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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34737207

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fusobacterium nucleatum activates oncogenic signaling pathways and induces inflammation to promote colorectal carcinogenesis. METHODS: We characterized F nucleatum and its subspecies in colorectal tumors and examined associations with tumor characteristics and colorectal cancer (CRC) specific survival. We conducted deep sequencing of nusA, nusG, and bacterial 16s rRNA genes in tumors from 1,994 CRC patients and assessed associations between F nucleatum presence and clinical characteristics, CRC-specific mortality, and somatic mutations. RESULTS: F nucleatum, which was present in 10.3% of tumors, was detected in a higher proportion of right-sided and advanced-stage tumors-particularly subspecies animalis. Presence of F nucleatum was associated with higher CRC-specific mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 1.97; P=0.0004). This association was restricted to non-hypermutated, microsatellite-stable tumors (HR, 2.13; P=0.0002) and those who received chemotherapy (HR = 1.92, CI: 1.07-3.45, p-value = 0.029). Only F nucleatum subspecies animalis, the main subspecies detected (65.8%), was associated with CRC-specific mortality (HR, 2.16; P=0.0016)-subspecies vincentii and nucleatum were not (HR, 1.07, P=0.86). Additional adjustment for tumor stage suggests that the effect of F nucleatum on mortality is partly driven by a stage shift. Presence of F nucleatum was associated with microsatellite instable tumors, tumors with POLE exonuclease domain mutations, ERBB3 mutations, and suggestively associated with TP53 mutations. CONCLUSIONS: F nucleatum, and particularly subspecies animalis, was associated with a higher CRC-specific mortality and specific somatic mutated genes. IMPACT: Our findings identify the F nucleatum subspecies animalis as negatively impacting CRC mortality which may occur through a stage shift and its effect on chemoresistance.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620626

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gallstone disease has been associated with colorectal cancer and some form of polyps, although the findings are inconclusive. It remains unknown whether gallstone disease influences the initiation of colorectal cancer. METHODS: We prospectively assessed the association of gallstone disease with risk of colorectal cancer precursors, including conventional adenomas and serrated polyps, in the Nurses' Health Study (1992-2012), the Nurses' Health Study II (1991-2011), and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1992-2012). Gallstone diseases were assessed using biennial follow-up questionnaires. Self-reported polyp diagnosis was confirmed by review of medical records. Logistic regression models were used to calculate the ORs with adjustment for smoking and other potential confounders. RESULTS: Among participants who had undergone a total of 323,832 endoscopies, 16.5% had gallstone disease and 11.3% received cholecystectomy. We documented 1,724, 1,212, and 1,943 cases of conventional adenomas and 1,470, 1,090, and 1,643 serrated polyps in patients with gallstones, cholecystectomy, and either of them, respectively. The OR for adenomas was 1.00 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.95-1.06] for gallstones, 0.99 (95% CI: 0.93-1.06) for cholecystectomy, and 1.00 (95% CI: 0.95-1.05) for either exposure. The corresponding ORs for serrated polyps were 0.98 (95% CI: 0.92-1.04), 0.99 (95% CI: 0.93-1.06), and 0.97(95% CI: 0.92-1.03), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Gallstone disease is not associated with colorectal polyps. IMPACT: Patients with gallstones appear to have similar risk of colorectal polyps compared with those without and may therefore follow average-risk colorectal cancer screening guidelines.

3.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 727937, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34650531

