Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 153
Filtrar
1.
Vaccine ; 38(15): 3073-3078, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32147300

RESUMO

HPV vaccination schedules have changed as evidence has supported reduced dosing and extended intervals. Women living with HIV (WLWH) represent an important population with no data on alternative dosing. Girls and WLWH received quadrivalent HPV (qHPV) vaccine in a pan-Canadian study of immunogenicity and efficacy. Serology was performed at months 0/2/7/12/18/24. Medical and sexual history was collected throughout. Linear regression was used to determine if spacing of doses was associated with peak antibody titer. Multivariable analyses demonstrated significant relationships between peak antibody titer and time to blood draw post last vaccine dose, naivety to the relevant HPV type, and HIV viral load for all qHPV types. There was a significant relationship between peak HPV16/18 antibody titer and age. Taking age, time to serology, CD4 cell count, CD4 nadir, HIV viral load, and HPV naivety into account, spacing of the three qHPV vaccine doses did not significantly impact peak antibody titers.

2.
Can J Public Health ; 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32086774

RESUMO

SETTING: There is a multitude of health equity tools but little guidance on how to effectively use these tools in public health nursing practice. In BC, public health nurses who are certified in sexually transmitted infection care utilize guidelines authorized by the nursing regulatory body. INTERVENTION: As part of the Equity Lens in Public Health (ELPH) research project, an assessment of the nursing guideline, Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) Assessment Decision Support Tool, was undertaken using the Assessing Equity in Clinical Practice Guidelines health equity assessment tool. The chosen tool is intended for use by health care providers, is broadly applicable to clinical practice guidelines, can be used retrospectively, and falls within the category of equity checklists and audits. OUTCOMES: Overall, the tool was useful in assessing the inclusion and omission of an equity focus in the guideline. However, there were several challenges: the identification of an appropriate health equity tool; the absence of an evaluation of the chosen tool; the tool's focus on chronic disease versus communicable disease; and the difficulty of obtaining client perspectives. IMPLICATIONS: For an improved equity lens in the STI Assessment Decision Support Tool, future revisions should be equity focused and include perspectives from affected populations, an emphasis on the determinants of health that perpetuate inequities for populations who experience a disproportionate burden of STI, information on provincially available resources, and service delivery models that improve timely and equitable access to treatment and care.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32097251

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Our objective was to quantify the extent of anal cancer screening among men receiving HIV specialty care in Ontario, Canada and evaluate factors associated with screening. SETTING: Cross-sectional questionnaire within a multi-site clinical HIV cohort. METHODS: A questionnaire assessing knowledge and experience with HPV-associated diseases and their prevention was administered in 2016-2017 to 1677 men in the Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study. We used logistic regression to identify factors associated with having discussed screening with a healthcare provider and self-reported receipt of screening (digital anorectal exams [DARE]; anal cytology or anoscopy). Results reported as adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: 40% of men reported ever having had anal cytology/anoscopy, and 70% had ever had DARE. After accounting for differences in age, sexual orientation, years since HIV diagnosis, previous diagnosis with AIDS, knowing someone with HPV-associated cancer, comfort discussing anal health, education and income, the proportion screened differed by self-identified race. Compared to White men, Asian men were less likely to have discussed screening with a healthcare provider (aOR=0.48 95% CI:0.29,0.80) or to have been screened by DARE (aOR=0.27 95% CI:0.17,0.44) or anal cytology/anoscopy (aOR=0.51 95% CI:0.31,0.83); and African, Caribbean or Black men (aOR=0.47 95% CI:0.31,0.70) were less likely to have had DARE. Results were consistent when restricting the analyses to gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men. CONCLUSION: Our findings highlight the potential for disparities in anal cancer screening that need to be considered when developing guidelines and screening programs to reduce the burden of anal cancer among men living with HIV and ensure health equity.

