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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600432

RESUMO

Objective: Integrated behavioral health programs provide brief evaluations and interventions to patients with psychiatric symptoms in primary care. These programs seek to decrease stigma and improve access to mental health services. Several psychotherapeutic interventions are available to providers, each with its own strengths and weaknesses. One treatment with particular promise is behavioral activation treatment for depression (BATD) due to its potential clinical efficacy, transdiagnostic potential, and ease of dissemination and implementation in primary care settings. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of BATD across 2 DSM-5 diagnoses: major depressive disorder (MDD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Methods: Participants were recruited from October 2014 to December 2017. Thirty-one participants were referred from primary care and consented to receive a 12-session trial of BATD. Participants endorsed criteria consistent with a principal diagnosis of either MDD (n = 20) or PTSD (n = 11). Self-report measures were completed at baseline and immediately posttreatment to monitor treatment progress in symptoms of PTSD and MDD. Results: Twelve of the 31 participants completed all 12 sessions of BATD, although over 70% completed at least 4 sessions. Participants demonstrated significant symptom improvement across symptoms of MDD and PTSD (all P < .004). No disorder group differences were evidenced for symptom reduction, treatment completion, or treatment satisfaction. Conclusions: The present study provides support for the efficacy of BATD for patients with MDD and PTSD. These findings may have implications for the dissemination and implementation efforts for psychotherapies in integrated primary care settings. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01947647.

2.
J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry ; 65: 101489, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170623

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Anxiety sensitivity (AS) social concerns, the fear of observable anxiety symptoms is posited as a risk factor for social anxiety by increasing fear reactivity in social situations when observable anxiety symptoms are present. Experimental evaluation of AS social concerns is limited. The current study utilized several manipulations designed to be relevant to AS social concerns or fear of negative evaluation (FNE), a distinct social anxiety risk factor. The effects of these manipulations on fear reactivity to a speech were examined. METHODS: Participants (N = 124 students; M age = 19.44, SD = 2.45; 64.5% female) were randomized to one of four conditions in a 2 (100 mg niacin vs 100 mg sugar pill) X 2 (instructional set) design. For the instructional set manipulation, participants were told their speech performance would be evaluated by a judge based on their performance (i.e., FNE-relevant) or their observable anxiety symptoms (i.e., AS social concerns-relevant). RESULTS: There was a main effect for vitamin condition with participants in the niacin condition reporting higher panic symptoms post-speech relative to those in the placebo condition. There was no main effect for speech instructions. As hypothesized, these effects were qualified by an interaction indicating that AS social concerns significantly predicted panic symptoms for those receiving niacin. LIMITATIONS: Limitations include the reliance on self-reports of outcome variables and the use of an undergraduate student sample. CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight a distinct role of AS social concerns in fear responding to socially evaluative situations in the context of physically observable arousal.

3.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 199: 35-41, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30981047