RESUMO

The proximal and distal subsites of colorectal cancer (CRC) have distinct differences in their embryonic origin, epidemiology, and prognosis. Therefore, they are not considered as the same disease. However, the possible difference in microbial characterization of the two subsites of CRC is still unclear. In this study, we explored tumor microbiota diversity and composition difference in patients with proximal (N = 187) and distal CRCs (N = 142). This was carried out on cancer tissues and adjacent tissues using bacterial 16S rRNA sequencing. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to analyze the correlation between differential flora and overall survival rate of the patients. It was found that there were significant differences in tumor microbial characteristics between the proximal and distal CRC tissues. The microbiota communities were distinctly richer in the proximal colon tumor tissues than in the distal CRC tissues. Microbial diversity and structure were relatively constant in the paracancerous normal tissues of the proximal and distal colorectum. Generally, microbial communities of CRC tumor tissues were composed of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. Alpha diversity in the proximal and distal CRC tumor tissues was closely related to specific microflora. The abundance of Fusobacteria was associated with age of patient, tumor diameter, and tumor microsatellite instability (MSI) status of the patients. Moreover, Fusobacteria enrichment was associated with poor prognosis especially in patients with proximal colon cancers, but not in patients with distal CRC. In conclusion, proximal and distal subsites of the CRC present distinct microbiota diversity and community structures. The differences indicate that there are different risk factors across anatomical subsites of CRC, which may provide a new strategy for precise prevention and treatment of CRC in the future.

4.
J Mol Diagn ; 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656760

RESUMO

The use of genomics in medicine is expanding rapidly, but information systems are lagging in their ability to support genomic workflows both from the laboratory and patient-facing provider perspective. The complexity of genomic data, the lack of needed data standards, and lack of genomic fluency and functionality as well as several other factors have contributed to the gaps between genomic data generation, interoperability, and utilization. These gaps are posing significant challenges to laboratory and pathology professionals, clinicians, and patients in the ability to generate, communicate, consume, and use genomic test results. The Association for Molecular Pathology Electronic Health Record Working Group was convened to assess the challenges and opportunities and to recommend solutions on ways to resolve current problems associated with the display and use of genomic data in electronic health records.

5.
J Med Virol ; 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34709664

RESUMO

Two messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines developed by Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna are being rolled out. Despite the high volume of emerging evidence regarding adverse events (AEs) associated with the COVID-19 mRNA vaccines, previous studies have thus far been largely based on the comparison between vaccinated and unvaccinated control, possibly highlighting the AE risks with COVID-19 mRNA vaccination. Comparing the safety profile of mRNA vaccinated individuals with otherwise vaccinated individuals would enable a more relevant assessment for the safety of mRNA vaccination. We designed a comparative safety study between 18 755 and 27 895 individuals who reported to VigiBase for adverse events following immunization (AEFI) with mRNA COVID-19 and influenza vaccines, respectively, from January 1, 2020, to January 17, 2021. We employed disproportionality analysis to rapidly detect relevant safety signals and compared comparative risks of a diverse span of AEFIs for the vaccines. The safety profile of novel mRNA vaccines was divergent from that of influenza vaccines. The overall pattern suggested that systematic reactions like chill, myalgia, fatigue were more noticeable with the mRNA COVID-19 vaccine, while injection site reactogenicity events were more prevalent with the influenza vaccine. Compared to the influenza vaccine, mRNA COVID-19 vaccines demonstrated a significantly higher risk for a few manageable cardiovascular complications, such as hypertensive crisis (adjusted reporting odds ratio [ROR], 12.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.47-65.54), and supraventricular tachycardia (adjusted ROR, 7.94; 95% CI, 2.62-24.00), but lower risk of neurological complications such as syncope, neuralgia, loss of consciousness, Guillain-Barre syndrome, gait disturbance, visual impairment, and dyskinesia. This study has not identified significant safety concerns regarding mRNA vaccination in real-world settings. The overall safety profile patterned a lower risk of serious AEFI following mRNA vaccines compared to influenza vaccines.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529108