4.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 142, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005202

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is almost entirely preventable through vaccination and screening, yet remains one of the 'gravest threats to women's lives' according to the World Health Organization. Specific high-risk subtypes of human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) are well-established as the primary cause of cervical cancer. Uganda has one of the highest cervical cancer incidence rates in the world (54.8 per 100,000) as a result of limited screening access and infrastructure. The integration of a self-collected cervical cancer screening program using HPV testing within existing community-based primary health care services could increase access to screening and reduce cervical cancer rates among Ugandan women. METHODS: Using a pragmatic, sequential, cluster randomized trial design; we will compare the effectiveness of two cervical cancer screening models for self-collected HPV testing: 1) community health worker recruitment (door-to-door); and 2) community health meetings. In Mayuge district, Uganda, 31 villages are randomized to one of two treatment arms. Due to the nature of this trial, blinding is not possible. Women are eligible to participate if they have no previous history of hysterectomy or treatment for cervical cancer or pre-cancer and are aged 25-49 years old. All participants receive an integrated package of cervical cancer screening and education. Samples are tested for HPV using GeneXpert point of care testing. All women who test positive for HR-HPV types are referred to a designated health centre for follow-up inspection by Visual Inspection with Acetic acid (VIA) and treatment with thermal ablation. The primary outcome for the trial is the number of women who attend follow-up for VIA screening at a designated Health Centre after a positive HR-HPV test out of all women screened per arm. Secondary outcomes include: cervical cancer screening knowledge; patient-reported experience measures for self-collected cervical cancer screening; and HPV incidence. DISCUSSION: Results from this study will inform the national scale-up of cervical cancer screening in Uganda, aligning with the World Health Organization's target of achieving cervical cancer elimination through the pillar of increased HPV screening coverage. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN, ISRCTN12767014. Registered 14 May 2019, https://doi.org/10.1186/ISRCTN12767014; clinicaltrials.gov, NCT04000503; Registered 27 June 2019, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04000503 PROTOCOL VERSION: January 8, 2020, version 1.

5.
Int J Cancer ; 146(7): 1810-1818, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31245842

RESUMO

HPV FOCAL is a randomized control trial of cervical cancer screening. The intervention arm received baseline screening for high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) and the control arm received liquid-based cytology (LBC) at baseline and 24 months. Both arms received 48-month exit HPV and LBC cotesting. Exit results are presented for per-protocol eligible (PPE) screened women. Participants were PPE at exit if they had completed all screening and recommended follow-up and had not been diagnosed with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia Grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) earlier in the trial. Subgroups were identified based upon results at earlier trial screening. There were 9,457 and 9,552 and women aged 25-65 randomized to control and intervention and 7,448 (77.8%) and 8,281 (86.7%), respectively, were PPE and screened. Exit cotest results were similar (p = 0.11) by arm for PPE and the relative rate (RR) of CIN2+ for intervention vs. control was RR = 0.83 (95% CI: 0.56-1.23). The RR for CIN2+ comparing intervention women baseline HPV negative to control women with negative cytology at baseline and at 24 months, was 0.68 (95% CI: 0.43-1.06). PPE women who had a negative or CIN1 colposcopy in earlier rounds had elevated rates (per 1,000) of CIN2+ at exit, control 31 (95% CI: 14-65) and intervention 43 (95% CI: 25-73). Among PPE women HPV negative at exit LBC cotesting identified little CIN2+, Rate = 0.3 (95% CI: 0.1-0.7). This per-protocol analysis found that screening with HPV using a 4-year interval is as safe as LBC with a 2-year screening interval. LBC screening in HPV negative women at exit identified few additional lesions.