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite evidence that insomnia symptoms exacerbate alcohol use disorder symptoms, there is a dearth of prospective research testing bidirectional associations between these variables. Furthermore, no studies have prospectively examined these associations among military personnel, a vulnerable population for sleep- and alcohol-related problems. Thus, the current study examined whether insomnia symptoms prospectively predicted increased alcohol use disorder symptoms among a sample of military service members and veterans over a 6-month follow-up period, as well as whether alcohol use disorder symptoms led to increases in insomnia. METHOD: Hypotheses were tested among a sample of 274 current and past military service members who participated in a baseline and 6-month assessment using self-report measures. RESULTS: Path analyses revealed that insomnia symptoms significantly prospectively predicted increased month-6 heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems, but not days drinking or being bothered by drinking. None of the alcohol variables significantly predicted insomnia. CONCLUSION: Results support a model in which insomnia symptoms exacerbate alcohol use disorder symptoms, specifically heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems. Future research should seek to examine these findings in diverse populations and test potential mechanisms and clinical implications of these results.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Militares/psicologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/psicologia , Veteranos/psicologia , Adulto , Alcoolismo/diagnóstico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry ; 64: 64-71, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30852358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Intolerance of uncertainty (IU), or fear of the unknown, is as an important transdiagnostic risk factor across anxiety-related conditions, namely generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and social anxiety disorder (SAD). IU is typically indexed using self-report measures. Given the importance of multi-method assessments and the shortcomings associated with existing behavioral indices of IU, additional methods of assessment are needed. Emerging literature supports the use of interpretation bias (IB) paradigms to index constructs such as IU. However, only one study to date has examined the association between an IU-focused IB paradigm (IU-IB) and self-report IU and no research has investigated whether an IU-IB paradigm would be related to increased anxiety-related symptoms. METHODS: The current investigation examined the utility of an IU-IB paradigm across two separate samples wherein participants completed an interpretation bias task and self-report measures. Sample 1 included 86 participants (74.4% female; Mage = 19.14) and sample 2 included 138 participants (79.7% female; Mage = 18.88). RESULTS: Findings from Study 1 indicated a significant association between an exaggerated IU-IB and symptoms of GAD and OCD, and this relationship held after covarying for negative affect. Study 2 results indicated a significant relationship between an exaggerated IU-IB and symptoms of GAD, OCD, and SAD, after covarying for negative affect. LIMITATIONS: The current study had a variety of limitations, including the use of cross-sectional data and an undergraduate sample. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide an important replication and extension of previous work and highlight the transdiagnostic utility of this IU-IB task.

5.
J Anxiety Disord ; 62: 61-67, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30572246

RESUMO

Intolerance of uncertainty (IU), defined as an inability to tolerate the unpleasant response triggered by the observed absence of information, has received increased empirical attention in recent years. The contribution of this cognitive behavioral construct to the etiology and maintenance of various anxiety disorders has become increasingly recognized. However, the relationship between IU and other affective disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), remains largely unexplored. The current study sought to examine the relationship between IU and overall PTSD symptom and cluster severity using an outpatient sample of veterans (N = 116) assessed using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth edition (DSM-5) PTSD symptom structure. Results revealed that IU was significantly associated with overall PTSD symptom severity, above and beyond relevant covariates. Further, IU was significantly associated with the PTSD avoidance and hyperarousal clusters. Prospective IU, rather than inhibitory IU, accounted for these unique associations. These findings add to a growing body of literature establishing IU as a transdiagnostic risk factor and point to the importance of future research on the role of IU in contributing to and/or maintaining PTSD symptoms.

7.
J Anxiety Disord ; 53: 91-99, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28807519

RESUMO

Within a hierarchical framework for depressive and anxiety disorders, negative affect (NA) is posited to be indirectly related to social anxiety and depression through cognitive vulnerabilities, including intolerance of uncertainty (IU) and anxiety sensitivity (AS). However, few prior studies have considered whether the lower-order dimensions of IU (i.e., prospective and inhibitory IU) and AS (i.e., physical, cognitive, and social concerns) better explain the indirect relation between NA and social anxiety and depression. The indirect relations between NA and social anxiety and depression through these cognitive vulnerabilities were examined using structural equation modeling in a clinical sample (N=298). NA and social anxiety symptoms were indirectly related through AS social concerns and inhibitory IU, although a direct effect of NA was also found. Only AS social concerns explained the relation between NA and a social anxiety disorder diagnosis. AS cognitive concerns was the only cognitive vulnerability factor to indirectly explain the relation between NA and depressive symptoms, although a direct effect of NA was also found. These findings suggest that the lower-order dimensions of AS and IU demonstrate more specific and less transdiagnostic associations with social anxiety and depression.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Modelos Psicológicos , Fobia Social/psicologia , Incerteza , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
8.
Psychiatry Res ; 259: 265-269, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29091827