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite heightened interest in early-onset colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosed before age 50, little is known on immune cell profiles of early-onset CRC. It also remains to be studied whether CRCs diagnosed at or shortly after age 50 are similar to early-onset CRC. We therefore hypothesized that immune cell infiltrates in CRC tissue might show differential heterogeneity patterns between three age groups (< 50 "early onset," 50-54 "intermediate onset," ≥ 55 "later onset"). METHODS: We examined 1,518 incident CRC cases with available tissue data, including 35 early-onset and 73 intermediate-onset cases. To identify immune cells in tumor intraepithelial and stromal areas, we developed three multiplexed immunofluorescence assays combined with digital image analyses and machine learning algorithms, with the following markers: (1) CD3, CD4, CD8, CD45RO (PTPRC), and FOXP3 for T cells; (2) CD68, CD86, IRF5, MAF, and MRC1 (CD206) for macrophages; and (3) ARG1, CD14, CD15, CD33, and HLA-DR for myeloid cells. RESULTS: Although no comparisons between age groups showed statistically significant differences at the stringent two-sided α level of 0.005, compared to later-onset CRC, early-onset CRC tended to show lower levels of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (P = 0.013), intratumoral periglandular reaction (P = 0.025), and peritumoral lymphocytic reaction (P = 0.044). Compared to later-onset CRC, intermediate-onset CRC tended to show lower densities of overall macrophages (P = 0.050), M1-like macrophages (P = 0.062), CD14+HLA-DR+ cells (P = 0.015), and CD3+CD4+FOXP3+ cells (P = 0.039). CONCLUSIONS: This hypothesis-generating study suggests possible differences in histopathologic lymphocytic reaction patterns, macrophages, and regulatory T cells in the tumor microenvironment by age at diagnosis.

7.
Oncoimmunology ; 10(1): 1956173, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34377593

RESUMO

Immunotherapy targeting the CD274 (PD-L1)/PDCD1 (PD-1) immune checkpoint axis has emerged as a promising treatment strategy for various cancers. Experimental evidence suggests that phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphonate 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling may upregulate CD274 expression. Thus, we hypothesized that PIK3CA mutation, PTEN loss, or their combined status might be associated with CD274 overexpression in colorectal carcinoma. We assessed tumor CD274 and PTEN expression by immunohistochemistry and assessed PIK3CA mutation by pyrosequencing in 753 patients among 4,465 incident rectal and colon cancer cases that had occurred in two U.S.-wide prospective cohort studies. To adjust for potential confounders and selection bias due to tissue availability, inverse probability weighted multivariable ordinal logistic regression analyses used the 4,465 cases and tumoral data including microsatellite instability, CpG island methylator phenotype, KRAS and BRAF mutations. PIK3CA mutation and loss of PTEN expression were detected in 111 of 753 cases (15%) and 342 of 585 cases (58%), respectively. Tumor CD274 expression was negative in 306 (41%), low in 195 (26%), and high in 252 (33%) of 753 cases. PTEN loss was associated with CD274 overexpression [multivariable odds ratio (OR) 1.83; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.22-2.75; P = .004]. PIK3CA mutation was statistically-insignificantly (P = .036 with the stringent alpha level of 0.005) associated with CD274 overexpression (multivariable OR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.03-2.31). PIK3CA-mutated PTEN-lost tumors (n = 33) showed higher prevalence of CD274-positivity (82%) than PIK3CA-wild-type PTEN-lost tumors (n = 204; 70% CD274-positivity) and PTEN-expressed tumors (n = 147; 50% CD274-positivity) (P = .003). Our findings support the role of PI3K signaling in the CD274/PDCD1 pathway.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1 , Neoplasias Colorretais , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Humanos , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Estudos Prospectivos
8.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 5(4): pkab056, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34377935

RESUMO

Background: Smoking is associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. Previous studies suggested this association may be restricted to certain molecular subtypes of CRC, but large-scale comprehensive analysis is lacking. Methods: A total of 9789 CRC cases and 11 231 controls of European ancestry from 11 observational studies were included. We harmonized smoking variables across studies and derived sex study-specific quartiles of pack-years of smoking for analysis. Four somatic colorectal tumor markers were assessed individually and in combination, including BRAF mutation, KRAS mutation, CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), and microsatellite instability (MSI) status. A multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between smoking and risk of CRC subtypes by molecular characteristics, adjusting for age, sex, and study. All statistical tests were 2-sided and adjusted for Bonferroni correction. Results: Heavier smoking was associated with higher risk of CRC overall and stratified by individual markers (P trend < .001). The associations differed statistically significantly between all molecular subtypes, which was the most statistically significant for CIMP and BRAF. Compared with never-smokers, smokers in the fourth quartile of pack-years had a 90% higher risk of CIMP-positive CRC (odds ratio = 1.90, 95% confidence interval = 1.60 to 2.26) but only 35% higher risk for CIMP-negative CRC (odds ratio = 1.35, 95% confidence interval = 1.22 to 1.49; P difference = 2.1 x 10-6). The association was also stronger in tumors that were CIMP positive, MSI high, or KRAS wild type when combined (P difference < .001). Conclusion: Smoking was associated with differential risk of CRC subtypes defined by molecular characteristics. Heavier smokers had particularly higher risk of CRC subtypes that were CIMP positive and MSI high in combination, suggesting that smoking may be involved in the development of colorectal tumors via the serrated pathway.