Assuntos
Papillomaviridae , Infecções por Papillomavirus/complicações , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Colúmbia Britânica/epidemiologia , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/epidemiologia , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/etiologia , DNA Viral , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico
6.
AIDS Behav ; 24(1): 95-113, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30900043

RESUMO

In 2012, the Supreme Court of Canada ruled that people with HIV are legally obligated to disclose their serostatus before sex with a "realistic possibility" of HIV transmission, suggesting a legal obligation to disclose unless they use condoms and have a low HIV viral load (< 1500 copies/mL). We measured prevalence and correlates of ruling awareness among 1230 women with HIV enrolled in a community-based cohort study (2015-2017). While 899 (73%) participants had ruling awareness, only 37% were both aware of and understood ruling components. Among 899 aware participants, 34% had never discussed disclosure and the law with healthcare providers, despite only 5% being unwilling to do this. Detectable/unknown HIV viral load, lack of awareness of prevention benefits of antiretroviral therapy, education ≤ high-school and high HIV-related stigma were negatively associated with ruling awareness. Discussions around disclosure and the law in community and healthcare settings are warranted to support women with HIV.

7.
J Infect Dis ; 221(1): 81-90, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504649

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To understand real-world human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine impact, continuous evaluation using population-based data is critical. We evaluated the early impact of the school-based HPV immunization program on cervical dysplasia in women in British Columbia, Canada. METHODS: Data linkage was performed using records from provincial cervical screening and immunization registries. Precancerous outcomes were compared between unvaccinated and HPV-vaccinated women born 1994-2005. Incidence rate, relative rate (RR), and vaccine effectiveness (VE), using unadjusted and adjusted Poisson regression of cytology (HSIL) and histopathology (CIN2, CIN3, and CIN2+) outcomes, were compared across vaccination status groups. RESULTS: Women who received a complete series of vaccine on schedule between age 9 and 14 years had an adjusted RR = 0.42 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.31-0.57) for CIN2+ over 7 years of follow-up compared to unvaccinated women, resulting in a VE of 57.9% (95% CI, 43.2%-69.0%). Adjusted RR for HSIL was 0.53 (95% CI, .43-.64), resulting in a VE of 47.1% (95% CI, 35.6%-56.7%). CONCLUSION: Women vaccinated against HPV have a lower incidence of cervical dysplasia compared to unvaccinated women. Immunization between 9 and 14 years of age should be encouraged. Continued program evaluation is important for measuring long-term population impact.

8.
BMJ Open ; 9(10): e029158, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31662358

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cervical cancer disproportionately burdens low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) such as Guatemala. Self-collection testing for human papillomavirus (HPV) has been suggested as a form of cervical cancer screening to facilitate access in LMICs. This study assessed and compared the acceptability of self-collection HPV testing in two rural, indigenous and ethnically distinct communities in Guatemala: Santiago Atitlán, Sololá and Livingston, Izabal. METHODS: All participants, women between the ages of 18 and 60, completed a questionnaire. Eligible participants were also asked to self-collect a vaginal sample and complete a questionnaire regarding comfort and acceptability. Self-collected samples were tested for high-risk HPV using the real-time PCR Hybribio kit. RESULTS: In the indigenous community of Santiago Atitlán, of 438 age-eligible participants, 94% completed self-collection. Of those, 81% found it comfortable and 98% were willing to use it as a form of screening. In the multiethnic (Afro-Caribbean, indigenous) community of Livingston, of 322 age-eligible participants, 53% chose to self-collect. Among those who took the test, 83% found it comfortable and 95% were willing to use it as a form of screening. In Livingston, literacy (can read and/or write vs cannot read or write) was higher in women who chose to self-collect (prevalence ratio 2.25; 95% CI 1.38 to 3.68). Ethnicity, history of screening and reproductive history were not associated with willingness to self-collect in Livingston. Women in Santiago reported less prior use of healthcare than women in Livingston. Overall, 19% (106/549) of samples tested positive for high-risk HPV. CONCLUSION: Among women willing to self-collect in rural and indigenous communities in Guatemala, self-collection for HPV testing is highly acceptable. However, willingness to try self-collection might vary across communities and settings. Women from a community that used less healthcare were more likely to choose self-collection. Further research is necessary to determine what factors influence a woman's choice to self-collect.