RESUMO

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a notably heterogeneous disorder. As such, there has been increased interest in subtyping OCD into homogeneous entities using biological characteristics such as sex. Whereas there is large consensus in the literature regarding sex differences in the phenotypic expression of OCD, there are numerous disadvantages to how OCD has been previously measured and assessed. The present investigation explored potential sex differences in OCD symptoms using the Dimensional Obsessive Compulsive Scale (DOCS), a redesigned measure that more reliably assesses the four most commonly replicated OCD symptom dimensions. A large sample of community participants with elevated levels of OCD symptoms (N = 297) was recruited from an online crowdsourcing marketplace. Surprisingly, no differences in means were observed across sexes. However, results did reveal sex differences when examining relations between OCD dimensions. In particular, correlations between the OCD symptom dimensions were stronger in males compared to females. The common perception of OCD as a heterogeneous disorder may hold for females more so than for males. Future research should seek to replicate these findings using multimethod approaches including clinical, behavioral, and neuroimaging assessments.


Assuntos
Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica
9.
Addict Res Theory ; 25(1): 17-23, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29104521

RESUMO

Insomnia symptoms are associated with smoking, and may interfere with smoking cessation. Specifically, studies have shown that smoking-related sleep problems are associated with long-term smoking relapse, and longer sleep duration is associated with successful smoking cessation. However, it is currently unclear whether pre- or post-quit insomnia symptoms are associated with smoking cessation outcomes. As such, the current study aimed to extend previous findings by using a measure of insomnia symptoms as a predictor of smoking cessation failure by month 3 following smoking cessation treatment. Additionally, we examined whether post-quit insomnia symptoms predicted cessation outcomes. Results indicated that pre-, but not post-quit insomnia, predicted smoking cessation failure by 3 months post-cessation, after covarying for depressive symptoms, anxiety sensitivity, alcohol use disorder severity, treatment condition, and number of cigarettes per day. These findings add to the literature on insomnia symptoms as a risk factor for difficulties with smoking cessation, and suggest it may be a worthy clinical target for smoking populations who are interested in quitting smoking.

10.
Behav Ther ; 48(4): 427-434, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28577580

RESUMO

Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) has been proposed as an important transdiagnostic variable within mood- and anxiety-related disorders. The extant literature has suggested that individuals high in IU interpret uncertainty more negatively. Furthermore, theoretical models of IU posit that those elevated in IU may experience an uncertain threat as more anxiety provoking than a certain threat. However, no research to date has experimentally manipulated the certainty of an impending threat while utilizing an in vivo stressor. In the current study, undergraduate participants (N = 79) were randomized to one of two conditions: certain threat (participants were told that later on in the study they would give a 3-minute speech) or uncertain threat (participants were told that later on in the study they would flip a coin to determine whether or not they would give a 3-minute speech). Participants also completed self-report questionnaires measuring their baseline state anxiety, baseline trait IU, and prespeech state anxiety. Results indicated that trait IU was associated with greater state anticipatory anxiety when the prospect of giving a speech was made uncertain (i.e., uncertain condition). Further, findings indicated no significant difference in anticipatory state anxiety among individuals high in IU when comparing an uncertain versus certain threat (i.e., uncertain and certain threat conditions, respectively). Furthermore, results found no significant interaction between condition and trait IU when predicting state anticipatory anxiety. This investigation is the first to test a crucial component of IU theory while utilizing an ecologically valid paradigm. Results of the present study are discussed in terms of theoretical models of IU and directions for future work.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtornos do Humor/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Incerteza , Adulto , Antecipação Psicológica , Ansiedade/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Personalidade , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
11.
Behav Res Ther ; 95: 50-57, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28531873