9.
Clin Transl Gastroenterol ; 12(8): e00338, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333506

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We recently described the sulfur microbial diet, a pattern of intake associated with increased gut sulfur-metabolizing bacteria and incidence of distal colorectal cancer (CRC). We assessed whether this risk differed by CRC molecular subtypes or presence of intratumoral microbes involved in CRC pathogenesis (Fusobacterium nucleatum and Bifidobacterium spp.). METHODS: We performed Cox proportional hazards modeling to examine the association between the sulfur microbial diet and incidence of overall and distal CRC by molecular and microbial subtype in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1986-2012). RESULTS: We documented 1,264 incident CRC cases among 48,246 men, approximately 40% of whom had available tissue data. After accounting for multiple hypothesis testing, the relationship between the sulfur microbial diet and CRC incidence did not differ by subtype. However, there was a suggestion of an association by prostaglandin synthase 2 (PTGS2) status with a multivariable adjusted hazard ratio for highest vs lowest tertile of sulfur microbial diet scores of 1.31 (95% confidence interval: 0.99-1.74, Ptrend = 0.07, Pheterogeneity = 0.04) for PTGS2-high CRC. The association of the sulfur microbial diet with distal CRC seemed to differ by the presence of intratumoral Bifidobacterium spp. with an adjusted hazard ratio for highest vs lowest tertile of sulfur microbial diet scores of 1.65 (95% confidence interval: 1.14-2.39, Ptrend = 0.01, Pheterogeneity = 0.03) for Bifidobacterium-negative distal CRC. We observed no apparent heterogeneity by other tested molecular markers. DISCUSSION: Greater long-term adherence to the sulfur microbial diet could be associated with PTGS2-high and Bifidobacterium-negative distal CRC in men. Additional studies are needed to further characterize the role of gut microbial sulfur metabolism and CRC.

10.
Cancer Sci ; 112(11): 4470-4477, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34464993

RESUMO

Fusobacterium nucleatum has been detected in 8%-13% of human colorectal cancer, and shown to inhibit immune responses against primary colorectal tumors in animal models. Thus, we hypothesized that the presence of F. nucleatum might be associated with reduced T cell density in colorectal cancer liver metastases (CRLM). We quantified F. nucleatum DNA in 181 CRLM specimens using quantitative PCR assay. The densities of CD8+ T cells, CD33+ cells (marker for myeloid-derived suppressor cells [MDSCs]), and CD163+ cells (marker for tumor-associated macrophages [TAMs]) in CRLM tissue were determined by immunohistochemical staining. Fusobacterium nucleatum was detected in eight (4.4%) of 181 CRLM specimens. Compared with F. nucleatum-negative CRLM, F. nucleatum-positive CRLM showed significantly lower density of CD8+ T cells (P = .033) and higher density of MDSCs (P = .001). The association of F. nucleatum with the density of TAMs was not statistically significant (P = .70). The presence of F. nucleatum is associated with a lower density of CD8+ T cells and a higher density of MDSCs in CRLM tissue. Upon validation, our findings could provide insights to develop strategies that involve targeting microbiota and immune cells for the prevention and treatment of CRLM.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/citologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/microbiologia , Fusobacterium nucleatum/imunologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/imunologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , DNA Bacteriano/análise , Feminino , Fusobacterium nucleatum/genética , Fusobacterium nucleatum/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/microbiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Células Supressoras Mieloides/citologia , Macrófagos Associados a Tumor/citologia
11.
Br J Sports Med ; 2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34301715