9.
Vaccine ; 37(49): 7203-7206, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648910

RESUMO

HPV vaccines are highly immunogenic. A two-dose schedule for 9-14 year-old is recommended. However, no data exist regarding the impact of age, menarche status and body mass index (BMI) on the immune response to a two-dose schedule. In this post-hoc analysis, we present antibody titers to HPV6/11/16/18 in 9-13 year-old girls participating in a randomized clinical trial and assigned to receive two doses of quadrivalent HPV vaccine at 6 months interval (NCT00501137). Antibody titers were measured at month 7 and 24 of the study by using a competitive Luminex immunoassay (cLIA).Both, at Month 7 and 24 the GMTs for four HPV genotypes were similar across the age bands, and did not vary significantly by menarche status. Overweight and obese girls had lower GMTs. More than 99% of girls remained seropositive for HPV 6/11/16 and 89% for HPV18 at month 24. Comprehensive data in overweight and obese vaccines are warranted.

10.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617568

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several countries have implemented a 2-dose (2D) human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination schedule for adolescents based on immunobridging studies. We compared immunogenicity of 2D vs 3-dose (3D) schedules of the quadrivalent vaccine (4vHPV) up to 10 years after the first dose. METHODS: Girls aged 9-13 years were randomized to receive 2D or 3D and were compared with women aged 16-26 receiving 3D at day 1 and months 7, 24, and 120 after the first dose. Antibody levels for HPV6/11/16/18 were evaluated using the competitive Luminex immunoassay (cLIA) and total immunoglobulin G assay. Geometric mean titers (GMTs) and seropositivity rates were compared between the different groups at different time points. Noninferiority of GMT ratios was defined as the lower bound of the 2-sided 95% confidence interval (CI) being greater than 0.5. Kinetics of antibody titers over time among study groups were examined. RESULTS: At 120 months, data from 35 2D girls, 38 3D girls, and 30 3D women were used for analyses. cLIA seropositivity rates were above 95% for all HPV vaccine types and all schedules, except HPV18, with the lowest seropositivity observed among 3D women (60.0%; 95% CI, 40.6%-77.3%). GMT ratios (cLIA) for both 2D and 3D girls were noninferior to 3 doses in women for HPV6/11/16/18. Trends were comparable between assays. CONCLUSIONS: GMTs for HPV6/11/16/18 after 2D or 3D of 4vHPV in girls were noninferior to 3D in adult women up to 120 months postvaccination. This study demonstrates long-term immunogenicity of the 2D HPV vaccine schedule.

11.
JMIR Hum Factors ; 6(4): e14558, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603429

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human-centered design is a methodology that applies an iterative participatory process that engages the end-user for whom an innovation or intervention is designed for from start to end. There is general evidence to support the use of human-centered design for development of tools to affect health behavior, but specifically for family planning provision. This study is part two of a three-phase study that uses a user-centered design methodology which uses the findings from Phase I to design, develop, and test a digital health solution to support follow-up after an induced surgical abortion. OBJECTIVE: The objectives for this study were to: (1) develop a Web-based intervention based on preferences and experiences of women who underwent an abortion as measured in the formative phase of the Feasibility and Acceptability of a Mobile Technology Intervention to Support Postabortion Care Study; (2) conduct usability testing of the intervention to determine user-friendliness and appropriateness of the intervention; and (3) finalize a beta version of the Web-based intervention for pilot testing. METHODS: The study design was based on the "development-evaluation-implementation" process from the Medical Research Council Framework for Complex Medical Interventions. This study is in Phase II of III and is based on user-centered design methodology. Phase I findings demonstrated that women engage with technology to assist in clinical care and they preferred a comprehensive website with email or text notifications to support follow-up care. In Phase II we collaborated with family planning experts and key stakeholders to synthesize evidence from Phase I. With them and a development partner we built a prototype. Usability testing was completed with 9 participants using a validated System Usability Scale. This was then used to refine the intervention for Phase III pilot study. This study was approved by the local Ethics board. RESULTS: We developed a comprehensive Web-based tool called myPostCare.ca, which includes: Post-Procedure Care, Emotional Well-Being Tool, Contraception Explorer, Sexual Health, Book an Appointment, and Other Resources. Additionally, over the course of a month after the procedure, automatic email notifications were sent to women as a form of virtual follow-up support, directing them to myPostCare.ca resources. The Web-based tool was refined based on usability testing results. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that user-centered design is a useful methodology to build programs and interventions that are women-centered, specifically for abortion care.