RESUMO

Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) is an important transdiagnostic variable within various anxiety and mood disorders. Theory suggests that individuals high in IU interpret ambiguous information in a more threatening manner. A parallel line of research has shown that interpretive biases can be modified through cognitive training and previous research aimed at modifying negative interpretations through Cognitive Bias Modification (CBM-I) has yielded promising results. Despite these findings, no research to date has examined the efficacy of an IU-focused CBM-I paradigm. The current study investigated the impact of a brief IU-focused CBM-I on reductions in IU. Participants selected for a high IU interpretation bias (IU-IB) were randomly assigned to an active (IU CBM-I) or control CBM-I condition. Results indicated that our active IU CBM-I was associated with significant changes in IU-IB from pre-to-post intervention as well as with significant reductions in IU at post-intervention and month-one follow-up. Findings also found that the IU CBM-I led to reductions in IU self-report via the hypothesized mechanism. This study is the first to provide evidence that a CBM-I focused on IU is effective in reducing IU-IB and IU across time and suggest that IU CBM-I paradigms may be a novel prevention/intervention treatment for anxiety.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Ansiedade/terapia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Terapia Assistida por Computador , Adolescente , Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento , Incerteza , Adulto Jovem
12.
Psychol Assess ; 29(4): 435-445, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27414152

RESUMO

Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) is a multidimensional construct that has been proposed as an important transdiagnostic risk factor across various anxiety and mood disorders. Recent work found support for IU having a continuous latent structure when utilizing taxometric methods. However, taxometrics may not be ideally suited to examine the latent structure of constructs such as IU given the methodological shortcomings associated with this technique. The current study applied factor mixture modeling, a statistical technique that overcomes shortcomings of prior work, to examine the latent structure of IU in a sample of 371 individuals presenting at an outpatient clinic. Findings indicated that the best fitting solution was a 3-class model with 1 class consisting of individuals with high levels of IU (High IU; n = 55) and 1 containing individuals with low levels of IU (Low IU; n = 206). Our third class, labeled Moderate IU, consisted of 110 individuals with levels of IU between those of the High IU and Low IU groups. There were also significant differences across the 3 IU classes, including the relations between IU classes and anxiety-related and depressive disorders. The current investigation was the first to find evidence of IU having a categorical latent structure. Implications for research and clinical utility are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Modelos Estatísticos , Incerteza , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
13.
Cogn Behav Ther ; 46(3): 224-238, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27690746

RESUMO

The hierarchical model of vulnerabilities to emotional distress contextualizes the relation between neuroticism and social anxiety as occurring indirectly through cognitive risk factors. In particular, inhibitory intolerance of uncertainty (IU; difficulty in uncertain circumstances), fear of negative evaluation (FNE; fear of being judged negatively), and anxiety sensitivity (AS) social concerns (fear of outwardly observable anxiety) are related to social anxiety. It is unclear whether these risk factors uniquely relate to social anxiety, and whether they account for the relations between neuroticism and social anxiety. The indirect relations between neuroticism and social anxiety through these and other risk factors were examined using structural equation modeling in a sample of 462 individuals (M age = 36.56, SD = 12.93; 64.3% female). Results indicated that the relations between neuroticism and social anxiety could be explained through inhibitory IU, FNE, and AS social concerns. No gender differences were found. These findings provide support for the hierarchical model of vulnerabilities to emotional distress disorders, although the cognitive risk factors accounted for variance beyond their contribution to the relation between neuroticism and social anxiety, suggesting a more complex model than that expressed in the hierarchical model of vulnerabilities.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Comportamento Social , Adulto , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Neuroticismo , Fatores de Risco , Incerteza , Adulto Jovem
14.
Compr Psychiatry ; 72: 121-129, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27816711