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the potential associations between physical activity and risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, severe illness from COVID-19 and COVID-19 related death using a nationwide cohort from South Korea. METHODS: Data regarding 212 768 Korean adults (age ≥20 years), who tested for SARS-CoV-2, from 1 January 2020 to 30 May 2020, were obtained from the National Health Insurance Service of South Korea and further linked with the national general health examination from 1 January 2018 to 31 December 2019 to assess physical activity levels. SARS-CoV-2 positivity, severe COVID-19 illness and COVID-19 related death were the main outcomes. The observation period was between 1 January 2020 and 31 July 2020. RESULTS: Out of 76 395 participants who completed the general health examination and were tested for SARS-CoV-2, 2295 (3.0%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2, 446 (0.58%) had severe illness from COVID-19 and 45 (0.059%) died from COVID-19. Adults who engaged in both aerobic and muscle strengthening activities according to the 2018 physical activity guidelines had a lower risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection (2.6% vs 3.1%; adjusted relative risk (aRR), 0.85; 95% CI 0.72 to 0.96), severe COVID-19 illness (0.35% vs 0.66%; aRR 0.42; 95% CI 0.19 to 0.91) and COVID-19 related death (0.02% vs 0.08%; aRR 0.24; 95% CI 0.05 to 0.99) than those who engaged in insufficient aerobic and muscle strengthening activities. Furthermore, the recommended range of metabolic equivalent task (MET; 500-1000 MET min/week) was associated with the maximum beneficial effect size for reduced risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection (aRR 0.78; 95% CI 0.66 to 0.92), severe COVID-19 illness (aRR 0.62; 95% CI 0.43 to 0.90) and COVID-19 related death (aRR 0.17; 95% CI 0.07 to 0.98). Similar patterns of association were observed in different sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSION: Adults who engaged in the recommended levels of physical activity were associated with a decreased likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 infection, severe COVID-19 illness and COVID-19 related death. Our findings suggest that engaging in physical activity has substantial public health value and demonstrates potential benefits to combat COVID-19.

12.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264325

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biological evidence indicates that smoking can influence macrophage functions and polarization, thereby promoting tumor evolution. We hypothesized that the association of smoking with colorectal cancer incidence might differ by macrophage infiltrates. METHODS: Utilizing the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, we examined the association of smoking with incidence of colorectal cancer subclassified by macrophage counts. Multiplexed immunofluorescence [for CD68, CD86, IRF5, MAF, and MRC1 (CD206)] combined with digital image analysis and machine learning was used to identify overall, M1-polarized, and M2-polarized macrophages in tumor. We used inverse-probability-weighted multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models to control for potential confounders and selection bias due to tissue data availability. All statistical tests were 2-sided. RESULTS: During follow-up of 131,144 participants (3,648,370 person-years), we documented 3,092 incident colorectal cancer cases including 871 cases with available macrophage data. The association of pack-years smoked with colorectal cancer incidence differed by stromal macrophage densities (Pheterogeneity=.003). Compared to never smoking, multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for tumors with low macrophage densities were 1.32 (0.97 to 1.79) for 1-19 pack-years, 1.31 (0.92 to 1.85) for 20-39 pack-years, and 1.74 (1.26 to 2.41) for ≥40 pack-years (Ptrend=.004). In contrast, pack-years smoked were not statistically significantly associated with the incidence of tumors having intermediate or high macrophage densities (Ptrend>.009, with the α level of 0.005). No statistically significant differential association was found for colorectal cancer subclassified by M1-like or M2-like macrophages. CONCLUSIONS: The association of smoking with colorectal cancer incidence is stronger for tumors with lower stromal macrophage counts. Our findings suggest an interplay of smoking and macrophages in colorectal carcinogenesis.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256146