12.
Sex Transm Infect ; 95(7): 540-546, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31467134

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Internet-based sexually transmitted and blood-borne infection (STBBI) testing services reduce testing barriers through bypassing face-to-face clinical encounters, potentially enabling clients at ongoing sexual risk to test more frequently. To our knowledge, this hypothesis has not been previously tested. We compared the frequency of repeat testing between Vancouver-based clients of GetCheckedOnline (GCO)-an internet-based STBBI testing service in British Columbia, Canada-and clients of three sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics in Vancouver for 29 months after GCO launched. METHODS: An administrative data cohort (n=19 497) was assembled using GCO, clinical and laboratory databases. We included all individuals who tested for HIV, gonorrhoea/chlamydia, syphilis or hepatitis C at three STI clinics or using GCO, between September 2014 and February 2017. The rate of repeat testing (>30 days after first episode) was compared between clients who used GCO at least once and those who tested only in STI clinics. Poisson regression was used to generate relative rate (RR) for repeat testing, with adjustment for age, gender/sexual orientation, risk factors (eg, history of STI diagnosis) and rate of testing before GCO launched. RESULTS: 1093 GCO clients were identified, of whom 434 (40%) had repeat test episodes; 8200/18 404 (45%) of clinic clients tested more than once. During the 29-month analysis period, GCO clients repeat tested 1.87 times per person-year, whereas clinic clients repeat tested 1.53 times per person-year, resulting in a crude RR of 1.22 (95% CI: 1.14 to 1.31). Adjustment for covariates increased the RR to 1.26 (95% CI: 1.15 to 1.37). CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort, individuals using internet-based STBBI testing had a rate of repeat testing 22% greater than clinic-based clients. This effect was increased after adjusting for characteristics associated with higher test frequency. The online interface of GCO may facilitate more frequent testing and may therefore contribute to earlier STBBI diagnosis.


Assuntos
Serviços de Diagnóstico/estatística & dados numéricos , Utilização de Instalações e Serviços/estatística & dados numéricos , Internet , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Colúmbia Britânica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Obstet Gynaecol Can ; 41(8): 1177-1180, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31235371

RESUMO

In the context of changing recommendations for cervical cancer screening, differing recommendations in each province, and a lack of guidance for cervical screening of immunocompromised women, this article provides specific recommendations for cervical cancer screening of immunocompromised women in Canada.

14.
J Med Internet Res ; 21(5): e13387, 2019 05 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31144668

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over 30% of women in Canada undergo an abortion. Despite the prevalence of the procedure, stigma surrounding abortion in Canada leads to barriers for women to access this service. The vast majority of care is concentrated in urban settings. There is evidence to support utilization of innovative mobile and other technology solutions to empower women to safely and effectively self-manage aspects of the abortion process. This study is part 1 of a 3-phase study that utilizes user-centered design methodology to develop a digital health solution to specifically support follow-up after an induced surgical abortion. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to (1) understand how women at 3 surgical abortion clinics in an urban center of British Columbia utilize their mobile phones to access health care information and (2) understand women's preferences of content and design of an intervention that will support follow-up care after an induced abortion, including contraceptive use. METHODS: The study design was based on development-evaluation-implementation process from Medical Research Council Framework for Complex Medical Interventions. This was a mixed-methods formative study. Women (aged 14-45 years) were recruited from 3 urban abortion facilities in British Columbia who underwent an induced abortion. Adaptation of validated surveys and using the technology acceptance model and theory of reasoned action, a cross-sectional survey was designed. Interview topics included demographic information; type of wireless device used; cell phone usage; acceptable information to include in a mobile intervention to support women's abortion care; willingness to use a mobile phone to obtain reproductive health information; optimal strategies to use a mobile intervention to support women; understand preferences for health information resources; and design qualities in a mobile intervention important for ease of use, privacy, and security. Responses to questions in the survey were summarized using descriptive statistics. Qualitative analysis was conducted with NVivo using a thematic analysis approach. This study was approved by the local ethics board. RESULTS: A waiting-room survey was completed by 50 participants, and semistructured interviews were completed with 8 participants. The average age of participants was 26 years. Furthermore, 94% (47/50) owned a smartphone, 85% (41/48) used their personal phones to go online, and 85% would use their cell phone to assist in clinical care. Qualitative analysis demonstrated that women prefer a comprehensive website that included secure email or text notifications to provide tools and resources for emotional well-being, contraceptive decision making, general sexual health, and postprocedure care. CONCLUSIONS: A community-based mixed-methods approach allowed us to understand how women use their cell phones and what women desire in a mobile intervention to support their postabortion care. The findings from this formative phase will assist in the development and testing of a mobile intervention to support follow-up care after an induced surgical abortion.


