotherapy following endoscopic resection were reviewed. Computed tomography was used to identify whether nodal recurrences were within the elective nodal irradiation field. The cumulative incidence of recurrence was calculated, accounting for death as a competing risk. Univariate and multivariate analyses identified factors predicting nodal recurrence. RESULTS: The median follow-up period was 61 months (range: 6-137 months). Seven patients (7.3%) developed lymph node recurrence only; two patients (2.1%) developed nodal plus local recurrence. Six of the seven cases without local recurrence involved the elective nodal irradiation field, with five cases involving the recurrent nerve lymph nodes. The 5-year cumulative incidence of lymph node recurrence was higher for T1b tumors with lymphovascular invasion than for T1a tumors with lymphovascular invasion (17.6% vs 6.2%, P = 0.086; HR: 3.74, 95% CI: 0.80-17.52, P = 0.094) and T1b tumors without lymphovascular invasion (17.6% vs 3.3%, P = 0.031; HR: 6.78, 95% CI: 0.80-57.63, P = 0.080). CONCLUSIONS: Lymph node recurrence frequently involved the elective nodal irradiation field, with recurrent nerve lymph nodes being common metastasis sites. The high incidence of nodal recurrence for T1b tumors with lymphovascular invasion highlights a need for new strategies for treating this subset of superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinomas.

17.
J Radiat Res ; 60(5): 586-594, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31125068

RESUMO

This study aims to produce non-contrast computed tomography (CT) images using a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) for imaging. Twenty-nine patients were selected. CT images were acquired without and with a contrast enhancement medium. The transverse images were divided into 64 × 64 pixels. This resulted in 14 723 patches in total for both non-contrast and contrast-enhanced CT image pairs. The proposed CNN model comprises five two-dimensional (2D) convolution layers with one shortcut path. For comparison, the U-net model, which comprises five 2D convolution layers interleaved with pooling and unpooling layers, was used. Training was performed in 24 patients and, for testing of trained models, another 5 patients were used. For quantitative evaluation, 50 regions of interest (ROIs) were selected on the reference contrast-enhanced image of the test data, and the mean pixel value of the ROIs was calculated. The mean pixel values of the ROIs at the same location on the reference non-contrast image and the predicted non-contrast image were calculated and those values were compared. Regarding the quantitative analysis, the difference in mean pixel value between the reference contrast-enhanced image and the predicted non-contrast image was significant (P < 0.0001) for both models. Significant differences in pixels (P < 0.0001) were found using the U-net model; in contrast, there was no significant difference using the proposed CNN model when comparing the reference non-contrast images and the predicted non-contrast images. Using the proposed CNN model, the contrast-enhanced region was satisfactorily reduced.

18.
Med Phys ; 46(9): 3757-3766, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30943311

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The SynchronyTM Respiratory Tracking System (SRTS) component of the CyberKnife® Robotic Radiosurgery System (Accuray, Inc., Sunnyvale CA) enables real-time tracking of moving targets by modeling the correlation between the targets and external surrogate light-emitting diode (LED) markers placed on the patient's chest. Previous studies reported some cases with respiratory phase shifts between lung tumor and chest wall motions. In this study, the impacts of respiratory phase shifts on the motion-tracking accuracy of the SRTS were investigated. METHODS: A plastic scintillator was used to detect the position of the x-ray beams. The scintillation light was recorded using a camera in a dark room. A moving phantom moved a U-shaped frame on the scintillator with a 4th power of sinusoidal functions. Three metallic markers for motion tracking and four fluorescent tapes were attached to the frame. The fluorescent tapes were used to identify phantom position and respiratory phase for each video frame. The beam positions collected, when considered relative to the phantom motion, represent the degree of tracking error. Beam position was calculated by adding error value to phantom position. Motions with respiratory phase shifts between the target and an extra stage mimicking chest wall motion were also tested for LED markers. Log files of the SRTS were analyzed to evaluate correlation errors. RESULTS: When target and LED marker motions were synchronized with a respiratory cycle of 4 s, the maximum tracking errors for 90% and 95% of beam-on time were 1.0 mm and 1.2 mm, respectively. The frequency of tracking errors increased when LED marker motion phase preceded target motion. Tracking errors that corresponded to 90% beam-on time were within 2.4 mm for 5-15% of phase shifts. In contrast, the tracking errors were very large when the LED marker delayed to the target motions; the maximum errors of 90% beam-on time were 3.0, 3.8, and 7.5 mm for 5%, 10%, and 15% of phase shifts, respectively. The patterns of the tracking errors derived from the scintillation light were very similar to those of the correlation data of the SRTS derived from the log files, indicating that the tracking errors caused mainly due to the errors in modeling the correlation data. With long respiratory cycle of 6 s, the tracking errors were significantly decreased; the maximum tracking errors for 95% beam-on time were 1.6 mm and 2.2 mm for early and delayed LED motion. CONCLUSION: We have investigated the motion-tracking accuracy of the CyberKnife SRTS for cases with the respiratory phase shift between the target and the LED marker. The maximum tracking errors for 90% probability were within 2.4 mm when the target delays to the LED markers. When LED marker delays, however, very large tracking errors were observed. With a long respiratory cycle, the tracking errors were greatly improved to less than 2.2 mm. Coaching slow breathing will be useful for accurate motion tracking radiotherapy.