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hoarding disorder (HD) is a common and debilitating disorder characterized by an accumulation of and failure to discard one's possessions. The identification and examination of underlying factors that may contribute to hoarding symptoms are needed to elucidate the nature of the disorder and refine existing treatments. Two transdiagnostic vulnerability factors that have been associated with hoarding symptoms are distress intolerance (DI) and intolerance of uncertainty (IU). OBJECTIVES: This study examined the relationships between DI, IU, and symptoms of hoarding in two samples consisting of outpatients and individuals recruited from Amazon's Mechanical Turk. We hypothesized that DI and IU would show unique and interactive associations with hoarding symptoms. RESULTS: Across both samples, DI and IU were significantly associated with hoarding symptoms. However, DI and IU did not interact in their prediction of symptoms, and only IU remained a significant predictor, when accounting for relevant covariates. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that IU is a robust predictor of hoarding symptoms and may be a promising and novel treatment target for HD.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtorno de Acumulação/diagnóstico , Transtorno de Acumulação/psicologia , Incerteza , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Feminino , Colecionismo/diagnóstico , Colecionismo/epidemiologia , Colecionismo/psicologia , Transtorno de Acumulação/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
15.
Compr Psychiatry ; 72: 34-40, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27710835

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) has been associated with post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) in the literature. However, no research to date has investigated the relationship between IU and PTSS within a clinical trauma-exposed sample, which is an important next step in the literature and crucial for the generalizability of these findings. Therefore, the current study hypothesized that IU would be related to increased PTSS within a clinical sample of trauma-exposed individuals. Further, we hypothesized that IU would be related to elevated PTSS after accounting for anxiety sensitivity (AS) and negative affect (NA), two known correlates of PTSS. Finally, we examined the relations between IU and the PTSS clusters (i.e., avoidance, emotional numbing, hyperarousal, and re-experiencing) while covarying for AS and NA. METHODS: Participants included community adults (n=126) presenting at an outpatient clinic. All participants had previously experienced a traumatic event as defined by the DSM-5 PTSD Criterion A. METHODS: Results revealed that IU was significantly associated with increased PTSS above and beyond AS and NA. Further, results indicated that IU was significantly related to the avoidance, hyperarousal, and emotional numbing PTSS clusters, even after covarying for AS and NA. IU was not significantly associated with the PTSS re-experiencing cluster once AS and NA were taken into account. CONCLUSIONS: Our results expand upon the extant literature by demonstrating that IU is associated with PTSS above and beyond AS and NA within a clinical trauma-exposed sample. These findings are discussed in terms of promising directions for future research and treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Incerteza , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/psicologia , Ansiedade/terapia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/terapia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Psychiatry ; 79(2): 120-129, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27724839

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Whereas a triple vulnerability model has been used to evaluate several anxiety- and mood-related conditions, no research has purposefully examined hoarding from this perspective. METHOD: Using a multivariate approach, the current study evaluated the unique relations between hoarding and a general biological (e.g., neuroticism), psychological (e.g., anxiety sensitivity), and hoarding-specific vulnerability (e.g., saving cognitions) within 526 individuals. RESULTS: A structural equation model (SEM) including all three vulnerabilities as well as hoarding symptoms provided good fit to the data. Consistent with the model, the vulnerabilities accounted for a substantial percentage (66%) of the variance in hoarding severity. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that, similar to other emotional distress disorders, risk for hoarding can be conveyed through a constellation of general and specific vulnerabilities. Future research should continue to examine this model, particularly utilizing a prospective design and clinical sample.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Transtorno de Acumulação/fisiopatologia , Modelos Psicológicos , Transtorno de Pânico/fisiopatologia , Personalidade/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuroticismo , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Psychiatr Res ; 83: 24-28, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27543825

RESUMO

Despite clear indications that hoarding behaviors contribute to social isolation and strained family relationships, no research to date has examined the associations between hoarding and several important interpersonal constructs (i.e., perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness). Moreover, no research has examined how these various interpersonal needs may account for the associations between symptoms of hoarding and depression. Community participants (N = 125) with elevated hoarding symptoms were assessed on the interpersonal constructs of interest. Hoarding severity was significantly associated with perceived burdensomeness even after controlling for overall levels of negative affect. Moreover, perceived burdensomeness significantly mediated the relationship between hoarding severity and depressive symptoms. To our knowledge this is the first study to examine potential mechanisms that may account for the robust associations between hoarding and depression. Future investigations should attempt to replicate these findings using clinical samples.