Assuntos
Assistência ao Convalescente/métodos , Telefone Celular/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Colúmbia Britânica , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Projetos de Pesquisa , Adulto Jovem
15.
CMAJ Open ; 7(2): E217-E226, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30979726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cisgender women with HIV experience an elevated risk of cervical cancer compared with HIV-negative women, but this cancer can be prevented through regular cervical cancer screening. Our study objective was to measure adherence to current national cervical cancer screening guidelines among women with HIV in 3 Canadian provinces and identify factors associated with delays. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study using the baseline questionnaire of the Canadian HIV Women's Sexual and Reproductive Health Cohort Study (CHIWOS). Participants were recruited through clinics, peers and community organizations in British Columbia, Ontario and Quebec. Women were eligible for inclusion if they were cisgender female with HIV, aged 21-70 years, and never had cervicectomy/hysterectomy. RESULTS: Of 1189 eligible participants, 815 (68.5%) had received cervical cancer screening less than 1 year ago (i.e., as recommended), 211 (17.7%) 1-3 years ago (i.e., moderate delay) and 163 (13.7%) at least 3 years ago or never (i.e., long delay). Overall, 309 (26.0%) had never discussed the need for a Papanicolaou smear with a nurse/doctor. Factors associated with a long delay were living in Ontario (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.29-4.88) or Quebec (adjusted OR 3.70, 95% CI 1.79-7.67) (v. BC), being sexually inactive in the past 6 months (adjusted OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.25-3.25), having unknown or < 200 cells/mm3 CD4 counts (adjusted OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.11-2.85) and having a male HIV care provider (adjusted OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.36-3.42). INTERPRETATION: Over one-third of women reported cervical cancer screening delays, and one-quarter had never discussed cervical cancer screening recommendations with a health care provider. Additional efforts are needed to improve women's and health care providers' awareness of cervical cancer screening recommendations, particularly among women who are sexually inactive, who are immunosuppressed and who have male HIV care providers.

16.
Sex Transm Dis ; 46(7): 423-428, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30870310

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infectious syphilis has increased substantially over the past decade. Targeting limited public health resources toward subpopulations with multiple reinfections may have a large impact in reducing onward transmission within a community. METHODS: A chart review was conducted for individuals with 4 or more infectious syphilis diagnoses between 2005 and 2014 (the top 1% of all syphilis diagnoses in British Columbia, Canada). We characterized the sociodemographics, partner notification outcomes and social network. RESULTS: Between 2005 and 2014, there were 30 individuals with 4 or more syphilis diagnoses, accounting for 139 diagnoses. All were men who have sex with men and 29 (96%) were human immunodeficiency virus-positive. Of the 139 diagnoses, 65% occurred in the early latent stage of infection, 22% in the secondary stage, and 14% in the primary stage. The median number of sexual partners per diagnosis was 5 (range, 1-50). Among the 838 partners reported, 79% were notifiable, 53% were notified, and 23% were reported to be tested or treated. Sexual network mapping showed that almost half of the members of this group could be linked to one another either directly or indirectly via partners over 10 years. Social network mapping demonstrated high connectivity, with 4 venues associated with almost two thirds of the study population. CONCLUSIONS: The connectivity and recurrent diagnoses in this study population suggest potential benefits of targeted interventions to individuals with multiple diagnoses and their partners. Our study highlights the need for enhanced care, increased syphilis testing frequency, and exploring alternative preventative methods among individuals with syphilis rediagnoses to reduce syphilis incidence.