Assuntos
Movimento , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Respiração , Imagens de Fantasmas , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador
19.
Radiother Oncol ; 136: 148-153, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31015117

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Locoregional recurrence after carbon-ion radiotherapy (CIRT) for primary head and neck malignancies, such as malignant mucosal melanoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, and sarcoma, occurs occasionally. However, the treatment options are limited. We report on the toxicity and efficacy of re-irradiation using carbon ions for recurrent head and neck malignancies after CIRT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data of 48 patients with recurrent head and neck malignancies treated with re-irradiation with CIRT at our institution (2007-2016) were retrospectively analyzed. Twenty-one patients (43.8%) had malignant mucosal melanoma, 17 (35.4%) had adenoid cystic carcinoma, six (12.5%) had bone and soft tissue sarcomas, and four patients (8.3%) had other disease types. Tumor recurrences at re-irradiation were located in the paranasal cavity (n = 18, 37.5%), nasal cavity (n = 9, 18.8%), nasopharynx (n = 4, 8.3%), orbit (n = 3, 6.3%), cavernous sinus (n = 3, 6.3%), and at other sites (n = 11, 22.9%). The median dose of initial CIRT and that at re-irradiation were 57.6 Gy and 54.0 Gy (relative biological effectiveness [RBE]), respectively. None of the patients received concurrent chemotherapy. RESULTS: The median follow-up period after re-irradiation was 27.1 months. Five patients (10.4%) developed Grade 3 acute toxicities and 18 (37.5%) developed Grade ≥3 late toxicities, including Grade 5 central nervous system necrosis in one patient. The 2-year local control, locoregional control, progression-free survival, and overall survival rates were 40.5, 33.5%, 29.4%, and 59.6%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Re-irradiation using carbon ions may be a reasonable treatment option with tolerable toxicity for patients with recurrent head and neck malignancies after CIRT.

20.
J Obstet Gynaecol Res ; 45(6): 1173-1182, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30843318

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of external beam radiotherapy (RT) for isolated recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). METHODS: Twenty-four isolated recurrent EOC patients treated with RT at Osaka University Hospital between January 2000 and January 2017 were included in the current study. Data regarding the primary or recurrent diseases, follow-up findings, and efficacy or toxicities of RT were collected and retrospectively analyzed. Survival rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using the log-rank test. RESULTS: Their median age was 59 years. Most patients had International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage III-IV diseases at the initial diagnosis. Histologically, serous adenocarcinoma was predominant, followed by clear cell adenocarcinoma. All patients had received at least one regimen of platinum-based chemotherapy; 8 were platinum-sensitive relapse and the others were platinum-resistant. Lymph nodes were the most common sites of recurrence, and the median tumor size was 25.5 mm. The median total dose of RT administered was 54 Gy, with a median daily dose of 2 Gy. RT was well-tolerated, and no patients experienced Grade 3/4 toxicities. The in-field overall response rate was 58.3% (14/24), the median regression rate was -40.2% (range: -100 to 0) and the median survival period after RT was 17 months. The 1-year survival and local progression-free survival rates after RT were 66.7% and 45.8%, respectively. CONCLUSION: RT showed significant antitumor effect against isolated recurrent EOC without causing severe toxicities. Prospective studies with sufficient statistical power are warranted to further evaluate the role of RT in this patient population.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/radioterapia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/radioterapia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/radioterapia , Radioterapia/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Protocolos Antineoplásicos , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/mortalidade , Resistência a Medicamentos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/mortalidade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/mortalidade , Platina/farmacologia , Radioterapia/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida
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