Assuntos
Depressão/psicologia , Colecionismo/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Percepção Social , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Teoria Psicológica , Características de Residência , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
18.
Cogn Behav Ther ; 45(3): 177-81, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26750995

RESUMO

Panic attacks (PAs) are characterized by overwhelming surges of fear and discomfort and are one of the most frequently occurring symptoms in psychiatric populations. The most recent version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (i.e. DSM-5) allows for a panic attack (PA) specifier for all disorders, including social anxiety disorder (SAD). However, there is little research examining differences between individuals diagnosed with SAD with the PA specifier versus individuals diagnosed with SAD without the PA specifier. The current study examined social anxiety, mood, anxiety, and anxiety sensitivity social concerns, a risk factor for social anxiety in SAD-diagnosed individuals without (N = 52) and with (N = 14) the PA specifier. The groups differed only in somatic symptoms of anxiety. Result of the current study provides preliminary evidence that the presence of the PA specifier in social anxiety does not result in elevated levels of comorbidity or a more severe presentation of social anxiety.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Medo/psicologia , Transtorno de Pânico/psicologia , Fobia Social/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtorno de Pânico/diagnóstico , Fobia Social/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry ; 51: 35-42, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26741535

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) has been proposed as an important transdiagnostic variable within various anxiety-related disorders. Research has suggested that individuals high in IU may interpret ambiguous information in a more threatening manner, suggesting a negative interpretation bias for uncertain information. However, interpretation biases within IU have not been adequately tested in the literature. METHODS: The current study evaluated negative interpretation biases for uncertain information by directly measuring an individual's interpretations of ambiguous information across two samples. Participants consisted of 76 (Study 1; 72.4% female) and 31 (Study 2; 81% female) undergraduate students. RESULTS: Results indicated that individuals high in IU interpret ambiguous scenarios as more threatening compared to negative and/or positive scenarios (ß = .45, p = .02). In addition, individuals high in IU showed a negative interpretation bias for ambiguous information, but not benign information (Study 1: ß = -.40, p < .001; Study 2: ß = -.57, p = .002). LIMITATIONS: Future research should attempt to replicate these findings within clinical populations. In addition, future work would benefit from the inclusion of behavioral assessments of IU. CONCLUSIONS: These findings are the first to detect the presence of a negative interpretation bias for uncertain information among individuals high in IU utilizing a task designed to directly measure an individual's interpretation of information. Given the efficacy and low economic burden associated with interpretation bias modification protocols, and the transdiagnostic nature of IU, targeting IU within these protocols could have a tremendous public health impact.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Viés , Incerteza , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Análise de Regressão , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Anxiety Disord ; 41: 82-7, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26803928

RESUMO

Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) has been associated with elevated post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) in the extant literature. However, no research to date has investigated whether pre-trauma IU predicts PTSS following trauma exposure. The current study prospectively examined the relationship between IU and PTSS within a sample of individuals with various levels of exposure to a university campus shooting. We hypothesized that pre-trauma IU would predict elevated PTSS following a campus shooting, even after covarying for anxiety sensitivity (AS), a known correlate of PTSS. Participants included undergraduates (n=77) who completed a self-report battery in Introductory Psychology. After a campus shooting, they were invited to complete measures of PTSD symptoms and level of exposure to the shooting. As anticipated, results revealed pre-trauma IU as a significant predictor of elevated PTSS following the campus shooting. These results remained significant after covarying for pre-trauma levels of AS. Our results are the first to demonstrate that elevated pre-trauma levels of IU predict later PTSS following exposure to a traumatic event. This finding is discussed in terms of promising directions for future research and treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Incerteza , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Sintomas , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
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