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endoscopic screening and adherence to a healthy lifestyle are major avenues for colorectal cancer (CRC) prevention. We investigated changes in lifestyles after endoscopic screening. METHODS: We drew data from 76,303 pairs of time- and age-matched individuals who had and had not, respectively, reported first time endoscopic screening, in the 3 cohorts (Nurses' Health Study I and II and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study). Detailed information was collected every 2-4 years on endoscopy screening, 12 lifestyle factors (including smoking, physical activity, regular use of aspirin/nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, body weight, and 8 dietary factors), and adherence to a healthy lifestyle based on a score defined by 5 major lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol, body weight, physical activity, and diet). We assessed changes in lifestyle from pre- to post-screening periods for the matched pairs. We also conducted subgroup analysis according to screening findings (negative, low- and high-risk polyps, and CRC). RESULTS: Endoscopic screening was associated with higher prevalence of adherence to a healthy lifestyle (odds ratio [OR], 1.09; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.16). The association strengthened with the severity of the screening findings, with an OR of 1.09 (95% CI, 1.03-1.15) for negative screening, 1.19 (95% CI, 1.07-1.33) for low-risk polyps, 1.42 (95% CI, 1.14-1.77) for high-risk polyps, and 1.55 (95% CI, 1.17-2.05) for CRC. The individual lifestyle factors and diet showed modest change. CONCLUSIONS: Endoscopic screening was associated with a modest improvement in healthy lifestyles, particularly in individuals with more severe endoscopic findings. Further efforts of integrating lifestyle medicine into the screening setting are needed, to better leverage the teachable moment in improving CRC prevention.

14.
Expert Rev Mol Diagn ; 21(9): 869-886, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34253130

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Molecular pathological epidemiology (MPE) is an integrative transdisciplinary area examining the relationships between various exposures and pathogenic signatures of diseases. In line with the accelerating advancements in MPE, social science and its health-related interdisciplinary areas have also developed rapidly. Accumulating evidence indicates the pathological role of social-demographic factors. We therefore initially proposed social MPE in 2015, which aims to elucidate etiological roles of social-demographic factors and address health inequalities globally. With the ubiquity of molecular diagnosis, there are ample opportunities for researchers to utilize and develop the social MPE framework. AREAS COVERED: Molecular subtypes of breast cancer have been investigated rigorously for understanding its etiologies rooted from social factors. Emerging evidence indicates pathogenic heterogeneity of neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. Presenting specific patterns of social-demographic factors across different molecular subtypes should be promising for advancing the screening, prevention, and treatment strategies of those heterogeneous diseases. This article rigorously reviewed literatures investigating differences of race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status across molecular subtypes of breast cancer and Alzheimer's disease to date. EXPERT OPINION: With advancements of the multi-omics technologies, we foresee a blooming of social MPE studies, which can address health disparities, advance personalized molecular medicine, and enhance public health.

15.
Gastroenterology ; 161(4): 1208-1217.e9, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34245763

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Vitamin D has been implicated in colorectal cancer (CRC) pathogenesis, but it remains unknown whether total vitamin D intake is associated with early-onset CRC and precursors diagnosed before age 50. METHODS: We prospectively examined the association between total vitamin D intake and risks of early-onset CRC and precursors among women enrolled in the Nurses' Health Study II. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for early-onset CRC were estimated with Cox proportional hazards model. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs for early-onset conventional adenoma and serrated polyp were estimated with logistic regression model. RESULTS: We documented 111 incident cases of early-onset CRC during 1,250,560 person-years of follow-up (1991 to 2015). Higher total vitamin D intake was significantly associated with a reduced risk of early-onset CRC (HR for ≥450 IU/day vs <300 IU/day, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.26-0.93; P for trend = .01). The HR per 400 IU/day increase was 0.46 (95% CI, 0.26-0.83). The inverse association was significant and appeared more evident for dietary sources of vitamin D (HR per 400 IU/day increase, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.15-0.79) than supplemental vitamin D (HR per 400 IU/day increase, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.37-1.62). For CRC precursors, the ORs per 400 IU/day increase were 0.76 (95% CI, 0.65-0.88) for conventional adenoma (n = 1,439) and 0.85 (95% CI, 0.75-0.97) for serrated polyp (n = 1,878). CONCLUSIONS: In a cohort of younger women, higher total vitamin D intake was associated with decreased risks of early-onset CRC and precursors.