17.
Sex Transm Infect ; 95(2): 102-107, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30636706

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Internet-based HIV testing offers the potential to address privacy-related barriers to testing and increase frequency of testing but may result in missed opportunities related to sexual health education and prevention that typically occur in face-to-face encounters. In this study, we assessed the HIV test knowledge and sexual risk behaviour of clients testing for HIV through GetCheckedOnline, an internet-based sexually transmitted and bloodborne infection testing platform inclusive of HIV testing, in comparison to clients testing through a large sexual health clinic. METHODS: We concurrently recruited GetCheckedOnline clients and clinic clients from Vancouver, Canada, over the course of a 10-month period during 2015-2016. Participants completed baseline and 3-month questionnaires, anonymous and online. A six-item score was used to estimate knowledge of HIV test concepts typically conveyed during an HIV pretest encounter in a clinic. We used multiple regression to estimate associations between testing modality (online vs clinic based) and two outcomes-HIV test knowledge and change in condom use pre/post-test-with adjustment for relevant background factors. RESULTS: Among 352 participants, online testers demonstrated higher HIV post-test knowledge than clinic-based testers (mean score 4.65/6 vs 4.09/6; p<0.05); this difference was reduced in adjusted analysis (p>0.05). Men who have sex with men, clients with a university degree, those who have lived in Canada >10 years and English speakers had higher HIV post-test knowledge (p<0.05). Eighteen per cent of online testers and 10% of clinic-based testers increased condom use during the 3 months post-test (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In this comparative study between online and clinic-based testers, we found no evidence of decreased HIV test knowledge or decreased condom use following HIV testing through GetCheckedOnline. Our findings suggest that with careful design and attention to educational content, online testing services may not lead to missed opportunities for HIV education and counselling.


Assuntos
Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Internet , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , HIV , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Educação em Saúde , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Sorológicos , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Med Internet Res ; 21(1): e11291, 2019 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30664456

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While social marketing (SM) campaigns can be effective in increasing testing for sexually transmitted and blood-borne infections (STBBIs), they are seldom rigorously evaluated and often rely on process measures (eg, Web-based ad click-throughs). With Web-based campaigns for internet-based health services, there is a potential to connect campaign process measures to program outcomes, permitting the assessment of venue-specific yield based on health outcomes (eg, click-throughs per test). OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the impact of an SM campaign by the promotional venue on use and diagnostic test results of the internet-based STBBI testing service GetCheckedOnline.com (GCO). METHODS: Through GCO, clients create an account using an access code, complete a risk assessment, print a lab form, submit specimens at a lab, and get results online or by phone. From April to August 2015, a campaign promoted GCO to gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men in Vancouver, Canada. The campaign highlighted GCO's convenience in 3 types of promotional venues-location advertisements in print or video displayed in gay venues or events, ads on a queer news website, and ads on geosocial websites and apps. Where feasible, individuals were tracked from campaign exposures to account creation and testing using venue-specific GCO access codes. In addition, Web-based ads were linked to alternate versions of the campaign website, which used URLs with embedded access codes to connect ad exposure to account creation. Furthermore, we examined the number of individuals creating GCO accounts, number tested, and cost per account created and test for each venue type. RESULTS: Over 6 months, 177 people created a GCO account because of the campaign, where 22.0% (39/177) of these completed testing; the overall cost was Can $118 per account created and Can $533 per test. Ads on geosocial websites and apps accounted for 46.9% (83/177) of all accounts; ads on the news website had the lowest testing rate and highest cost per test. We observed variation between different geosocial websites and apps with some ads having high click-through rates yet low GCO account creation rates, and vice versa. CONCLUSIONS: Developing mechanisms to track individuals from Web-based exposure to SM campaigns to outcomes of internet-based health services permits greater evaluation of the yield and cost-effectiveness of different promotional efforts. Web-based ads with high click-through rates may not have a high conversion to service use, the ultimate outcome of SM campaigns.