16.
Br J Cancer ; 125(7): 1016-1024, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34267328

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The influence of a high sugar diet on colorectal cancer (CRC) survival is unclear. METHODS: Among 1463 stage I-III CRC patients from the Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study, we estimated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for CRC-specific and all-cause mortality in relation to intake of post-diagnosis sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), artificially sweetened beverages (ASB), fruit juice, fructose and other sugars. RESULTS: Over a median 8.0 years, 781 cases died (173 CRC-specific deaths). Multivariable-adjusted HRs for post-diagnosis intake and CRC-specific mortality were 1.21 (95% CI: 0.87-1.68) per 1 serving SSBs per day (serving/day) and 1.24 (95% CI: 0.95-1.63) per 20 grams fructose per day. Significant positive associations for CRC-specific mortality were primarily observed ≤5 years from diagnosis (HR per 1 serving/day of SSBs = 1.59, 95% CI: 1.06-2.38). Significant inverse associations were observed between ASBs and CRC-specific and all-cause mortality (HR for ≥5 versus <1 serving/week = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.26-0.75 and 0.70, 95% CI: 0.55-0.89, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Higher post-diagnosis intake of SSBs and sugars may be associated with higher CRC-specific mortality, but only up to 5 years from diagnosis, when more deaths were due to CRC. The inverse association between ASBs and CRC-specific mortality warrants further examination.

17.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 5(3): pkab034, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34104867

RESUMO

Background: Disparities in colon cancer outcomes have been reported across race and socioeconomic status, which may reflect, in part, access to care. We sought to assess the influences of race and median household income (MHI) on outcomes among colon cancer patients with similar access to care. Methods: We conducted a prospective, observational study of 1206 stage III colon cancer patients enrolled in the CALGB 89803 randomized adjuvant chemotherapy trial. Race was self-reported by 1116 White and 90 Black patients at study enrollment; MHI was determined by matching 973 patients' home zip codes with publicly available US Census 2000 data. Multivariate analyses were adjusted for baseline sociodemographic, clinical, dietary, and lifestyle factors. All statistical tests were 2-sided. Results: Over a median follow-up of 7.7 years, the adjusted hazard ratios for Blacks (compared with Whites) were 0.94 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.66 to 1.35, P = .75) for disease-free survival, 0.91 (95% CI = 0.62 to 1.35, P = .65) for recurrence-free survival, and 1.07 (95% CI = 0.73 to 1.57, P = .73) for overall survival. Relative to patients in the highest MHI quartile, the adjusted hazard ratios for patients in the lowest quartile were 0.90 (95% CI = 0.67 to 1.19, P trend = .18) for disease-free survival, 0.89 (95% CI = 0.66 to 1.22, P trend = .14) for recurrence-free survival, and 0.87 (95% CI = 0.63 to 1.19, P trend = .23) for overall survival. Conclusions: In this study of patients with similar health-care access, no statistically significant differences in outcomes were found by race or MHI. The substantial gaps in outcomes previously observed by race and MHI may not be rooted in differences in tumor biology but rather in access to quality care.

18.
Cancer Discov ; 11(10): 2446-2455, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34140290

RESUMO

Several risk factors have been established for colorectal cancer, yet their direct mutagenic effects in patients' tumors remain to be elucidated. Here, we leveraged whole-exome sequencing data from 900 colorectal cancer cases that had occurred in three U.S.-wide prospective studies with extensive dietary and lifestyle information. We found an alkylating signature that was previously undescribed in colorectal cancer and then showed the existence of a similar mutational process in normal colonic crypts. This alkylating signature is associated with high intakes of processed and unprocessed red meat prior to diagnosis. In addition, this signature was more abundant in the distal colorectum, predicted to target cancer driver mutations KRAS p.G12D, KRAS p.G13D, and PIK3CA p.E545K, and associated with poor survival. Together, these results link for the first time a colorectal mutational signature to a component of diet and further implicate the role of red meat in colorectal cancer initiation and progression. SIGNIFICANCE: Colorectal cancer has several lifestyle risk factors, but the underlying mutations for most have not been observed directly in tumors. Analysis of 900 colorectal cancers with whole-exome sequencing and epidemiologic annotations revealed an alkylating mutational signature that was associated with red meat consumption and distal tumor location, as well as predicted to target KRAS p.G12D/p.G13D.This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 2355.

19.
JAMA Oncol ; 7(7): 985-992, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34014275

RESUMO

Importance: Evidence indicates that screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) beginning at 50 years of age can detect early-stage CRC and premalignant neoplasms (eg, adenomas) and thus prevent CRC-related mortality. At present, the US Preventive Services Task Force recommends continuing CRC screening until 75 years of age and individualized decision-making for adults older than 75 years, while accounting for a patient's overall health and screening history. However, scant data exist to support these recommendations. Objective: To examine the association of lower gastrointestinal tract screening endoscopy with the risk of CRC incidence and CRC-related mortality in older US adults. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study of health care professionals in the US included data from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS) from January 1, 1988, through January 31, 2016, for the HPFS and June 30, 2016, for the NHS. Data were analyzed from May 8, 2019, to July 9, 2020. Exposures: History of screening sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy (routine/average risk or positive family history) to 75 years of age and after 75 years of age, assessed every 2 years. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incidence of CRC and CRC-related mortality confirmed by National Death Index, medical records, and pathology reports. Results: Among 56 374 participants who reached 75 years of age during follow-up (36.8% men and 63.2% women), 661 incident CRC cases and 323 CRC-related deaths were documented. Screening endoscopy after 75 years of age was associated with reduced risk of CRC incidence (multivariable hazard ratio [HR], 0.61; 95% CI, 0.51-0.74) and CRC-related mortality (HR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.46-0.78), regardless of screening history. The HR comparing screening with nonscreening after 75 years of age was 0.67 (95% CI, 0.50-0.89) for CRC incidence and 0.58 (95% CI, 0.38-0.87) for CRC-related mortality among participants who underwent screening endoscopy before 75 years of age, and 0.51 (95% CI, 0.37-0.70) for CRC incidence and 0.63 (95% CI, 0.43-0.93) for CRC-related mortality among participants without a screening history. However, screening endoscopy after 75 years of age was not associated with risk reduction in CRC death among participants with cardiovascular disease (HR, 1.18; 95% CI, 0.59-2.35) or significant comorbidities (HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 0.57-2.43). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, endoscopy among individuals older than 75 years was associated with lower risk of CRC incidence and CRC-related mortality. These data support continuation of screening after 75 years of age among individuals without significant comorbidities.

20.
Int J Cancer ; 149(5): 1021-1030, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33948940

RESUMO

Most risk prediction models for colorectal cancer (CRC) are based on questionnaires and show a modest discriminatory ability. Therefore, we aim to develop risk prediction models incorporating plasma biomarkers for CRC to improve discrimination. We assessed the predictivity of 11 biomarkers in 736 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study and 639 women in the Nurses' Health Study. We used stepwise logistic regression to examine whether a set of biomarkers improved the predictivity on the basis of predictors in the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool. Model discrimination was assessed using C-statistics. Bootstrap with 500 randomly sampled replicates was used for internal validation. The models containing each biomarker generated a C-statistic ranging from 0.50 to 0.59 in men and 0.50 to 0.54 in women. The NCI model demonstrated a C-statistic (95% CI) of 0.67 (0.62-0.71) in men and 0.58 (0.54-0.63) in women. Through stepwise selection of biomarkers, the C-statistic increased to 0.70 (0.66-0.74) in men after adding growth/differentiation factor 15, total adiponectin, sex hormone binding globulin and tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 1B (P for difference = 0.008); and increased to 0.62 (0.57-0.66) in women after further including insulin-like growth factor 1 and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 (P for difference = .06). The NCI + selected biomarkers model was internally validated with a C-statistic (95% CI) of 0.73 (0.70-0.77) in men and 0.66 (0.61-0.70) in women. Circulating plasma biomarkers may improve the performance of risk factor-based prediction model for CRC.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Modelos Estatísticos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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