Assuntos
Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual/fisiologia , Marketing Social/ética , Adulto , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Internet , Masculino
19.
Syst Rev ; 8(1): 12, 2019 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30621784

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rates of STIs continue to rise worldwide, and novel evidence-based interventions such as text messaging aimed at improving client services are needed. We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate text messaging to support STI/HIV prevention and treatment interventions. METHODS: We included articles that reported findings from randomized controlled trials (RTCs) involving adults and youth who were at risk of acquiring (or who currently had) a STI and/or HIV, a text message and comparator intervention, and reported provided outcome data on adherence to STI/HIV treatments. Articles were excluded if they were not published in English. We only included studies that have full-text publications so certainty and risk of bias assessments could be performed. Eight databases were searched to retrieve articles published between 1996 and March 2017. The Cochrane risk of bias tool was used and certainty of the evidence was assessed using GRADE. Effect estimates were pooled using a random effects model. RESULTS: A total of 35 RCTs were found, 6 of which were considered at low risk of bias. Eight studies found an increased association using text messaging in appointments attended compared to standard care (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.28 to 2.10). Participants receiving text messages had an increase in HIV testing compared to standard care (n = 6; OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.39 to 2.15). Ten text messaging RCTs measuring adherence using micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) pill counts has a non-significant association (OR 1.17, 95% CI 0.95-1.45) while five studies measuring adherence by self-report was found to be significant (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.28-2.11). CONCLUSIONS: The effectiveness of text message interventions is equivocal. While text messaging has the potential to enhance the delivery of STI/HIV interventions, program planners are encouraged to evaluate any SMS intervention to ensure it is achieving the desired result. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42013006503.

20.
Sex Transm Infect ; 95(2): 151-156, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29437984

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Internet-based STI testing programmes may overcome barriers posed by in-clinic testing, though uptake could reflect social gradients. The role these services play in comparison to clinical testing services is unknown. We compared experiences of testing barriers between STI clinic clients to clients of GetCheckedOnline.com (GCO; where clients take a printed lab form to a lab). METHODS: Our 10-month cross-sectional study was conducted after GCO was promoted to STI clinic clients and men who have sex with men (MSM). Clinic and GCO clients completed an online survey assessing testing barriers and facilitators; responses were compared using bivariate analysis (level of significance P<0.01; significant results below). RESULTS: Compared with 321 clinic clients, the 73 GCO clients were more likely to be older (median 35 vs 30 years), MSM (45% vs 16%), be testing routinely (67% vs 39%), have delayed testing for any reason (76% vs 54%) and due to clinic distance (28% vs 9%), report delays due to wait times (50% vs 17%), embarrassment with testing (16% vs 6%), discomfort discussing sexual health where they usually go for testing (39% vs 22%), as well as discomfort discussing sexual history with (19% vs 5%) and fearing judgement from (30% vs 15%) any healthcare provider. GCO clients were less likely to have found clinic hours convenient (59% vs 77%) and clinic appointments easy to make (49% vs 66%), and more likely to report long wait times (50% vs 17%). We found no differences in technology skills/use. CONCLUSIONS: In this urban setting, an internet-based testing service effectively engaged individuals experiencing testing barriers, with few social gradients in uptake. While some testing barriers could be addressed through increasing access to clinical services, others require social and structural changes, highlighting the importance of internet-based STI testing services to increasing test uptake.


Assuntos
Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Diagnóstico/estatística & dados numéricos , Internet , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Colúmbia Britânica , Estudos Transversais , Assistência à Saúde , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Comportamento Sexual , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA